Whitney M. Young Gifted & Talented Leadership Academy

Whitney M. Young Gifted & Talented Leadership Academy
Whitney M. Young Gifted & Talented Leadership Academy
17900 Harvard Avenue
Cleveland, Ohio, (Cuyahoga County), 44128
 United States
Coordinates 41°26′57″N 81°33′10″W / 41.44917°N 81.55278°W / 41.44917; -81.55278Coordinates: 41°26′57″N 81°33′10″W / 41.44917°N 81.55278°W / 41.44917; -81.55278
School type Coeducational high school Public, National Blue Ribbon School
Motto Aspire, Achieve, Apply[1]
Established 1950
Opened 1971[1]
Status Open
School district Cleveland Metropolitan School District
Oversight Cleveland Metropolitan School District
Superintendent Mr. Eric Gordan
School code 062323
CEEB Code 365-772
Principal Mrs. Karen M. Byron-Johnson
Asst. Principal Ms. Sh'Annon Caldwell
Academic Superintendent Mrs. Rojeana Howell-Curtis
Chief custodian Mr. Salaman
Faculty 40
Teaching staff 28
Grades 2-12
Enrollment 418  (2010-2011)
Grade 9 40 (Class of 2015)
Grade 10 35 (Class of 2014)
Grade 11 45 (Class of 2013)
Grade 12 43 (Class of 2012)
Average class size 17
Student to teacher ratio 20:1
Campus Urban
Color(s) Black and Gold         
Slogan Whitney Young is distinctively excellent.
Athletics Mrs. Karen Bartlett (director)
Athletics conference Cleveland Metropolitan School District Extramural Division
Mascot Warriors[1]
Nickname WMY
Team name Warriors[1]
Rival Ginn Academy, Cleveland School of the Arts
Average SAT scores 914 (2008-2009)
Average ACT scores 19 (2008-2009)
Newspaper 'The Whitney Word'
Communities served Greater Cleveland
Feeder schools All Greater Cleveland Schools
Alumni Blaine Mickens[2]
School Hours 8:00A - 2:30P
Phone 216-283-5220
Head Counselor Mrs. Beatrice Jefferson
Mission The mission of Whitney Young is to provide an excellent education to gifted and talented students from diverse backgrounds. This is accomplished through an accelerated program that emphasizes leadership, self-motivation, independent thought, and intellectual curiosity.[1]
Graduation Rate 97%
Fax 216-295-3547

Whitney M. Young Gifted & Talented Leadership Academy, (also known as Whitney Young Gifted Education Campus, Whitney Young High School or Whitney Young School), is a selective-enrollment public school in Cleveland, Ohio, notable as the city's first public gifted and talented school.[citation needed]. Named after Whitney M. Young Jr., a prominent civil rights leader, the school is located in Cleveland's Lee-Harvard area. The school has scored among the top high schools in the state of Ohio[citation needed]. In 2009, the school was ranked among the top high schools in the United States by U.S. News and World Report.[3]

As of May 2010, the majority of the student population is African-American, and the majority of the students reside in the immediate neighborhood.[citation needed]

On August 27, 2010 Whitney Young became the first and only Cleveland school to receive the state's highest rating of Excellent with Distinction.[4]

Whitney Young is currently listed on Ohio's Schools of Promise List, it has been on the list for 9 consecutive school years, starting in school year 2001-2002. Whitney Young has been listed as an Ohio School of Promise more than any other school in the state.[5]

Whitney Young is less than a half-mile from John F. Kennedy High School. It is CMSD's most eastern high school, located less than a half-mile from the Cleveland - Warrensville Heights border.



The school building that is now home to Whitney Young was opened in 1951 as Hoban Dominican High School, an all-girls Catholic School. In 1971 the Cleveland Metropolitan School District (formally Cleveland Municipal School District) brought the school from the Cleveland Diocese. When the Cleveland Municipal School District first opened Whitney Young in 1971 (a few months after the death of Whitney Young, whom died March 11, 1971), it was an all-girls school.[6]

In the 2003-2004 school year the Cleveland Municipal School District begin adding one additional grade level to Whitney Young until reaching grade 12. Whitney Young's first high school graduating class was the Class of 2007 with former Principal Alisa McKinnie.

