- Les Cités obscures
Les Cités obscures
Cover of Les Murailles de Samaris ("The Great Walls of Samaris", 1983), first album in the graphic novel series Les Cités obscures. Art by François Schuiten
Created by François Schuiten
Publication information Publisher Casterman
Title(s) Les murailles de Samaris
La fièvre d'Urbicande
La route d'Armilia
L'ombre d'un homme
La frontière invisible
La Théorie du grain de sable
Formats Original material for the series has been published as a strip in the comics anthology(s) À Suivre and a set of graphic novels. Original language French Genre Fantasy, steampunk Publication date 1983 Number of issues 11 Creative team Writer(s) Benoît Peeters Artist(s) François Schuiten Creator(s) François Schuiten
Reprints The series has been reprinted, at least in part, in Dutch, English, German, Portuguese, and Spanish.
Les Cités obscures (English translation Cities of the Fantastic, while fans of the series prefer the more faithful name The Obscure Cities) is a graphic novel series set on a Counter-Earth, started by the Belgian comics artist François Schuiten and his friend, writer Benoît Peeters in the early 1980s. In this imaginary world, humans live in independent city-states, each of which has developed a distinct civilization, though all are in some way focused on architecture and architectural styles.
All volumes of the official series are available in most Western European languages (in French and Dutch by Casterman, in German, Spanish, and Portuguese by local publishing houses), whereas as of 2008 only few of them have been published in English by NBM Publishing. Recently, Editions Flammarion has taken up publication of the series in francophone Canada.
- 1 Background
- 2 Influences
- 3 Books in the Cités obscures series
- 4 Counter-earth
- 5 Taxandria
- 6 Multimedia
- 7 Awards
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
Schuiten's graphic representations and architectural styles within Les Cités obscures is, among other historical themes, heavily influenced by Belgian Art Nouveau architect Victor Horta responsible for much of 19th century Brussels. Another recurring motif is the so-called process of increasing Bruxellisation, denoting the modern destruction of this historic Brussels in favor of anonymous office and business buildings patterned after a hasty, pseudo-modernist idea of New York's Manhattan since the 1960s. Coming from a family of architects, a number of Schuiten's relatives, especially his father and brothers, were instrumental in the Bruxellisation trend destroying much of the historic Brussels setting the background of Schuiten's and Peeters' 1950s childhood memories living in the city. Schuiten himself was brought up to study architecture by his father, both in university and early on at home, while young Schuiten preferred to pursue his escape to the world of Franco-Belgian bandes dessinées such as those he found in the magazine Pilote that his older brother introduced him to, with René Goscinny, Morris, and André Franquin among his early favorites.
Around 1980, having become an emerging established graphic novel artist who had made himself a name publishing in Métal Hurlant and creating a number of standalone albums, Schuiten began drafting a parallel world of vintage architectural splendor reflecting his childhood memories of Brussels, a world which can be reached primarily through remaining buildings of these times gone by. In an ongoing attempt to prevent the spread of knowledge of this parallel world, mostly faceless authorities in our world increasingly have these buildings wrecked down, and in Schuiten's world this was the true reason for chaotic, headless Bruxellisation where functional and organic buildings were wrecked down in favor of seemingly useless and confusing structures such as ill-planned roads, detours, freeways, and anonymous office buildings that destroyed the organic fabric of a city and resulted in rather dysfunctional traffic and living routines.
Approaching his friend Peeters, who by now had become a comic writer, about this imaginary world, Peeters infused his own philosophical ideas into plot lines he developed for the project, and in 1982 the first Les Cités obscures album, Les murailles de Samaris, began publication as a serial in the Franco-Belgian comics magazine À Suivre. Requiring a few revised editions of the early albums, the basic tenets and elements of Le monde obscure are laid down since the late 1980s.
Various commentators, as well as Schuiten himself, have identified visual and theme influences in Les Cités obscures from as diverse works as those by Jules Verne, Winsor McCay, Franz Kafka, Marc-Antoine Mathieu, René Magritte, Giovanni Battista Piranesi, Victor Horta, and Henry Fuseli.
