- Whale tail
Whale tail is the Y-shaped waistband of a thong or
g-stringwhen visible above the waistline of low-rise jeans, shorts, or a skirtthat resembles a whale's tail. [http://www.celebratetoday.com/reduplicatives.html Reduplicatives] on Celebrate Today] [Maddox & Angelo Vildasol, "The Alphabet of Manliness", page 147, Citadel Press, 2006, ISBN 080652720X] [Michael Flocker, "Death by PowerPoint: A Modern Office Survival Guide", Perseus Books Group, 2006, ISBN 0306815125] Intentionally or unintentionally, a whale tail is exposed above the trousers mostly when sitting or bending, or even while standing. The frequency or occasion depends on the style of trousers, the style of underwear, and the way they are worn. Flashing whale tails became popular in the early 2000s, together with the rise of low-rise jeans and thong underwear. The trend, popularized by a number of celebrities including Britney Spears, Christina Aguilera, Mariah Carey, Melanie Blatt, Victoria Beckham, Paris Hilton, Jordan, and Anna Kournikova, waned within the decade.
Specially designed trousers like
low-rise jeansor hip-huggersand higher cut thongs lead to greater exposure of the whale tail. [Leah Garchik, "Daily Datebook", San Francisco Chronicle, page F8, 23 August 2004: A Hollister spy says the thong visible from the back of low-rise jeans is called a "whale tail."] The trend was also associated with the trend of sporting lower back tattoos.Ann C. Hall & Mardia J. Bishop, "Pop-porn: Pornography in American Culture", page 57, Praeger, 2007, ISBN 0275999203] The word was selected by the American Dialect Society in January 2006 as the "most creative word" of 2005. Specially designed rear spoilers for Porsche 911and other automobiles are also known as whale tails, as well as the tip a certain kind of blood vessel. A closely related exposure of underwear is when it is seen "through" the clothing, which is called a visible panty line (VPL). [http://www.google.co.uk/books?id=r_pUDOWOB7MC&pg=PT117&dq=%22whale+tail%22+underwear&ei=SKC2R-vYCJ3stAOZ9d2TBQ&sig=hcWMO2DhyuGJvdN2P6_eGWWUkfg#PPT117,M1 Underwear exposed over trousers] , "Art of Dress Designing", Global Media, ISBN 8190457578]
The increased popularity of low-rise jeans led to increased exposure of the whale tails in the early 2000s. [Valerie Steele, "Encyclopedia of clothing and fashion", page 318, Charles Scribner's Sons, 2005, ISBN 0684313944]
The Oregonian, a Portland, Oregon, newspaper, wrote in 2004 that whale tails had become a distraction on the campus. [Tom Quinn, "Updated Dress Code Addresses New Styles", The Oregonian, page 1, 24 June 2004:"Another distraction occurs when pants ride low in the back and expose thong underwear, a phenomenon students have dubbed whales' tails... If you a 16-year-old boy in an English class, and you’ve got three whales' tails in front of you, it’s pretty hard to concentrate on verbs."] Social commentator Ann C. Hall identified this campus trend as an "apparent intersections between everyday campus fashion and soft porn". The layered clothing trend of the early 2000s is led by the whale tail style that incorporates hip-hugger jeans, crop tops and high riding thongs popularized by Britney Spearsand Anna Kournikova.cite web |url=http://en.allexperts.com/e/0/2000s.htm |title=2000s |accessdate=2008-08-06 |work=Encyclopedia |publisher=AllExperts] By the mid 2000s, whale tails became common to celebrities, providing opportunities to the papparazzi. [Lindsay Clydesdale, [http://www.dailyrecord.co.uk/comment/columnists/lifestyle-columnists/lyndsay-clydesdale/2008/02/06/so-thong-and-thanks-for-nothing-86908-20310511/ So Thong, And Thanks For Nothing] , "Daily Records", 2008-02-06] [Websites like the [http://whaletailworld.com/top-13-hottest-celebrity-whaletails/ Whale tail World] listed out their own version of top celebrity whale tails] In Franceclothing brands started creating the thong or "le string" in styles that encourages a projection above low-hung jeans, like designs that has little jewels or luminous stars sewn into the rear. [John Lichfield, [http://www.independent.co.uk/opinion/commentators/our-man-in-paris-thongs-of-innocence-and-experience-583323.html Our Man In Paris: Thongs of innocence and experience] , "The Independent", 2003-10-14]