In 2007 Whitney Young became one of two middle schools in Cleveland to take part in the Rotsky Foundation. This program allows selected eighth grade students to participate in a mentoring program, and receive a scholarship in their senior year to any college/university. The students will remain in the program until they complete high school, regardless if they remain in the Cleveland Metropolitan School District or not.

Whitney Young's 2008-2009 school year was a dedication to Reginald Lamont Dudley Jr., a 13 year-old (Whitney Young Eighth Grader) who was murdered October 4, 2008 in his home.

During the 2008-2009 school year Whitney Young served 16% of CMSD gifted students.

In May 2009 Whitney Young was featured on Channel 3 News in Cleveland, Ohio for begin just one of four Cleveland schools to have a 100% graduation rate.[7]

In June 2009 Whitney Young held its first eighth grade promotion (Class of 2013) since it added secondary courses to the school in 2003.

Whitney Young's Principal Karen Byron-Johnson made "Kings & Queens" the 2009-2010 school year theme. Whitney Young students were allowed to wear crowns throughout the school, the theme came after Whitney Young was one of five Cleveland schools to be rated EXCELLENT on the state report card. The school kicked its theme off on Monday, August 31, 2009 with guest speakers for all the students and a best crown contest.

Friday, October 9, 2009 St. Ignatius High School students visited Whitney Young, and encouraged about 100 students in grades 8, 10 and 12 to raise their voices against youth violence. Football captain Kevin Hopkins and team members Bobby Grebenc, Christian Sanders, Ryan Gibbons, Kevin Smith and Primes all talked about the ripple effect of reaching out to help others; along with Coach Tyrone White.[8]

In January 2010 Whitney Young's Assistant Principal Jeanette Champon died. Champon had been Whitney Young's Assistant Principal for many years. She was then transferred to another school but returned to WMY in August 2009. Champon had been out for the majority of the 2009-2010 school year, before her death.

On May 20, 2010 Whitney Young's Class of 2012[9] sponsored a Motown Revue in Retrospect show. The show included various acts performed by the student body and teachers of WMY. Acts ranged from Marvin Gaye, Tammi Terrell, Little Eva, The Contours, Michael Jackson, The Jackson Five and many others. The show was a success with an audience from all over the district and Greater Cleveland.[10]

On September 2, 2010 Whitney Young's Principal Karen Byron-Johnson, Assistant Principal Sh'Annon Caldwell and eleventh grader Davonti' Haynes were featured in the Associated Content about how they'll spend the Race to the Top Funds for Cleveland Schools (Article: Racing to the Top: Clevelanders Voice Their Opinion on School Grant Money]).

In June 2011 Whitney Young will graduate its fifth and largest Senior Class (Class of 2011).

See You At The Pole

On September 26, 2007 Whitney Young celebrated its first annual See You At The Pole Day with the help of then eighth grader Ciera West. Whitney Young is currently one of few schools in Cleveland to celebrate the holiday. At about 7:45 A.M. students, staff and parents joined hands around the school's flag pole and said their prayers.

On September 22, 2010 Whitney Young celebrated its fourth annual SYATP Day.

During the week of March 15, 2010 Whitney Young celebrated an unofficial See You At The Pole everyday for students in grades 10-12 who were taking the Ohio Graduation Test that week.

Name Changes

1973-1974 School Year—School opened as Whitney M. Young Junior High School

2003-2004 School Year—Name changed to Whitney M. Young School

2008-2009 School Year—Name changed to Whitney M. Young High School

2010-2011 School Year—Name changed to Whitney M. Young Gifted & Talented Leadership Academy

Grade Level Changes

1973-1974 School Year—School opened with Grades 6-8

2003-2004 School Year— changed to Grades 6-9

2004-2005 School Year— changed to Grades 6-10

2005-2006 School Year— changed to Grades 6-11

2006-2007 School Year— changed to Grades 6-12

2010-2011 School Year— changed to Grades 2-12

Cleveland Schools Transformation Plan 2010

The Transformation Plan that was announced on Tuesday, January 5, 2010 categorized Whitney Young as a Growth School. This plan called for major changes throughout the Cleveland Metropolitan School District.[11] Growth Schools are schools that are showing the strongest absolute academic performance or strong improvement trends. These schools will be provided the autonomy and support they need to continue to improve student outcomes, with a strong expectation for continued growth.[12] This plan also called to close Gracemount School, which is less than two miles from Whitney Young. Gracemount served gifted students in grades K-8, but ranked in Academic Emergency. With Gracemount closing, their students in grades 2-8 labeled gifted will be sent to Whitney Young effective the 2010-2011 school year. As part of the Transformation Whitney Young would begin serving grades 2-12 effective the 2010-2011 school year.[11]