Books in the Cités obscures series
The stories of the cités obscures appear in a series of graphic novels and related books, published by Casterman. Most of them remain unpublished in English, whereas those six published in English (first in serialized form in Heavy Metal and Dark Horse Comics' Cheval Noir, then as complete albums by NBM Publishing) so far often had different cover design and page size. The books published in French so far below:
- Les murailles de Samaris (1983, published 1987 in English as The Great Walls of Samaris (Stories of the Fantastic), paperback, ISBN 0918348366)
- La fièvre d'Urbicande (1985, published 1990 in English as Fever in Urbicand (Cities of the Fantastic), translated by Jean-Marc Lofficier & Randy Lofficier, paperback, ISBN 0918348862)
- La Tour (1987, published 1993 in English as The Tower (Stories of the Fantastic) translated by Jean-Marc Lofficier & Randy Lofficier, paperback, ISBN 1561630705)
- La route d'Armilia (1988, available in English as "The Road to Armilia" (unofficial edition))
- Brüsel (1992, published 2001 in English as Brüsel (Cities of the Fantastic), hardcover, ISBN 1561632910)
- L'enfant penchée (1996, English manuscript translation available, but the album remains unpublished)
- L'ombre d'un homme (1999)
- La frontière invisible, Volume 1 (2002, published in English as The Invisible Frontier (Cities of the Fantastic), hardcover, ISBN 156163333X)
- La frontière invisible, Volume 2 (2004, published in English as The Invisible Frontier (Cities of the Fantastic), hardcover, ISBN 156163400X)
- La Théorie du grain de sable, Volume 1 (2007)
- La Théorie du grain de sable, Volume 2 (2008)
Beside these "official" parts to the story, Schuiten and Peeters also collaborated, partly with other authors, on a number of works that were not originally linked to the series but that were set in similar settings, were linked to it later, and/or highlighted particular aspects of the Obscure World without being a traditional narrative.
- Le Mystère d'Urbicande (1985);
- L'archiviste (1987);
- L'Encyclopédie des transports présents et à venir(1988);Casterman 1988 ISBN 2203903023
- Le passage (1989);
- Le Musée A. Desombres]] (1990: booklet and audio CD);
- L'Écho des cités (1993);
- Souvenirs de l'Eternel présent (1993), an adaptation of the film Taxandria (see below);
- Mary la penchée (1995);
- Le Guide des cités (1996), an illustrated tourist guide to the Obscure Cities;
- L'etrange cas du docteur Abraham (2001);
- L'affaire Desombres (2002: booklet and 90-minute DVD).
The volume Voyages en Utopie (2000) presents the ongoing and completed work carried on by these two authors, in parallel with the Cités obscures series. Another book Schuiten and Peeters collaborated on in reference to Les Cités obscures is Les Portes du Possible (2005).
“ Nous ignorons le monde des Cités obscures, mais ce monde ne nous ignore pas. "We are ignorant of the world of the Cités obscures, but that world is not ignorant of us." – Lewis Fry Richardson, English scholar cited in the Guide des Cités.) ”
Location and Obscure Portals
The world (or "continent", according to the authors) of the Cités obscures forms a disparate grouping of cities located on a "counter-Earth", which is invisible from our Earth because it is situated exactly opposite it on the other side of the Sun. Having said this, it should also be noted that travel between the two worlds is possible, by means of "gates" (portes) allowing passage from one to the other or - more poetically - by artistic license. These Obscure Passages are mostly to be found in buildings and constructions similar or identical to each other on both planets, whereas the distinct architectural style of a structure makes it a potential candidate to harbor an Obscure Passage to an Obscure City whose distinct style it resembles.
It is not uncommon for some Earthlings and inhabitants of the Cités obscures to actually come across each other (among the most notable of these travelers may be noted Jules Verne, a recurring personage in the series). On websites such as Web of the Obscure Cities and Office of the Obscure Passages, Schuiten and Peeters present alleged reports, often illustrated with photos and drawings, from people that shortly crossed over into the world of the Obscure Cities via Obscure Passages by accident, and by so-called Obscurantists who have been seeking for Obscure Passages for years (compare Obscurantist, a term based upon the Epistolæ Obscurorum Virorum, aka "Letters of Obscure Men"). These reports on the internet correspond to the pseudorealism of Schuiten and Peeters when enclosing "authentic" documentary or amateur CDs (Le Musée A. Desombres, 1990) or DVDs (L'affaire Desombres, 2002) to their print publications regarding the Obscure Cities.