Attributing whale tails to
mainstreamingof the sexualizationof young women, " The Press Democrat" termed the trend as "stripper chic". [ [http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=SA&p_theme=sa&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_topdoc=1&p_text_direct-0=114D7CF2B24F8058&p_field_direct-0=document_id&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&s_trackval=GooglePM Rayne Wolfe on the Press Democrat] ] [ [http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=SA&p_theme=sa&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_topdoc=1&p_text_direct-0=114FCAC6DD0277C8&p_field_direct-0=document_id&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&s_trackval=GooglePM Petaluma Anisa Thomsen on the Press Democrat] ] Post-modernthinker Yasmin Jiwani and co-writers described the trend in "Girlhood: Redefining the Limits" described it as an attempt to redefine girlhood while acknowledging the debate around it. The book termed the trend as the "Slut" look popularized by Britney Spears.Yasmin Jiwani, Candis Steenbergen & Claudia Mitchell, "Girlhood: Redefining the Limits", page 173, Black Rose Books, 2006, ISBN 155164276X] ["This style has sparked heated debates across the country, as parents negotiate their daughter's "skin" quotient and students debate their comfort level with the visible thong over fries and gravy at lunch." (from "Girlhood: Redefining the Limits")] Some experts even dubbed whale tail flashing as "thong feminism" for young girls. [Adeline Marie Masquelier, "Dirt, Undress, and Difference: Critical Perspectives on the Body's Surface", page 27, American Anthropological Association Meeting, Indiana University Press, 2005, ISBN 0253217830] ["A rebellion against parents and other adults who seem to have forgotten their own fling with hot pantsand the no-bra look." (from "Dirt, Undress, and Difference: Critical Perspectives on the Body's Surface")] Other experts accused marketers of "outrageous selling of sex to children". [Laura J. Buddenberg & Kathleen M. McGee, "Who's Raising Your Child?", page 61-63, Boys Town Press, 2004, ISBN 1889322598]
By the end of the decade whale tails suffered a backlash.
Trinny Woodall, presenter of BBC1's "What Not to Wear", described women who wore thongs showing above their trousers as "disgusting".Liz Hull, [http://www.dailymail.co.uk/pages/live/femail/article.html?in_article_id=512321&in_page_id=1879&ito=1490 So long to the thong as women reject the chav look for big pants] , "The Daily Mail", 2008-02-05] Jessica Kaminsky wrote in "I Hate the Gym", a lifestyle commentary, "I hate when girls let their "whale tails" creep out of their pants." [Jessica Kaminsky, "I Hate the Gym", page 33, Simon Spotlight Entertainment, ISBN 0689873697] In 2007, religious writer Tamie Bixler Lung wrote, "There is something wrong when Christian guys and girls want to run around with their underwear hanging out the top of their pants, or their thong strap sticking out the back of their low-rise jeans." [Tamie Bixler Lung, "Clean Up on Aisle Me: Lifeskills 101", page 54, Authorhouse, 2007, ISBN 1425978975] In 2008, model and reality TV star Jodie Marshsaid, "Showing your thong is a bit old now."
