- Élisabeth Marguerite d'Orléans
Isabelle d'Orléans Duchess of Guise Élisabeth Marguerite (Isabelle) d'Orléans ("Madame de Guise") by Mignard Spouse Louis Joseph, Duke of Guise Issue Francis Joseph, Duke of Guise Full name Élisabeth Marguerite d'Orléans House House of Guise
House of Orléans
Father Gaston, Duke of Orléans Mother Marguerite of Lorraine Born 26 December 1646
Palais du Luxembourg, Paris, France
Died 17 March 1696(aged 49)
Palace of Versailles, France
Burial Carmel du faubourg Saint-Jacques, Paris
Élisabeth Marguerite d'Orléans. (26 December 1646 - 17 March 1696), known as Isabelle d'Orléans, was the Duchess of Alençon and, during her husband's lifetime, Duchess of Angoulême. She was a daughter of Gaston d'Orléans and a first cousin of Louis XIV of France. She has no descendants today. She was suo jure Duchess of Alençon and Angoulême.
Élisabeth d'Orléans was born in Paris at the Luxembourg Palace, then called the Palais d'Orléans, and now the seat of the Senate of France. The palace had been given to her father on the death of his mother, Marie de' Medici in 1642. Élisabeth was known by her first name, Élisabeth, but she always signed Isabelle. One of five children, she was not raised with her siblings but in a convent, because she was destined to become abbess of Remiremont and was styled as such.
Known as Mademoiselle d'Alençon until her marriage, Isabelle (Élisabeth Marguerite) was acquainted with the young Louise Françoise de La Baume Le Blanc, who was to become duchesse de La Vallière, mistress of Louis XIV, and who grew up at Blois in the entourage of Isabelle's sister Marguerite Louise d'Orléans. It was assumed that Isabelle's older and more beautiful sister, Marguerite Louise, would marry Louis, and that Françoise Madeleine would marry another European prince. A possible match was one with Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy, who later married her younger sister on 4 March 1663.
Another possible husband was her cousin Henri Jules de Bourbon - the future Prince de Condé and Prince du Sang. This was dropped as Henri Jules preferred the German Anne Henriette of Bavaria who was a granddaughter of the Queen of Bohemia.
The choice for Isabelle (who was humpbacked) fell upon a foreign prince (prince étranger); Louis Joseph de Guise. The Duke of Guise was the titular head of the House of Guise, a cadet branch of the House of Lorraine of which Isabelle's mother was a member.
Isabelle and the Duke were married at the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye on 15 May 1667 in the presence of the Court and the Princes of the Blood. Her husband, four years younger than she was, was not only under the legal control of his aunt and guardian, the "magnificent" and proud Mademoiselle de Guise (Marie de Lorraine de Guise), but in day-to-day protocol, he was treated by Isabelle as the social inferior that he was. From her marriage to her death, Isabelle d'Orléans was known to the French as Madame de Guise. Her brief union with the Duke of Guise produced one child:
- Francis Joseph de Lorraine, Duke of Guise (Hôtel de Guise, Luxembourg Palace, Paris, 28 August 1670 – 16 March 1675).
Isabelle's husband died in 1671, from smallpox contacted on his way back from a visit to the court of Charles II, King of England. Her son inherited his father's titles: duc de Guise et de Joyeuse and prince de Joinville.
At the death of her mother in 1672, she moved in to the Luxembourg Palace along with the little Francis Joseph. Still unable to walk unaided at age four, he was dropped by his nurse and died from a head injury in 1675. He died at the Luxembourg Palace.
After the death of her son, Isabelle (whom the French knew as "Madame de Guise") spent every summer in her duchy of Alençon and most winters at the royal court. When in Paris, she would stay at the Luxembourg Palace which had been ceded to her after her mother's death in 1672. (Haunted by her little son's death throes there, she found it difficult to stay very long at the Luxembourg.) In 1672 she created a private apartment for herself at the abbey of Saint Pierre de Montmartre, where she often saw Mlle de Guise and her sister, the abbess. After 1675, this little circle expanded when Isabelle's sister Marguerite Louise, Grand Duchess of Tuscany, left her husband, moved into an apartment within the abbey walls, and was kept under what amounted to house arrest. Always very devout, Isabelle commissioned religious pieces from Marc-Antoine Charpentier, the composer of Mlle de Guise. She also commissioned secular works (operas and pastorales) from him, some of which were performed at the royal court.