CMSD hosted a Transformation Community Meeting for Whitney Young on Wednesday, January 6, 2010 at John F. Kennedy High School. Parents, staff, community members and students were welcome and encouraged to attend the meeting. Whitney Young's Principal Karen Byron-Johnson informed parents about the district's plans for Whitney Young in the coming weeks and school year.[13]

CMSD Board voted on the plan on March 9, 2010 and approved it.

American Red Cross

In 2010 Whitney Young partnered with American Red Cross and sponsored Blood Drives at the school.

The first Blood Drive was held in October 2010 from 9:00a - 5:00p in the school's gymnasium; and again on February 11, 2011 from 9:00a - 1:00p in the gymnasium. The drive is open to the public and students of Whitney Young age 16 and older (must have parental consent if under 17 years of age).


As stated above, Whitney Young consistently ranks the top of the state in terms of test scores and attendance rate. The school offers numerous Honors and Advanced Placement courses for students in grades 8-12 and Gifted & Talented courses for students in grades 2-8. Advanced Placement is offered for Physics, ( English 4), European History Environmental Science and Statistics. Honors courses are as followed Algebra 1, Algebra 2, Geometry, Pre-Calculus, World History, American History, American Government, Street Law, Spanish 1, Spanish 2, Spanish 3, Physical Science, Biology, Chemistry, English 1, English 2, English 3), Creative Writing, Poetry, French 1, French 2 & French 3. As of the 2010-2011 School Year Whitney Young only offers Physical Education, Health, Band, Choir, Art 1, Art 2, Art 3, African-American History, Senior Seminar and OGT Math, OGT Science as regular course work. The school requires all high school students to take academic electives and Honors and Advanced Placement courses.

Whitney Young currently uses weighted grade point averages; therefore basing student GPAs on a 5.0 scale. Honors/ Advanced Placement course carries the following GPA points:

A - 5

B - 4

C - 3

D - 1

F - 0

Regular course are as followed:

A - 4

B - 3

C - 2

D - 1

F - 0

Graduation Requirements

Whitney Young graduation requirements differ from those of CMSD and the State of Ohio, although they typically allow students who only meet district requirement to graduate.

Whitney M. Young Gifted & Talented Leadership Academy Graduation Requirements
Subject WMY Credits Recommended WMY Credits Required/ CMSD Required Courses
English 4 4/ 4 English 1, 2 & 3, AP English 4
Mathematics 5 5, 4(as of Class of 2014) /3, 4(as of Class of 2014) Algebra 1, Geometry, Algebra 2
Science 4 3/ 3 Physical Science, Biology, Chemistry
Social Studies 4 4/ 3 World History, American History, American Government
Fine Art 1 1/ 1
Foreign Language 3 2/ 1 Spanish 1/ French 1, Spanish 2/ French 2
Health 0.5 0.5/ 0.5 Health
Physical Education 0.5 0.5/ 0.5 Physical Education
Senior Seminar 0.5 0.5/ 0.5 Senior Seminar
Electives 5.5 5.5, 5(as of Class of 2014)/ 5.5, 5(as of Class of 2014)
Total 28 26/ 22

In addition to those requirements, students must also have:

  • Pass all five parts of the Ohio Graduation Test
  • A minimum of 40 community service hours
  • A 2.5 or higher Cumulative Grade Point Average
  • No more than 5 unexcused absences

Promotional Requirements

Whitney Young also requires students to meet credit requirements to be passed to the next grade level.

  • From grade 9 to grade 10 - Students are required to have at least 5 credits with a 2.5 or higher Cumulative Grade Point Average
  • From grade 10 to grade 11 - Students are required to have at least 11 credits with a 2.5 or higher Cumulative Grade Point Average
  • From grade 11 to grade 12 - Students are required to have at least 16 credits with a 2.5 or higher Cumulative Grade Point Average


Whitney Young currently is composed of two buildings, the 'Main Building' (High School) and the 'Annex' connected by a tunnel.