The trend of wearing whale tail-revealing jeans started to dissipate in the late 2000s when American clothing designers started shifting focus from low-slung jeans and exposed midriffs to high-waisted trousers and cardigans. Cartner-Morley claimed that the whale tail and the muffin top, "twin crimes of modern fashion", had led to the decline in the popularity of hipster jeans. [Jess Cartner-Morley, [http://shopping.guardian.co.uk/clothes/story/0,,1445511,00.html Hang up your hipsters] , "The Guardian", 2005-03-25] She quoted Louise Hunn, editor of the British edition of "
InStyle", as saying — "When a look goes too mainstream, people start wearing it badly. And then the really fashionable people run a mile". [Jess Cartner-Morley, [http://www.smh.com.au/news/Fashion/No-time-to-waist/2005/04/07/1112815659629.html No time to waist] , Sidney Morning Herald] While the thong still represented 24% of the US$2.5 billion annual market in women's underwear, it stopped growing by end of 2004. By 2007, thongs were overtaken by boyshortsand accounted for only 12% of the knickersmarket. Some vendors, including Victoria's Secretand DKNY, started selling thongs that do not result in whale tails. [ [http://www.asylum.com/2008/03/05/less-than-a-thong-more-than-commando-behold-the-strapless-g-s/ Less Than a Thong, More Than Commando: A Strapless G-String] , "Asylum", Retrieved: 2008-07-30] [ [http://www.styledash.com/2006/09/15/backless-underwear/ Backless underwear?] , "Style Dash", Retrieved: 2008-07-30] [ [http://www.thisnext.com/item/E169B836/D43A72C4/Victorias-Secret-Lace-trim-low Lace-trim low-rise thong] , "Victoria's Secret", Retrieved: 2008-07-30] [ [http://www.amazon.com/DKNY-3-Pack-Low-Rise-Cotton-Thongs/dp/B0015YZU8M DKNY 3-Pack Low-Rise Cotton With Lace Thongs] , "Amazon", Retrieved: 2008-07-30] Adam Lippes, founder of the lingerie line Adam + Eve, said, "Women got tired of it. And they got sick and tired of seeing string hanging out of the top of every celebrity's jeans."
Louisiana, USA State Representative Derrick Shepherd proposed a bill (HB1626), also known as the "Baggy Pants Bill" to Louisiana House of Representatives. The bill proposed that "it shall be unlawful for any person to appear in public wearing his pants below his waist and thereby exposing his skin or intimate clothing" and violators would be subjected to three eight-hour days of community service and a fine of up to $175.Bethany Thomas, [http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/4963512/ Memo to Britney: Lose the low-slungs] , "MSNBC", 2004-05-13] The measure died in the face of opposition from the American Civil Liberties Union. [http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,352160,00.html Baggy Pants Bill Blocked in Louisiana] , "Fox News", 2008-02-22] The bill was proposed again in 2008 and was rejected by a state Senate panel. In two Louisiana towns, Delcambre (a fine of $615 or up to six months in jail) and Opelousas, wearing low slung pants that reveal buttock cleavageor undergarments is considered a misdemeanor and carries a maximum penalty of a $500 fine and up to 6 months in prison. [http://www.france24.com/france24Public/en/archives/news/world/20070830-US-Alexandria-pants-baggy-banned-Louisana.php No more low-slung pants in Alexandria] , "France24", 2007-08-30] [ [http://www.news.com.au/heraldsun/story/0,21985,22330423-663,00.html Fancy pants just not hip in Atlanta] , "Herald Sun" (Australia), 2007-08-30] Underpants revealing garments were banned in four other Louisiana towns including Alexandria and Shreveport (fines of $150 or 15 days in jail), as well as Hawkinsville, Georgia.Laura parker, [http://abcnews.go.com/US/Story?id=3730767&page=2 Is It a Crime to Wear Baggy Pants?] , "ABC News", 2007-09-15]