Isabelle was a fervent supporter of her cousin Louis XIV's policies to bring Huguenots back into the Catholic fold. As early as November 1676, when she supervised the conversion of a Protestant lady, Isabelle commissioned from Marc-Antoine Charpentier the first of a succession of oratorios that recounted how St. Cecilia had won over her bridegroom and his brother to Christianity. After the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in October 1685, she created a house for "New Converts" in her duchy of Alençon and actively converted the local Huguenots.
The fortune that she had accumulated was willed to her older and only surviving sibling, Marguerite Louise, Grand Duchess of Tuscany.
Titles, styles, honours and arms
Titles and styles
- 26 December 1646 – 15 May 1667 [Her Royal Highness] Mademoiselle d'Alençon
- 15 May 1667 – 30 July 1671 Her Royal Highness the Duchess of Guise and Joyeuse (Madame la duchesse de Guise et Joyeuse) (or, to the public in general, Madame de Guise)
Upon her son's death, she became the Duchess of Alençon and Angoulême in her own right. She kept her rank of Granddaughter of France during her marriage. This allowed her the style of HRH (sa Altesse Royale).
- ^ 
- ^ "The Luxembourg Palace". Senate of France. http://www.senat.fr/lng/en/palais.html. Retrieved 2009-02-15.
- ^ ↑ ...bossue et contrefaite à l'excès, elle avait mieux aimé épouser le dernier duc de Guise en 1667 que de ne se point marier... Mémoires de Saint-Simon, Louis de Rouvroy Saint-Simon, ed. Hachette et Cie, 1881.
- ^ The Hôtel de Guise was sold by the Guise family to the Prince of Soubise in 1700, and renamed Hôtel de Soubise.
- ^ Patricia M. Ranum, Portraits around Marc-Antoine Charpentier, Baltimore, 2004, pp. 405-11
- ^ For Isabelle d'Orléans, see Patricia M. Ranum, Portraits around Marc-Antoine Charpentier, Baltimore, 2004, pp. 336-44, 405-425; and 
- ^ The History of Paris from the Earliest Period to the Present Day: Containing a Description of Its Antiquities, Public Buildings, Civil, Religious, Scientific, and Commercial Institutions.... Original from the New York Public Library, Digitized 2007-06-08: Published by G. B. Whittaker. 1825. pp. 43. http://books.google.ca/books?id=7TAOAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA43&dq=palais+Elizabeth+Louis+1694.
- ^ http://www.heraldica.org/topics/france/frroyal.htm#sang Style of HRH and further information on Princes of the Blood
- ^ Abbé Rombault, "Élisabeth d'Orléans ...", in Bulletin de la Société historique et archéologique de l'Orne 12 (1893), pp. 476ff, especially p. 483 for her residence at Alençon and her solemn entry as duchess on 11 September 1676.