Main Building

The Main Building is the front building of the school. The Office, Principal's Office, Cafeteria, Gymnasium, high school/ main Media Center, high school/ main Computer Lab and Auditorium are all located within the Main Building. All visitors must enter in this building before proceeding to the Annex or anywhere throughout the school.

High School

All High School students classes are located in the Main Building, known as the "High School". Some high school students take an art class in the Annex, this however is the only time high schoolers are in the annex. High School students switch classes just as every other high school, most students typically have 41 minute based classes, with the expection to science classes (80 minutes) and eleventh grade English and Pre-Calculus classes (60 minutes).

Tunnel and Annex

The tunnel is an extended brick wall walkway between the Main Building and the Annex. The tunnel contains lockers for Junior High students. The Annex is the back building of Whitney Young, it contains The Assistant Principal's Office, Grades 2-8 Media Center and Grades 2-8 Computer Lab. All rooms in this building is distinguished with an "A" at the end (EX: Room 208A, Room 303A, 214A)


All Elementary students classes are in the "Annex". There is one class per grade level for students in grades 2-5. Students remain in these classes all day, with the exception for Breakfast, Lunch, Physical Education and Music classes which are located in the high school.

Junior High/ Middle School

All Junior High students classes are also located in the Annex. There are typically two-three classes per grade level for students in grades 6-8. Students switch classes throughout the day (with 41 minute periods) and remain in the Annex with the exceptions of Foreign Language Classes, Lunch, Breakfast, Gym, Music, and Band which are located in the high school.

2010 State Report Card

On August 27, 2010, Ohio Department of Education released the 2009-2010 school year report cards for both schools and districts across The State of Ohio. Cleveland Metropolitan School District's CEO Eugene Sanders held a press conference at Whitney Young to announce that the district as a whole has received a rating of Continuous Improvement (C average) on the state report card (up from the previous year D average).[14] The press conference also revealed that Whitney Young was rated Excellent with Distinction, the highest rating possible to receive[5] (the first and only Cleveland school to receive this rating).[4] Whitney Young's principal Karen Byron-Johnson spoke briefly about how she and her students reached their goal in such a low performing district. While CEO Eugene Sanders was quoted saying "You can go to Shaker Heights, Solon, Beachwood, you can go to any other school in the state, and none of them have performed better than Whitney Young students.[15]


Effective 2000-2001 School Year— School opened with Black/Blue/Khaki bottoms and Blue/White collared shirts dress code policy.

Effective 2003-2004 School Year— Middle School Policy: student were required to wear Black/Blue/Khaki bottoms and Blue/White collared shirts. High School Policy: No uniform policy.

Effective 2006-2007 School Year— No uniform policy.

Effective 2007-2008 School Year— Middle School Policy: student were required to wear Black/Blue/Khaki bottoms and Blue/White collared shirts. High School Policy: students were required to wear any color bottoms and any solid color collared shirts.

Effective 2009-2010 School Year— All students were required to wear Black/Blue/Khaki bottoms and Blue/White collared shirts.

Effective 2010-2011 School Year— All students were required to wear customized school uniforms. Students were required to wear dress shirts/ white short sleeve polo shirts (with school insignia), black/ khaki pants/skirt, black vest/ cardigan (with school insignia) and a school customized tie. Students must purchase the uniform from the school prior to the starting day of school. Or they had the option to wear the regular CMSD all-district dress code (same as 2009-2010 school year).

Effective Leadership Academy

Effective Leadership Academy also known as ELA is a non-profit 501(3)c organization that was founded in 2008 by Flo Brett. ELA works with Northeast Ohio schools to provide a dynamic, results-based youth leadership program for students in grades six through twelve. The ELA’s mission is to help young people turn their potential into performance by developing their most valuable asset – themselves. This innovative, “inside out” self development process focuses on three critical elements: personal leadership, healthy behaviors, and interpersonal skills. During the 2010-2011 school year WMY teamed up with Effective Leadership Academy and Cleveland Leadership Center to deliver a leadership training program to 30 WMY seniors. Their once a week senior seminar, delivered by ELA focuses on leadership and character-building skills.[16]