In February 2005, the Senate Courts of Justice Committee of
Virginia, USA voted unanimously in a hastily convened meeting against a bill proposed by Delegate Algie T. Howell Jr. ( Norfolk, Virginia) to impose a $50 fine on people who publicly and intentionally "wears and displays his below-waist undergarments, intended to cover a person's intimate parts, in a lewd or indecent manner" in a public place. [Tara Bahrampour, [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A15387-2005Feb10.html A Brief Matter of Style] , "Washington Post", 2005-02-11] The bill (HB1981), also known as the "Droopy Drawers Bill", was earlier passed by Virginia House of Delegatesby a 60-34 vote. [ [http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,146886,00.html Virginia OKs Fine for Low-Rider Pants] , "Fox News", 2005-02-09] [Pete Dybdahl, [http://www.roanoke.com/news/roanoke/wb/xp-18334 Don't get caught with your pants down] , "Ranaoke", 2005-02-10] Atlanta, Georgia, Dallas, Texas, Baltimore, Maryland, Charlotte, North Carolina, Yonkers, New York, Duncan, Oklahoma, Natchitoches, Louisiana, Stratford, Connecticut, Pine Bluff, Arkansas, and Trenton and Pleasantville of New Jersey, as well as three other Georgia towns including Rome Brunswick and Plains had seen attampts to ban underwear peeking over the pants. School dress codes sometimes also banned pants of too low a rise, or visible underwear. [cite web |last=Bowen | first=Jon | url=http://www.salon.com/it/acad/1999/03/08acad.html |title=Thong Wars |accessdate=2008-07-22 |work=Ivory Towers |publisher=Salon |date=1999-03-08] [cite news |first=Jessica |last= Lyons | title=Armed with high ideals, Joseph Pawlick enforces a mandate for change at Salinas High--whether teachers, students and parents want it or not |url=http://www.montereycountyweekly.com/articles/7128 |publisher=Monterey County Weekly |date=2001-09-27 |accessdate=2008-07-22] [cite web |last=Mary |first=Spicuzza |url=http://www.metroactive.com/papers/metro/12.14.00/dresscode-0050.html |title=Panty Ranting |accessdate=2008-07-22 |work=Papers |publisher=MetroActive |date=2000-14-20]
In the mainstream
The whale tail went mainstream when, in early 2000s, a
Guccimodel revealed one on the catwalk, Melanie Blattof All Saints was photographed flashing her thong as she got out of a taxi, and Victoria Beckhamsuggested that her husband enjoyed wearing her G-strings around the home.Liz Hull, [http://www.dailymail.co.uk/pages/live/femail/article.html?in_article_id=512321&in_page_id=1879&ito=1490 So long to the thong as women reject the chav look for big pants] , The Daily Mail, 5th February 2008] In 17 September 2004, " Chicago Sun-Times" wrote, " Britney Spearsand Christina Aguileraregularly were photographed with thong straps riding high above their low-rise jeans. Gillian Andersondeliberately made sure her thong's "whale tail" was visible when she wore a backless couture gown at a party four years ago. And even usually tasteful Halle Berrysuccumbed to the thong craze by attending an awards show with bejeweled thong straps peaking out from above her miniskirt."cite news |first=Jae-Ha |last=Kim |title=Good riddance: The tail end of the thong's popularity is in sight |url=http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=CSTB&p_theme=cstb&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_topdoc=1&p_text_direct-0=1056E92BD0E34A1F&p_field_direct-0=document_id&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&s_trackval=GooglePM |work= |publisher=Chicago Sun-Times |date=2004-09-17 |accessdate=2008-08-06]
Jess Cartner-Morley, fashion writer of "