Benoît Peeters had collaborated with director Raoul Servais before on a documentary entitled Servaisgraphia on Servais's unique animation style that was released in 1992. Subsequently, there is a loose connection between the increasingly multimedia series of the Obscure Cities and the Belgian fantasy film Taxandria (1994) directed by Servais (starring, among others, Armin Mueller-Stahl), where Schuiten served as production designer. In the Obscure Cities series, at times characters refer to the vanished city-state of Taxandria which was accidentally removed from the planet during a failed scientific experiment.
A common theme in steampunk-influenced Les Cités obscures, Taxandrian clothing and technology appear to resemble Victorian times on our earth, Taxandria's architecture is reminiscent of Schuiten's trademark phantasmagorical architectural fantasies, and another feature the film shares with Les Cités obscures is a bloated absurd, Kafkaesque bureaucracy. It is however under dispute among fans of the series whether Taxandria is truly one of the Obscure Cities due to a perceived appearance of a light-hearted children's fantasy movie to Servais's film.
Souvenirs de l'Eternel Présent
A reinterpreting graphic novel adaptation of the movie Taxandria was published by Schuiten and Peeters one year prior to the film's official release under the title Souvenirs de l'Eternel Présent: Variation sur le Film Taxandria de Raoul Servais (Arboris, 1993, ISBN 9034410110, ISBN 978-9034410115), also including production background informations on the film.
Schuiten and Peeters increasingly seek to transcend their world of the Obscure Cities from graphic novels into other media to create an entire universe, even though their comic albums remain the core foundation of Schuiten and Peeters's emerging multimedia franchise.
Books, CDs, films
This trend for multimedia expansion began with the book Le Mystère d'Urbicande (1985) which marked the series' acquiring a life of its own and whereby Schuiten and Peeters began to realize the true potential of their concept. Written by Belgian author and Obscure fan Thierry Smolderen (under the pseudonym Professeur R. de Brok), Le Mystère d'Urbicande purports to be a scientific essay bent to debunk the events of La fièvre d'Urbicande, heavily annotated in emotional handwriting by Eugen Rodick, the main character of Le fièvre d'Urbicande who is now locked up in Brüsel's Sixth Hospice, the city's mental asylum. Schuiten contributed the book's illustrations under the pen-name Robert Louis Marie de la Barque (whereas the French word barque, meaning barge or rowboat in English, translates to schuiten in Dutch).
Drafting and developing stages of the above-mentioned film Taxandria and its accompanying graphic novel adaptation began between Schuiten and Peeters as early as 1988.
In 1990, the development was further explored with Le Musée A. Desombres, an audio CD with a small booklet drawn by Schuiten, purporting to be an exhibition catalogue of paintings by Auguste Desombres, an artist living in our world in the late 19th century. The CD contains an audio play that is partly a fake report from Desombres's first exhibition, partly chronicles Desombres crossing over into the world of the Obscure Cities by accident by means of his own exhibition.
In 2002, Schuiten and Peeters published the DVD L'affaire Desombres, a sequel to Le Musée A. Desombres.
In 1996, Urbicande.be, the official website of the Obscure Cities went online where Schuiten and Peeters encouraged their fans all over Europe to send in their own ideas regarding the Obscure Cities and accounts of their own experiences in search for Obscure Passages. The response was so overwhelming that Schuiten and Peeters were able to expand their online activities into a complex network of in-universe sites, mainly branching from the URL ebbs.net of their official Obscure magazine called Obskür, where many amateur reports, illustrated by photos and Schuiten's drawings, and various mysterious Obscure artifacts can be found. Along with these, a number of conspiracy theories are explored, regarding authorities of our world intending to prevent the spread of knowledge regarding the parallel world and destroy various Obscure Passages.