Ancestors of Élisabeth Marguerite d'Orléans 16. Charles de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme 8. Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme 17. Françoise of Alençon 4. Henry IV of France 18. Henry II of Navarre 9. Jeanne III of Navarre 19. Marguerite de Navarre 2. Gaston, Duke of Orléans 20. Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany 10. Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany 21. Eleonora di Toledo 5. Marie de' Medici 22. Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor 11. Johanna of Austria 23. Anna of Bohemia and Hungary 1. Élisabeth d'Orléans 24. Francis I, Duke of Lorraine 12. Charles III, Duke of Lorraine 25. Christina of Denmark 6. Francis II, Duke of Lorraine 26. Henry II of France 13. Claude of Valois 27. Catherine de' Medici 3. Marguerite of Lorraine 28. Johann VII, Count of Salm 14. Paul, Count of Salm 29. Claude de Stainville 7. Christina of Salm 30. Tanneguy Le Veneur, comte de Tillières 15. Marie Le Veneur 31. Madeleine Hélie de Pompadour
Princesses of Orléans 1st Generation 2nd Generation
Marie Louise, Queen of Spain^ · Anne Marie, Queen of Sardinia^ · Élisabeth Charlotte, Duchess of Lorraine^
3rd Generation 4th Generation
Princess Louise Marie^
Mademoiselle d'Orléans^ · Bathilde, Princess of Condé^
Françoise, Mademoiselle de Chartres^ · Adélaïde, Princess of Orléans
7th Generation 8th Generation 9th Generation 10th Generation
Isabelle, Princess Pierre Murat · Françoise, Princess Cristopher of Greece and Denmark · Anne, Duchess of Aosta · Marie Louise, Princess Philip of the Two Sicilies · Princess Sophie · Genieviève, Marchioness of Chaponay
Isabelle, Countess of Schönborn-Buchheim · Hélène, Countess Evrard of Limburg-Stirum · Anne, Duchess of Calabria · Diane, Duchess of Württemberg · Claude, Duchess of Aosta · Chantal, Baroness François Xavier de Sambucy de Sorgue · Gerarda, Marchioness of Marchelina · Beatriz, Countess Tomasso Farini
Isabelle, Princess Gundakar of Liechtenstein · Princess Blanche · Princess Clothilde, Mrs. Edouard Crépy · Princess Adélaïde, Mrs. Pierre-Louis Dailly · Diane, Viscountess Alexis of Noailles · Princess Pilar, Mrs. Nicholas Henderson-Stewart · Princess Eulalia
Princess Thérèse Isabelle · Princess Louise Marie · Princesse Hélène · Princess Isabelle^never styled Princess of Orléans
Princesses of France 1st generation 2nd generation 3rd generationnone 4th generationPrincess Anne Élisabeth · Princess Marie Anne · Marie Therèse, Madame Royale · Marie Louise, Queen of Spain · Anne Marie, Queen of Sardinia · Élisabeth Charlotte, Duchess of Lorraine 5th generationnone 6th generation 7th generation 8th generationBarbara of Salm (1580-1602) · Elizabeth of Salm (1602-1611) · Catherine de Lorraine (1612-1648) · Élisabeth Marguerite d'Orléans* (1648-1657) · Anne Marie Thérèse de Lorraine (1657-1660) · Dorothea Maria of Salm (1660-1702) · Élisabeth Charlotte de Lorraine (1700-1711) · Christina of Salm (1702-1710) · Béatrice Hiéronyme de Lorraine (1710-1738) · Anne Charlotte de Lorraine (1738-1773) · Maria Christina of Saxony (1773-1782) · Charlotte de Lorraine (1782-1786) · Louise Adélaïde de Bourbon (1786-1790)*Was "titular abbess"
^acted as Administratrice while "Abbess" was awayThe generations start from the children of Réné II
1st GenerationRenée de Bourbon · Antoinette de Bourbon · Louise de Brézé 2nd Generation 3rd Generation 4th GenerationPrincess Catherine of Navarre · Margherita Gonzaga · Christina of Salm · Catherine Henriette de Bourbon, Légitimée de France · Marguerite Philippe du Cambout · Marie de Rohan · Henriette Catherine de Joyeuse 5th GenerationNicole de Lorraine* · Béatrice de Cusance · Claude Françoise de Lorraine* · Anne Élisabeth de Lannoy · Élisabeth de La Tour d'Auvergne · · Françoise de Montault de Navailles · Anne d'Ornano · Christine d'Estrées · Anne de Lorraine* · Catherine de Neufville · Catherine de Goyon de Matignon · Marie Madeleine d'Epinay · Françoise Adélaide de Noailles · Marie Françoise de Valois 6th GenerationEleanor of Austria, Queen of Poland · Princess Anne Élisabeth de Lorraine* · Charlotte de Rochechouart de Mortemart · Marie Therese de Stramboni · Innocentia Catherine du Plessis · Marie Françoise de Brancas · Marie Louise Jeannin de Castille · Élisabeth de Roquelaure · Anne Marguerite Gabrielle de Beauvau · Jeanne Henriette Marguerite de Durfort · Élisabeth Marguerite d'Orléans 7th GenerationÉlisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans · Hélène Julie Rosalie Mancini · Louise Charlotte de Gramont · Auguste de Coëtquen · Louise de Rohan 8th Generation
- also a princess of Lorraine in her own right
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