The Guardian", claimed that following pop stars in the hipster trousers gave rise to the "low-slung jeans, whale-tail G-string era". [Jess Cartner-Morley, [http://lifeandhealth.guardian.co.uk/fashion/story/0,,2256765,00.html#article_continue One-piece in our time] , "The Guardian", 2008-02-16] One conjecture assumes that the style of exposed thong may have "bubbled-up" from the street level to the high streets, like the jeans and t-shirtlook of James Dean. [Tim Jackson & David Shaw, "The Fashion Handbook", page 26, Routledge, 2006, ISBN 0415255805] Another assumes the fad was initiated by glamor model Jordan in England and singers Mariah Careyand Spears in the United States. [Valerie Steele, "Encyclopedia of clothing and fashion", page 121, Charles Scribner's Sons, 2005, ISBN 0684313944]
The phenomenon has been compared to the phenomenon of visible bra straps. [ [http://www.timeout.com/newyork/articles/features/3316/gross-anatomy Gross anatomy: Girls] , TimeOut NewYork] [ [http://www.startribune.com/lifestyle/style/11464496.html Farewell to fashion faux pas of summer] , Star Tribune] Saying — "Just as Madonna made bras a public garment in the 1980s, Ms. Lewinsky, Britney Spears and
Paris Hiltontransformed women's panties into a provocative garment intended for public display" — the New York Times claimed that the thong, with straps worn high over the hips and exposed by fashionable low-rise jeans and "Juicy Couture" sweat pants, had become a public icon.Alex Kczynski, [http://www.nytimes.com/2004/09/12/fashion/12THON.html Now You See It, Now You Don't] , Fashion & Style, New York Times, 2004-09-12] Britney Spearshas been portrayed as a major contributor to the whale tail's popularity. Her whale tail flashing has been referred to in creative literature books like "Married to a Rock Star" by Shemane Nugent (page 119), "Thong on Fire" by Noire (page 226), "The Magical Breasts of Britney Spears" by Ryan G. Van Cleave (page 90), "Off-Color" by Janet McDonald(page 5). R&Bartist Sisqórhapsodized about whale tails in his " Thong Song" — "I like it when the beat goes da na da na/Baby make your booty go da na da na/Girl I know you wanna show da na da na/That thong th thong thong thong." Indianmodel Shefali Zariwalaflashed a whale tail in the MTV Immies-winning music video "Kaanta Lagaa" and shot to fame and public debate in 2003. [Kalpana Sharma, [http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Delhi_Times/Pssst_Its_showing/articleshow/2201755.cms Pssst! It's showing!] , "Times of India", 2007-07-14] [ [http://www1.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/1564769.cms Sexy doesn't do it anymore] , "Times of India", 2007-02-05] Pornographic film director Mike Metropolis made three films based on whale tails — "Whale Tail" (2005), "Whale Tail I" (2005) and "Whale Tail II" (2006). [imdb|1597592|Mike Metropolis]
Word of the Year
The word was selected by the
American Dialect Society(a group of linguists, editors, and academics) in January 2006 as the "most creative word" of 2005, winning by 44 votes. The other nominations for the year were muffin top(meaning the bulge of flesh hanging over the top of low-rider jeans, 25 votes), flee-ancée (meaning runaway bride Jennifer Wilbanks, 15 votes), and pinosaur (meaning a very old Wollemi pinetree near Australia’s Blue Mountains, 6 votes). [cite web|url=http://www.americandialect.org/Words_of_the_Year_2005.pdf|title=Words of the Year 2005|publisher= American Dialect Society|date=2006-01-06] It has been reported that Wayne Glowka, member of the Georgia College and State Universityfaculty and head of the New Word Committee of the Dialect Society, was in favor of "muffin top" for the top-spot, while Grant Barrett, project editor of the Historical Dictionary of American Slang, was in favor of "whale tail", at the Society's 6 January 2006 conclave to decide the winners of the year in Albuquerque. [Amy S. Rosenberg, " '05's heckuva word", Philadelphia Inquirer, 5 January 2006]
