- Geography of Ireland
The geography of
Irelanddescribes an islandin northwest Europein the north Atlantic Ocean. The main geographical features of Ireland include low central plains surrounded by a ring of coastal mountains. The highest peak is Carrauntoohil( _ga. Corrán Tuathail), which is 1,041 metres (3,414 ft) above sea level. The western coastline is rugged, with many islands, peninsulas, headlands and bays. The island is bisected by the River Shannon, which at 259 km(161 s) with a 113 km (70 miles) estuaryis the longest river in the British Isles and irelandand flows south from County Cavanin Ulsterto meet the Atlantic just south of Limerick. There are a number of sizeable lakes along Ireland's rivers, with Lough Neaghbeing the largest.
Politically, the island consists of the state of the
Republic of Irelandand the United Kingdom constituent country Northern Ireland. Located west of the island of Great Britain, it is located at approximately coord|53|N|8|W|. It has a total area of 84,412 km² (32,591 mile²).cite web | title = Land and People | work = Information on the Irish State | publisher = Government of Ireland | date = | url = http://www.irlgov.ie/aboutireland/eng/landandpeople.asp | accessdate = 2008-01-28 ] It is separated from Britain by the Irish Seaand from mainlandEurope by the Celtic Sea.
The oldest known Irish rock is about 1.7 billion years old and is found on
Inishtrahull Islandoff the coast of County Donegal. [cite web | title =Site Synopsis (Inishtrahull) | publisher =National Parks and Wildlife Service | url =http://www.npws.ie/en/media/Media,3875,en.pdf |format=PDF| accessdate = 2008-01-30 ] [cite book |title=Geological History of Britain and Ireland |last=Woodcock |first=N. H. |year=2000 |publisher=Blackwell Publishing |isbn=0632036567 |pages=p. 57 | url=http://books.google.ie/books?id=dTkKn8Ufzd4C&ie=ISO-8859-1 ] In other parts of Donegal, scientists have discovered rocks that began life as glacial deposits, demonstrating that at this early period, part of what was to become Ireland was in the grip of an ice age. However, because of the effects of later upheavals, it is almost impossible to sequence these early rock layers correctly.
About 600 million years ago, at the end of the
Precambrianera, the Irish landmass was divided in two, with one half on the western side of the Iapetus Oceanand the other at the eastern side, both at about the latitudethat of around 80° South, close to what is now northwest Africa. [Hill, Jon & Davis, Katie. " [http://www.geologyrocks.co.uk/tutorials/precambrian_history_england_and_wales Precambrian History of England and Wales] ". GeologyRocks.com, November, 2007. Retrieved on 23 January 2008.] From the evidence of fossils found at Bray Headin County Wicklow, Ireland was below sea level at this time.
Over the next 50 million years, these two parts drifted towards each other, eventually uniting about 440 million years ago.
Fossils discovered near Clogher Head, County Louth, show the coming together of shoreline faunafrom both sides of the original dividing ocean. The mountains of northwest Ireland were formed during the collision, as was the granitethat is found in locations in Donegal and Wicklow. The Irish landmass was now above sea level and lying near the equator, and fossil traces of land-based life forms survive from this period. These include fossilised trees from Kiltorcan, County Kilkenny, widespread bony fishand freshwater musselfossils and the footprints of a four-footed amphibianpreserved in slateon Valentia Island, County Kerry. Old Red Sandstonealso formed at this time.
Between 400 million and 300 million years ago, northwest Europe – including Ireland – sank beneath a warm,
calcium-rich sea. Great coral reefs formed in these waters, eventually creating the limestonethat still makes up about 65 per cent of the rock mantle of the island. As the waters receded, tropical forests and swamps flourished. The resulting vegetabledebris eventually formed coal, most of which was later eroded. This period, known as the Carboniferousera, ended with further tectonic movementwhich saw Ireland drift further northward. The resulting pressure created those Irish mountain and hill ranges that run in a northeast to southwest direction.
By 250 million years ago, Ireland was at the latitude of present-day
Egyptand had a desert climate. It was at this time that most of the coal and sandstonewere eroded. The thinner layers of limestone in the south of the country were also partially affected by this erosion. The limestone that was exposed by the disappearance of its sandstone mantle was affected by carbon dioxideand other factors resulting in a karstic landscape that can still be seen in the Burrenin County Clare. [cite web | title =Landscapes for living! | work =European Landscapes | publisher = Geological Survey of Ireland| date = | url =http://www.gsi.ie/Education/European+Landscapes/Ireland.htm | accessdate = 2008-01-11 ] Shortly after this period, organic debris in the seas around Ireland began to form the natural gasand petroleumdeposits that now play an important role in the economy of Ireland. Then, about 150 million years ago, Ireland was again submerged, this time in a chalky sea that resulted in the formation of chalkover large parts of the surface. Traces of this survive under the basalt lavathat is found in parts of the north.
