- Modern Buildings on Zhongshan Square in Dalian
The modern buildings on Zhongshan Square in Dalian refer to the buildings that are on Zhongshan Square, Dalian, China, built mostly in the first half of the twentieth century, during the time when Dalian was Japan's leased territory.
These buildings were declared the "Cultural Heritage Sites under Protection by the Chinese State Government" in 2001 and the "Heritage Buildings under Protection by the Dalian Municipal Government" in 2002. The scene of this area with the modern buildings of the first half of the 20th century in China is comparable, in a smaller scale, to that of The Shanghai Bund.
Zhongshan Square in Dalian was originally built by the Russians as Nikolayevskaya Square (in Russian: Николаевская площадь, meaning Nikolai's plaza) in 1898. It was later renamed by the Japanese as Ōhiroba (in Japanese: 大広場), meaning the large plaza. After 1945, it was further renamed as Zhongshan Square, after Sun Zhongshan, the first president of the Republic of China.
The square is round and is 213 meters in diameter. There are ten roads that come radially out of the square, anticlockwise:
- Zhongshan Road (Chinese: 中山路) - west
- Yuguang Street (Chinese: 玉光街)
- Yan'an Road (Chinese: 延安路) - south
- Jiefang Street (Chinese: 解放街)
- Luxun Road (Chinese: 鲁迅路)
- Renmin Road (Chinese: 人民路) - east
- Qiyi Street (Chinese: 七一街)
- Minsheng Street (Chinese: 民生街)
- Shanghai Road (Chinese: 上海路) - north
- Minkang Street (Chinese: 民康街)
On Zhongshan Square, there are presently ten buildings. They are from the building with the address of No. 1 Zhongshan Square, on the north side, with the names of the current occupants, anticlockwise:
Industrial and Commercial Bank of China #1
The Renaissance architecture building with Corinthian columns in front at No. 1 Zhongshan Square, between Minkang Street and Zhongshan Road, is now Industrial and Commercial Bank of China's Zhongshan Square Branch (Chinese: 中国工商银行中山广场支行).
It was built in December, 1920, as Dalian Branch of Bank of Korea (in Japanese: 朝鮮銀行). Architect: Yoshihei Nakamura (in Japanese: 中村與資平), residing in Korea at that time, designing the headquarters building of this bank.
The building at No. 2 Zhongshan Square, between Zhongshan Road and Yuguang Street, is now used as Citibank's Dalian Branch and other offices.
It was built in 1908 as Dalian Police Station (in Japanese: 大連民政署) which took care of both police and resident registration. It is the oldest building on this suare and was designed by the team headed by Shoin Maeda (in Japanese: 前田松韻) of the Kwantung government, who later was invited to become professor at Tokyo High School of Technology, the predecessor of Tokyo Institute of Technology.
Dalian Financial Building
The new Postmodern architecture building at No. 3 Zhongshan Square, between Yuguang Street and Yan'an Road, is Dalian Financial Building (in Chinese: 大连金融大厦), built in 2000. Since 2001, it has been occupied by Shanghai Pudong Development Bank's Dalian Branch on the right side (on Yuguang Street) and Guangdong Development Bank's Dalian Branch on the left side (on Yan'an Road).
At this site stood the British Consulate General's building, completed in 1914 (Architect: H. Ashead). It was aboshished in 1995.
Adjacent to the Consulate General's office on the Yuguang Street side (No. 2 Yuguang Street) stood Dalian Anglican church, whose second generation red brick building, built in 1928 in a joint effort of the Church of England and Japanese Anglican Church, still remains there, used as Yuguang Street Church.
Industrial and Commercial Bank of China #2
Bank of Communications
China CITIC Bank
Adjacent to this building on the Renmin Road side (No. 6 Renmin Road) is Zhongshan Square Branch of Bank of Dalian (in Chinese: 大连银行). It was formerly the Dalian Branch of Bank of Taiwan (in Japanese: 台湾銀行), built in 1910.
Dalian People's Culture Club
The building at No. 8 Zhongshan Square, between Qiyi and Minsheng Streets, is Dalian People's Culture Club (in Chinese: 大连文化俱乐部), built in 1951 by the Soviet architecture team led by a Belorussian engineer. It has been the center of music and other cultural activities for the Dalianites.
Bank of China
The colorful building at No. 9 Zhongshan Square, between Minsheng Street and Shanghai Road, is now Bank of China's Dalian Branch, together with the new main building on the back side, added in 2005, where the bank transactions are done mostly.
It was built in 1909 as Dalian Branch of Yokohama Specie Bank (in Japanese: 横浜正金銀行), designed by Yorinaka Tsumaki (in Japanese: 妻木頼黄) and his disciple, Satoshi Ōta (Japanese: 太田毅). It was used as the Soviet Union's Far East Bank from 1945 to 1955. The building's interior was massively changed in the 2005 renovation.
Dalian Post Office
The building at No. 10 Zhongshan Square, between Shanghai Road and Minkang Street, is now used as part of Dalian Post Office, whose main office is on Chanjiang Road in front of Dalian Railway Station.
It was built in December, 1917, as Kwantung Bureau of Communications (in Japanese: 关东逓信局) and was designed by the team headed by Shigemitsu Matsumuro of Kwantung government.
Protection by the State and Local Governments
All these buildings, except Dalian Financial Building and the buildings written in the Notes, were declared in 2001:
- The "Cultural Heritage Sites under Protection by the Chinese State Government" (in Chinese: 全国重点文物保护单位)
All buildings were designated in 2002:
- The "Heritage Buildings under Protection by the Dalian Municipal Government" (in Chinese: 大连市重点保护建筑)
- ^ Zhongshan Square and other attaractions in Dalian, China
- ^ Yasuhiko Nishizawa: "The Picture Story of the City of Dalian" (Kawade Shobo Shinsha, 1999) ISBN 4-309-72616-X (in Japanese: 西澤泰彦『図説大連都市物語』 （河出書房新社、1999）)
- ^ Introducing Zhongshan Square in Dalian, China
- ^ According to "Introducung Dalian People's Culture Club", attached to the photo exhibit in the hall. (2009)
- Baidu Encyclopedia: Zhongshan Square, Dalian (in Chinese)
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