While discussing these new coinages Sali Tagliamonte, associate professor of linguistics at the
University of Toronto, observed that young women in North Americawere ahead of young men as influencers. [John Harlow, [http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article786205.ece Hey exogals, girl talk is the future of English] , The Sunday Times, January 8, 2006] The use of the word to indicate an underwear phenomenon has shown up in serious mainstream news media, [cite web |url=http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0601/16/sbt.01.html |title=Showbiz Tonight |accessdate=2008-07-22 |work=CNN transcripts |publisher=CNN |date=2006-01-16] [cite web |url=http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0601/16/sitroom.03.html |title=The Situation Room |accessdate=2008-07-22 |work=CNN transcripts |publisher=CNN |date=2006-01-16] sometimes in reference to the popstars who made the fashion trend popular. [cite web |url=http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0601/16/sitroom.03.html |title=Newsroom |accessdate=2008-07-22 |work=CNN transcripts |publisher=CNN |date=2007-02-17] Wayne Glowka, member of the Georgia College and State Universityfaculty and head of the New Word Committee of the Dialect Society, said about the happening, "Language is just going on its merry way, creating many new words. It's time for men to win something." [Marsh Mercer, [http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/opinion/298106_mercer03.html Word of year might be something manly] , Seattle Pi, January 3, 2007] Though the word is not included in major formal dictionaries, web-based user-generated dictionaries like the Urban Dictionary(which provides "pull me thong" as an alternative term for whale tail [ [http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=pull+me+thong Pull me thong] , Urban Dictionary, Retrieved: 2008-07-29] ), the Double-Tongued Dictionaryand the Wiktionary, has entries for the word. [ [http://www.doubletongued.org/index.php/dictionary/whale_tail/ Whale tail] in the "Double-Tongued Dictionary", Retrieved: 2008-07-29] [ [http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=whaletail Whale tail] in the "Urban Dictionary"] [ [http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/whale_tail Whale tail] in the "Wiktionary", Retrieved: 2008-07-29] The book compilation of "Urban Dictionary" describes the whale tail as "the shape formed when a G-string rides up high over a woman's pants or skirt". [Aaron Peckham, "Mo' Urban Dictionary: Ridonkulous Street Slang Defined", page 225, Andrews McMeel Publishing, 2007, ISBN 0740768751]
Porsche 911 rear spoilers
An earlier use of the term whale tail dates back to August 1974, when the US version of the Porsche 911 Carrera debuted with large, flared, rear-end spoilers that were immediately dubbed whale tails.Wayne R. Dempsey, [http://books.google.com/books?id=j7wq62vJtXoC&pg=PA198&lpg=PA198&dq=spoiler+whale+tail&source=web&ots=11LHhnoA8p&sig=hvXjGHcdKNxnymwrWlj5-gUr_qc 101 Projects for Your Porsche 911] , Page 198, MotorBooks/MBI Publishing Company, 2001, ISBN 0760308535] ] Bruce Anderson, "Porsche 911 Performance Handbook", page 16, MotorBooks/MBI Publishing Company, 1997, ISBN 076030033X] Peter Morgan, John Colley & Mark Hughes, "Original Porsche 911: The Guide to All Production Models, 1963-98", MotorBooks/MBI Publishing Company, 1998, ISBN 1901432165] Designed to keep the car from oversteering at high speeds, [Albert L. Lewis & Walter A. Musciano, "Automobiles