On Thursday, November 11, 2010 two freshman students (Sahee Bell and Donovan Garner) were allegedly hazed. They were standing in the school parking lot after basketball practice on November 11, 2010 when a group of older students yelled 'There go some freshmen'.[15] and started taunting them.[17] According to the police report, the older students forced the young students into the trunk of a senior car and a 17-year-old girl drove the car around the school parking lot at about 25 miles an hour with the boys locked in the trunk. After attempting to escape, one (Bell) was dragged across the school parking lot, face against pavement with one leg stuck in the trunk. The car was then put into reserve and backed over Bell, he was treated and released from University Hospital. Four students from the school were arrested and charged with felonious assault, abduction, kidnapping and hazing. Cleveland Metropolitan School District Humanware Division sent crisis counselors along with members of the CMSD Anti-Bullying Team to counsel students and remind them of their rights and responsibilities. Parents were alarmed and appalled.".[15][17]

"I was totally shocked to hear that happening up here at Whitney Young," said Renee West, parent.[17]

"That's terrible, that's absolutely atrocious," said Sabrina McCoy, parent. "Kids are really cruel".[17]

"I think it is just dumb, because kids shouldn't be playing around like that and it can cause serious accidents like it did now," said a student who wished to remain anonymous.[17]

"I was surprised. Stuff like this don't really happen to our school. It's normally a real good school, honor school. We've been keeping up our grades for so long and we're only human. Things like this, it happens from time to time, just, you gotta be responsible,"" eleventh grader Darius Burgan said.[15]

"I was surprised, even when my son was telling me about it," parent Carlotta Burgan said.[15]

A statement was issued by Dr. Eugene Sanders, CEO of the Cleveland Metropolitan School District, stating: the district is taking the situation at Whitney Young School for Gifted & Talented Students seriously.

The release quoted Sanders as saying, "Any student tradition that involves intimidation or results in physical or emotional harm to any student will not be tolerated. Our Crisis Teams and our Safety & Security personnel are working closely with the Cleveland Police Department to send a clear message to all students that the consequences of such behavior are severe".[15]


According to Trendsmap.com, Whitney Young was a Twitter trending topic in Cleveland on August 14, 2011; gaining national level tweets and retweets. The topic fell under two hash tags #Atwhitneyyoung and #atwmy. Tweets and Retweets following the hash tag were:

  • #AtWhitneyYoung this boy got slapped so hard his buttons flew off his shirt ctfu[18]
  • #AtWhitneyYoung Juniors had a lot more money than Seniors. The Seniors was too salty.[18]
  • #AtWhitneyYoung only 45% of the students are *actually* gifted.[18]
  • #AtWhitneyYoung the cue room was made famous lol[18]
  • #AtWhitneyYoung Ms. Caldwell and Ms. Johnson both walk with a waddle[18]
  • #atwmy me and my bestfriend skipped everyday in the bathroom[18]
  • #AtWMY We Never Called The Male Teachers "Mr" It Was Always "Baker" "Thomas" "Lew" "Dooley" Etc.. Def Don't Know Why Though..[18]
  • #AtWMY Everybody Had A Set Of Headphones In They Ear, Whether The Teacher Was Teaching Or Not..[18]

According to Trendsmap, Glenville High School, Euclid High School and Bedford High School were trending along with Whitney Young on August 14, 2011.

Extracurricular Activities

Students playing on Whitney Young sports are commonly referred to as Lady Warriors (girls) and Warriors (boys). Whitney Young offers few sports compared to other high schools in Cleveland. Whitney Young is classified in the city's Extramural division. Whitney Young currently offers:

High School

- A Christian Student Leadership Team.

  • Gospel Choir
  • Toys for Tots
  • Effective Leadership Academy (ELA) (Seniors only)
  • Cleveland Institute (CI) (Sophomores, Juniors & Seniors only)
  • Volunteer & Community Service

Middle School


  • After School Tutoring


  • Whitney Young also offers Special Olympics track, basketball and bowling for students in special education classes.

In October 2009 the high school Lady Warriors Volleyball team won their fourth consecutive championship game, going undefeated for three consecutive years; with Coach Paul Baker. The middle school Lady Warriors Volleyball team came in second place; with Coach Debra White.[19]

On February 11, 2010 and February 10, 2011 Whitney Young boys high school basketball team lost the championship game against Ginn Academy at John Adams. March 4, 2010 Whitney Young girls high school basketball team lose the championship game against Cleveland School of the Arts at John F. Kennedy.

