Foods containing tyramine

Foods containing tyramine

This is a list of foods containing tyramine. Tyramine is an amine which causes elevated blood pressure and tachycardia by displacing norepinephrine from storage vesicles. Tyramine is generally produced by decarboxylation of the amino acid tyrosine during fermentation of food products. All protein-rich foods which have been matured will contain more tyramine depending on the temperature and how long they have been stored. Properly refrigerated foods will not be affected.

The amount required to cause a 30mmHg increase in diastolic blood pressure is referred to as TYR30, and generally averages around 500mg in an unmedicated, healthy individual. A class of antidepressants called MAOIs (monoamine oxidase inhibitors) can increase the sensitivity to tyramine if taken orally. If sufficient quantities of tyramine are ingested, hypertensive crises may occur, potentially causing stroke or cardiac arrythmia. There is significant evidence that tyramine may trigger migraines in sensitive individuals.

This list is for informational purposes only; it is neither all-inclusive nor does it go into any particular depth. If you plan to avoid tyramine in your diet, you are urged to seek professional guidance. Note that the exact increase in sensitivity will depend on the MAOI used, and its dose.

Alcoholic Beverages

All tap beer and ale may contain tyramine, as lack of sterile conditions and proper maintenance may allow tyramine-forming bacteria to grow. Domestic bottled beers generally have small quantities of tyramine. Chianti and vermouth, however, have a high chance of containing tyramine.

Cheeses

Most aged cheeses contain tyramine. While there are some, such as cream cheese and cottage cheese, that have little to no notable amounts of tyramine, most aged cheeses have high concentrations of tyramine.

Regular cheese of the kind typically used on bread and pizza can safely be consumed in normal amounts.Fact|date=October 2007

"Cheese syndrome", named by a British pharmacist who first noted the effect, is a condition that is commonly associated with the usage of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), a class of anti-depressants. It is caused by a buildup of tyramine.

Fruit

Avocados contain tyramine, especially overripe fruit. Avocados, when eaten in moderate quantities, generally do not have noticeable effects, provided that the fruit is not overripe. Banana peels contain significant levels of tyramine and dopamine.

All other fruits may contain tyramine, especially overripe and dried fruit. Common fruits that may contain significant levels of tyramine include: eggplant, figs, grapes, oranges, pineapples, plums, prunes and raisins.


=Processed Foods=

Many processed foods contain high tyramine levels. A few processed foods that contain high amounts of tyramine include, but are not limited to: vegemite, sauerkraut, and shrimp paste.

Meat and Fish

Fresh liver, meat and fish have no significant levels of tyramine, but old liver and meat contain high amounts. Traditionally, meat from game birds and wild animals is hung in a cool place to improve flavour and tenderness, but this significantly increases the tyramine content. Processed meats, cured or pickled meats, and meat by-products and broths often contain large amounts of tyramine.

Soy

All soy products contain high levels of tyramine. Aside from soybeans themselves, commonly consumed soy products include: soy sauce, tofu, miso, and teriyaki sauce.


=Nuts and Chocolate=

Chocolate does not contain appreciable amounts of tyramine, but does contain other active ingredients that are potentiated by MAOIs. Accordingly, high quantities of chocolate may lead to nausea and headaches.

There is some evidence that large quantities of nuts, peanuts, coconuts, and brazil nuts may trigger hypertensive reactions and headaches.

See also

* Foods containing histamine
* EMSAM, new transdermal MAOI has fewer food interactions because it is not taken orally

External links

* [http://www.pccnaturalmarkets.com/health/Diet/Tyramine_Free_Diet.htm Tyramine Free Diet]
* [http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/maois/maois_info2.shtml Foods to Avoid with MAOIs]


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