of the World", page 660, Simon and Schuster, 1977, ISBN 0671224859] the rubber-edges of the whale tail spoilers were thought to be "pedestrian friendly". [Patrick Paternie, "Porsche 911 Red Book 1965-2005: 1965-2005", page 45, MotorBooks/MBI Publishing Company, 2005, ISBN 076031960X] The Carrera, with its whale tail, became an instant hit [Scott Faragher, "Porsche the Ultimate Guide" page 50, Krause Publications, 2005, ISBN 0873497201] and one of the world's most recognized sports cars, [Patrick Paternie, "Porsche 911 Red Book 1965-2005: 1965-2005", Preface, MotorBooks/MBI Publishing Company, 2005, ISBN 076031960X] remaining in production for the next two decades in one form or another, with more than 23,000 sold by 1989.Bruce Anderson, "Porsche 911 Performance Handbook", page 16, MotorBooks/MBI Publishing Company, 1997, ISBN 076030033X] The whale tail, a 911 trademark, [Brian Laban, "The Complete Porsche: A Model-By-Model History", Motorbooks Intl, 2003, ISBN 0760316805] is also fitted to the
Porsche Carrera GT. [cite web |url=http://www.edmunds.com/porsche/911/history.html |title=Porsche 911 History |accessdate=2008-07-22 |work=Review and Pictures |publisher=edmunds]
Porsche 911whale tails were often used in conjunction with a chin spoiler attached to the front valence panel, which, according to some sources, did not enhance aerodynamicstability. [Wayne R. Dempsey, "101 Projects for Your Porsche 911: 1964-1989", page 200, MotorBooks/MBI Publishing Company, 2001, ISBN 0760308535] It has been found to be less effective in multiplying downforcethan newer technologies like an airfoil, [Robert C. Post, "High Performance: The Culture and Technology of Drag Racing, 1950-2000", page 229, JHU Press, 2001, ISBN 0801866642] "rear wing running across the base of the tailgate window" [Henry Sturmey & H. Walter Staner, The Autocar, page 6, Iliffe, sons & Sturmey ltd., 1986] or "an electronically controlled wing that deploys at about 50 mph". [BusinessWeek European Edition, page 86, EBSCO Publishing, 2006]
The whale tail came on the heels of the 1972 "duck tail" or "Bürzel" in German (as a part of the E-program), a smaller and less flared rear-spoiler fitted to 911 Carrera RS ( meaning "Rennsport" or race sport in German), optional outside Germany. Originally designed for Porsche 930 Turbo and
Porsche 935race cars in 1973, and introduced to the Turbo Carrera in 1974 (as a part of the H-program), it was fitted to the non-turbo Carrera series in 1975. [Dean Batchelor & Randy Leffingwell, "Illustrated Porsche Buyer's Guide", page 84, MotorBooks/MBI Publishing Company, 1997, ISBN 0760302278] [Scott Faragher, "Porsche the Ultimate Guide" page 49, Krause Publications, 2005, ISBN 0873497201] Both types of spoilers were designed while Dr. Ernst Fuhrmann was served as the Technical Director of Porsche AG. [Randy Leffingwell, "Porsche Legends", page 144, MotorBooks/MBI Publishing Company, 2002, ISBN 0760313644] In 1976, A rubber front chin spoiler was also introduced to offset the more effective spoiler. By 1978, Porsche introduced another design for the whale tail, a large fiberglass enclosure bolted on the rear deck lid, which went to become the most popular version, which was also introduced as an optional for the 911SC. [Scott Faragher, "Porsche the Ultimate Guide" page 52, Krause Publications, 2005, ISBN 0873497201] In 1984, when 80% of the Carrera was rehashed, the whale tails were redesigned to be a bit smaller and more subtle than the 1978 version. [Peter Henshaw, "Sports Cars: 500 Series", page 251, MotorBooks/MBI Publishing Company, 2004, ISBN 0760319952] In 1986, Porsche started producing whale tails as part of an one-piece rear, instead of welding it to the car.