La maison Autrique
After having colorfully satirized the destructive modernizing fad of Bruxellisation in the Les Cités obscures album Brüsel in 1992, Schuiten and Peeters convinced the community of Schuiten's childhood district Schaerbeek to acquire one of the last remaining buildings in Brussels built by Art Nouveau architect Horta, La maison Autrique, and in 1999 opened a permanent pseudo-documentary exhibition inside, regarding the Obscure Cities, 19th century Art Nouveau Brussels, and detailing its ongoing Bruxellisation destruction during the 20th century, tying in with aforementioned conspiracy theories whereby Bruxellisation is supposed to be an attempt by the authorities to destroy a number of Obscure Passages situated in Brussels. In 2004, Schuiten and Peeters published the illustrated book La Maison Autrique: Métamorphose d'une maison Art Nouveau (published as Maison Autrique - Metamorphosis of an Art Nouveau House in English) about the building, its restoration during the 1990s, and Horta's life and work. Also, their latest Les Cités obscures two-part graphic novel album La Théorie du grain de sable (2007; 2008) deals with the maison Autrique.
- 1985: Angoulême International Comics Festival Prize for Best Album
- Les Cités obscures at Bedetheque (French)
- Cities of the Fantastic at the Comic Book DB
- Various (Schuiten & Peeters among others; 1994). Schuiten & Peeters: Autour des Cités obscures, Mosquito (French)
- Dossier FRANCOIS SCHUITEN, in Reddition, #32, 1998 (German), Table of Contents & order
- Schuiten; Peeters (2000). Voyages en Utopie, Casterman (French)
- Benoît Peeters (2004). The Book of Schuiten, MSW Medien Service Wuppertal (English)
- 2nd edition (2004), NBM Publishing
- 3rd edition (2004), Casterman
- Schuiten; Peeters (2004). Maison Autrique - Metamorphosis of an Art Nouveau House, Ed. Les Impressions Nouvelles
- Schuiten; Peeters (2005). Les Portes du Possible, Casterman (French)
Caution: All official sites by Schuiten & Peeters below treat the Obscure Cities from a strictly in-universe perspective.
- Urbicande, official web site of the Cités obscures (French with some English)
- Obskür, the magazine about the Obscure Cities. (French & English)
- Alta-Plana, the City of Archives, editable in-universe Wiki-style enyclopedia on Le monde obscure
- Web of the Obscure Cities (French, English, Dutch)
- Office of the Obscure Passages (French & English)
- Dictionary of the Universe of the Obscure Cities (French & English)
- Luminas, Daily Newspaper of the Obscure Cities (French with some English)
- The Light (English) (no longer updated)
- Tram 81 Graphic-intensive site about one of the Obscure Passages (French, English, Dutch)
- Cités obscures. A graphic exploratory voyage of the world (French)
- The Obscure Cities by Francois Schuiten & Benoit Peeters: A comprehensive review of the Obscure Cities series for English-speaking fans, Text: Sylvain St.-Pierre, Design: Jim Harrison, IKON Press
- Cities of the Fantastic: A Contemporary Series of Verne-inspired Graphic Novels, review of the series by Duane Spurlock, on Pulprack.com
- The Obscure Cites: An Introduction, analysis of entire series
- The World Of The Obscure Cities: A Parallel World Of Architectural Splendour, by Roel van der Meulen, on Project Galactic Guide
- Les Cités obscures, series review, also including a partial list of different editions (in French and other languages), by Julian Darius on The Continuity Pages
- Latour in Urbicande
Les Cités Obscures series CreatorsFrançois Schuiten (artist) · Benoît Peeters (writer) Official seriesLes murailles de Samaris (1983) · La fièvre d'Urbicande (1985) · La Tour (1987) · La route d'Armilia (1988) · Brüsel (1992) · L'enfant penchée (1996) · L'ombre d'un homme (1999) · La frontière invisible (vol. 1: 2002; vol. 2: 2004) · La Théorie du grain de sable (vol. 1: 2007; vol. 2: 2008) Spin-offsLe Mystère d'Urbicande (1985) · L'archiviste (1987) · L'Encyclopédie des transports présents et à venir (1988) · Le Musée A. Desombres (1990) · L'Écho des cités (1993) · Souvenirs de l'Eternel présent (1993) · Taxandria (1994) · Mary la penchée (1995) · Le Guide des cités (1996) · L'etrange cas du docteur Abraham (2001) · L'affaire Desombres (2002)Categories:
- Belgian comics titles
- Dark Horse Comics titles
- Heavy Metal (magazine) titles
- NBM Publishing titles
- 1983 comic debuts
- Fantasy comics
- Steampunk comics
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