Honors and awards

Awards/ Honors
Level Award Number of Awards Year
Middle School "Blue Ribbon Honors School of Excellence".[20] 1 1998
Ohio's Top Middle Schools List 5 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010
High School Ohio's Top High Schools List 6 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010
America's Best High Schools[3][21] 4 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011
Cleveland Cavaliers Head of the Class (English Teacher Debra White) 1 2010
All Ohio School of Promise.[22] 10 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010
State Report Card Rating of "Effective"[23][24] 6 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008
State Report Card Rating of "Excellent[25] 1 2009
State Report Card Rating of "Excellent with Distinction"[26] 2 2010, 2011
Total 36

Senior Standout

Senior Name Honor Year/Class of ...
Brittany Harris[27] Honorable Mention 2009
Jasmine Hagan[28] Honorable Mention 2010
Reneé West[29] Honorable Mention 2011


Season Sport Number of Championships Year
Fall Chess 3 2008, 2009, 2010
High School Volleyball 4 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009
Winter High School Basketball, Boys 2 2006, 2007
Middle School Basketball, Boys 3 2006, 2007, 2008
Spring High School Basketball, Girls 5 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2011
Hi-Steppers 1 2006
Track 2 2009, 2010
Total 20
  • Data only goes back to 2005. Awards and championship won before then are currently unknown.

Alumnus/ Notable People

Alumni/Alumna Graduation Year Note
Blaine Mickens[2] Class of 2008[2] Entrepreneur
Derric Studamire[30] Class of 2008 Entrepreneur

Educator Position(s) Years at WMY Note
Lena Pogrebinsky High School Mathematics Teacher (Algebra 1, Pre-Calculus & A.P. Statistics) August 2010 - January 2011 Wife of painter Alexander Pogrebinsky

External links

See also

  • Whitney Young Magnet High School --Chicago
  • Whitney Young -- Civil Rights Leader
  • The Rotsky Foundation for Mentors


  1. ^ a b c d e "Destination Graduation". CMSD. Retrieved September 2010.
  2. ^ a b c "Blaine Mickens". Plain Dealer Newspaper. Retrieved August 2010.
  3. ^ a b "America's Best High Schools". US News & World Report. Retrieved May 2010.
  4. ^ a b "Cleveland schools celebrates". Cleveland Plain Delaer. Retrieved August 27, 2010.
  5. ^ a b "Ohio Schools of Promise". Ohio Department of Education. Retrieved November 14, 2010.
  6. ^ CMSD Destination Graduation 2009-2010 Retrieved May 2010.
  7. ^ Whitney Young 100% Retrieved May 2010.
  8. ^ Cleveland Plain Dealer. Retrieved May 2010.
  9. ^ Newsletter.] Retrieved March 2011.
  10. ^ Inside District News -- CMSD. Retrieved July 2010.
  11. ^ a b Transformation Plan Webcast. 2010 Retrieved May 2010.
  12. ^ Transformation Address. 2010 Retrieved May 2010.
  13. ^ Transformation Meetings. 2010 Retrieved May 2010.
  14. ^ "2009-2010 Academic Report Cards". Channel 5 News. Retrieved August 27, 2010.
  15. ^ a b c d e f "Cleveland is Improving". Fox 8 News. Retrieved August 27, 2010.
  16. ^ "Effctive Leadership Academy". Effective Leadership Academy. Retrieved November 15, 2010.
  17. ^ a b c d e "Teens arrested in hazing incident at Cleveland's Whitney Young Academy". 19 Action News. Retrieved November 15, 2010.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h "Trending Topic #Atwhitneyyoung". Twitter. Retrieved August 17, 2011.
  19. ^ Whitney Young School. 2009. Retrieved May 2010.
  20. ^ US Department of Education. Retrieved May 2010.
  21. ^ US News & World Report. Retrieved May 2010.
  22. ^ Ohio Department of Education 2002. Retrieved May 2010.
  23. ^ Ohio Department of Education. 2003. Retrieved May 2010.
  24. ^ City Data. 2007. Retrieved May 2010.
  25. ^ Ohio Department of Education. 2009. Retrieved May 2010.
  26. ^ Ohio Department of Education. 2009. Retrieved August 27, 2010.
  27. ^ Cleveland Plain Dealer. Retrieved May 2011.
  28. ^ Cleveland Plain Dealer. Retrieved May 2011.
  29. ^ Cleveland Plain Dealer. Retrieved May 2011.
  30. ^ "Derric Studamire". ECity Cleveland. Retrieved March 2011.

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