poilers on other vehicles
These whale tail spoilers of Porsche 911 caught on as a fashion statement, [P.J. O'Rourke, "Holidays in Hell", page 207, Grove Press, 2000, ISBN 0802137016.] and the term has been used to refer to large rear spoilers on a number of automobiles including: Ford Sierra RS, [Graham Robson, "The Illustrated Directory of Classic Cars", Page 228, MotorBooks/MBI Publishing Company, 2001, ISBN 0760310491] Focus, [cite web |url=http://www.carstylefirst.com/monthcar.php?PHPSESSID=65b063b129143cad628ca37b951df4f4 |title=Car Style First Products used on this Ford Focus |accessdate=2008-07-26 |work=This months featured car |publisher=Car Styling] Chevrolet Camaro, [cite web |url=http://www.showcars-bodyparts.com/spoilerrear.html|title=Rear spoilers |accessdate=2008-07-26 |publisher=Showcars Bodyparts] and
Saab 900. [cite web |url=http://www.saabce.com/Media/PDF/Whaletail_Restoration.pdf |title=Classic Saab Whale Tail restoration |accessdate=2008-07-26 |publisher=Saab Commemorative Edition Website |format=PDF] Whale tail spoilers also appear at the rear of Tricycles, [cite web |url=http://www.easycart.net/GenesGAllery/Hannigan_Trikes.html |title=Hannigan Trikes |accessdate=2008-07-26 |publisher=EasyCart.net] trucks, [cite web |url=http://www.url.biz/Articles/Article-1538.html |title=Universal Whale Tail Truck Spoilers |accessdate=2008-07-26 |work= articles |publisher=URL.biz] boats, [cite web |author=Bob Perry | |url=http://www.boats.com/news-reviews/article/classic-swan |title=Classic Swan |accessdate=2008-07-26 |work= Boats.com|publisher=Dominion Enterprises] and other vehicles.
Other whale tails
The most distal branch of the
Left anterior descending(LAD), or the anterior interventricular branch of left coronary artery, at the apex is called a whale tail or a pitchfork. [David N. Brindley & Eric R. Bates, "Reperfusion Therapy for Acute Myocardial Infarction", page 31, Informa Health Care, 2008, ISBN 0849343585] The LAD traverses the anterior interventricular sulcus, giving rise to septal and diagonal branches before bifurcating distally and tapering out as whale tails. [Eric J. Topol, Robert M. Califf, Eric N Prystowsky, James D Thomas & Paul D. Thompson, "Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine", page 1227, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006, ISBN 0781770122] A certain behavior of hysteretic magnetizationcurves in bulk superconductors is described as a whale tail profile, which differs qualitatively from a plane tail profile. [I. L. Maksimova & A. A. Elistratov, [http://www.fys.uio.no/~dansh/pdf/author/maksimov_sb.pdf Magnetization curves and hysteretic losses in superconducting films with edge barrier] , "Applied Science Letters", 1998-03-30]
In bicycling terms, a style of saddles designed for
Wilderness Trail Bikess (WTB) is sometimes called a whale tail, [ [http://www.abc-of-mountainbiking.com/shopitems/saddles/rocketvprose-mens-saddles.asp WTB Rocket V Pro SE - Mens Saddles] , ABC of Mountain Biking] [ [http://bicyclewarehouse.com/itemdetails.cfm?ID=9611 WTB Pure V Race] , Bicycle Warehouse] as well as a certain array of LED blinker on bicycle helmets. [ [http://www.helmets.org/lights.htm Thoughts on Bicycle Lights] , Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute] A whale tail is also one of two types of guide handles commonly used on power trowels, the other being a bicycle style handlebar. [ [http://www.patentstorm.us/patents/7065837-description.html Guide handle for a manually steered machine] , Patent Storm]
A popular specialty
license platein California has been dubbed as a "whale tail license plate", as it features a the tail of a Pacific Humpback whale's tail painted in pale blue by artist Robert Wyland.cite news |first=Susannah |last=Rosenblatt |title=Artist Wyland says California must stop using his whale tail on license plates |url=http://articles.latimes.com/2008/jun/25/local/me-whale25 |publisher=Los Angeles Times |date=2008-06-25 |accessdate=2008-07-26] cite news |first=Noaki |last=Schwartz |title=Artist is sparring with coastal panel over royalty fees |url=http://www.signonsandiego.com/uniontrib/20080618/news_1n18whale.html |publisher=San Diego Union Tribune |date=2008-06-18 |accessdate=2008-07-26]
* [http://www.americandialect.org/index.php/amerdial/truthiness_voted_2005_word_of_the_year/ 2005 Words of the Year] on
American Dialect Societyofficial website
Footnotes and references
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