About 65 million years ago, the
volcanicactivity that formed this lava began. The Mourne Mountainsand other mountains in the northern part of the island formed as a result of this activity. [" [http://www.bbc.co.uk/northernireland/livingworld/naturalhistory/places/index.shtml Northern Ireland - Living World] ". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved on 23 January 2008.] Climatic conditions at this time were warm and vegetation thrived. Vegetable debris in the Antrim depression formed deposits of brown coal or lignitewhich remain untouched down to the present time. The warm conditions produced high rainfall that accelerated processes of erosion and the formation of karstic landscape forms.
By 25 million years ago, Ireland was close to assuming its present position. The long period of erosion had resulted in considerable
soilformation and most of the rock mantle was covered. In areas with good drainage, the covering consisted of brown or grey soil, while in poorly drained areas the black claytended to dominate. As the climate cooled, soil formation slowed down, and a flora and fauna that would, millions of years later, be familiar to the first humaninhabitants began to emerge. By about three million years ago, the present landscape of Ireland had more or less formed.
Since about 1.7 million years ago, the earth has been in the grip of a cycle of warm and cold stages and these have, inevitably, affected Ireland. The earliest evidence we have for this effect comes from the period known as the
Ballylinian Warm Stage, some half a million years ago. At this time, most of what are now considered to be native Irish trees were already established on the island. The action of the ice during the cold stages was the major factor in bringing the Irish landscape to its current form.
Obvious impacts of the
iceon the landscape include the formation of glacial valleys such as Glendaloughin Wicklow and of corries, or glacial lakes. The depositing of mounds of debris under the melting ice created drumlins, a common feature of the landscape across the north midlands. [cite book |title=Geology and Environment in Britain and Ireland |last=Woodcock |first=N. H. |year=1994 |publisher=CRC Press |isbn=1857280547 |pages=p. 13 | url=http://books.google.com/books?q=isbn%3A1857280547&btnG=Search+Books ] [cite book |title=A New History of Ireland |last=Moody |first=Theodore William |coauthors= Francis John Byrne, Francis X Martin, Art Cosgrove |year=2005 |publisher=Oxford University Press |isbn=0198217374 |pages=37 |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=SJSDj1dDvNUC ] Streams also formed under the ice and the material deposited by these formed eskers (Irish "eiscir"). The greatest of these, the Esker Riada, divides the northern and southern halves of the island and its ridge once served as the main highway connecting the east and west coasts. [cite book | last = Foster | first = John Wilson | authorlink = | coauthors = Helena C. G. Chesney | title = Nature in Ireland: A Scientific and Cultural History | publisher = McGill-Queen's Press | year = 1998 | location = | pages = p. 16 | url = http://books.google.com/books?id=SG8sbdTzUdgC&dq=esker+riada | doi = | id = | isbn = 0773518177 ] About one half of the coastline consists of a low lying dune pasture land known as "Machair".
Rocks and soil types
The large central lowland is of
limestonecovered with glacial deposits of clay and sand, with widespread bogs and lakes. The Bog of Allenis one of the largest bogs. [cite web | title =Bog of Allen Map & Guide | publisher = Irish Peatland Conservation Council| url =http://www.ipcc.ie/bogofallenvisitorguide.html | accessdate =2008-01-21 ] The coastal mountains vary greatly in geological structure. In the south, the mountains are composed of old red sandstone with limestone river valleys. In Galway, Mayo, Donegal, Down and Wicklow, the mountains are mainly granite, while much of the northeast of the country is a basaltplateau. An area of particular note is the Giant's Causeway, in Antrim, a mainly basalt formation caused by volcanic activity between 50–60 million years ago. [cite web | title = Giant's Causeway and Causeway Coast | publisher = Unesco World Heritage Sites | date = | url =http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/369 | format = | doi = | accessdate =2008-01-23 ] The basalts were originally part of the great Thulean Plateauformed during the Paleogeneperiod. [ [http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/61005289/ABSTRACT Brittle tectonism in relation to the Palaeogene evolution of the Thulean/NE Atlantic domain: a study in Ulster] Retrieved on 2007-11-10]
The soils of the north and west tend to be poorly drained
peats and gleys, including peaty podzols. In contrast, in the south and east the soils are free-draining brown earths and brown and grey-brown podzols. This is reflected in the rainfall distribution on the island, with the poorly-drained regions being those with the highest rainfalls.
An unusual environment is present in north County Clare, in an area known as the Burren. This karst-like landscape consists of limestone
bedrock, with little or no soil in the inner-most areas. There are numerous sinkholes, where surface water disappears through the porousrock surface, and extensive cave systems have been formed in some areas. The Pol an Ionaincave, near Doolin, is the site of one of the world's longest known free-hanging stalactites. [cite web | last = Deegan | first = Gordon | title = Blasting threatens future of stalactite | publisher = Irish Examiner| date = 1999-05-27 | url = http://archives.tcm.ie/irishexaminer/1999/05/27/ihead.htm | accessdate = 2008-01-23]
Ireland consists of a mostly flat low-lying area in the midlands, ringed by mountain ranges such as (beginning in County Kerry and working counter-clockwise) the
Macgillycuddy's Reeks, Comeragh Mountains, Blackstairs Mountains, Wicklow Mountains, the Mournes, Glens of Antrim, Sperrin Mountains, Bluestack Mountains, Derryveagh Mountains, Ox Mountains, Nephinbeg Mountainsand the Twelve Bens/ Maumturksgroup. Some mountain ranges are further inland in the south of Ireland, such as the Galtee Mountains, the highest inland range, [cite web | title = Tipperary geography | publisher = Discoverireland.ie | date = | url = http://www.discoverireland.ie/tipperary/about/geography.aspx | accessdate = 2008-01-28 ] Silverminesand Slieve Bloom Mountains. The highest peak is Carrauntoohil, 1,041 m (3,414 ft) high, [cite web | title = Kerry: Key Facts | publisher = Discoverireland.ie | date = | url = http://www.discoverireland.ie/southwest/kerry/what-to-do/key-facts.aspx | accessdate = 2008-01-28 ] is in the Macgillycuddy's Reeks, a range of glacier-carved sandstone mountains in County Kerry, in the southwest of the island. The mountains are not high – only three peaks are over 1,000 m (3,281 ft) [cite web | title =Highest Mountains in Ireland | publisher = Ordnance Survey of Ireland| date = | url =http://www.osi.ie/mapping/FAQ/mountains.shtml | doi = | accessdate =2008-01-11 ] and another 457 exceed 500 m (1,640 ft). [cite web | title = 500 m Irish Mountains | publisher = MountainViews.com| date = | url =http://mountainviews.ie/mv/index.php?log_sort=height&log_sort_dir=up | accessdate = 2008-01-11 ]
Rivers and lakes
The main river in Ireland is the
River Shannon, 386 km (240 miles), the longest river in either Ireland or Great Britain, which separates the boggy midlands of Ireland from the West of Ireland. The river develops into three lakes along its course, Lough Allen, Lough Ree, and Lough Derg. Of these, Lough Derg is the biggest.cite web | title =Largest Lakes in Ireland | publisher = Ordnance Survey of Ireland| date = | url =http://www.osi.ie/mapping/FAQ/lakes.shtml | doi = | accessdate =2008-01-11 ] The River Shannon enters the Atlantic Ocean after Limerick cityat the Shannon Estuary. Other major rivers include the River Liffey, River Lee, River Blackwater, River Nore, River Suir, River Barrow, River Erne, and River Boyne. (See the list of rivers in Ireland.)
Lough Neagh, in Ulster, is the biggest lake in the British Isles. Legend has it that a giant,
Fionn mac Cumhail, was fighting with another in Scotland, and enraged, scooped out a lump of earth, which he threw. It fell into the Irish Sea, creating the Isle of Man, while the hole filled up with water to become Lough Neagh. Other large lakes include Lough Erneand Lough Corrib.
Beginning with County Donegal,
Lough Swillyseparates one side of the Inishowen peninsula. Lough Foyleon the other side, is one of Ireland's larger inlets, situated between County Donegal and County Londonderry.cite web | last= Joyce | first = P.W. | title = Description of County Donegal | work = Atlas and Cyclopedia of Ireland | publisher = | year = 1900 | url = http://www.libraryireland.com/Atlas/Donegal.php | accessdate = 2008-02-02 ] Further round the coast is Belfast Lough, between County Antrim and County Down.cite web | last= Joyce | first = P.W. | title = Description of County Down | work = Atlas and Cyclopedia of Ireland | publisher = | year = 1900 | url = http://www.libraryireland.com/Atlas/Down.php | accessdate = 2008-02-02 ] Also in County Down is Strangford Lough, actually an inlet partially separating the Ards peninsulafrom the mainland. Further down the coast, Carlingford Loughis situated between Down and County Louth. Dublin Bayis the next sizable inlet, while the eastern coast of Ireland is mostly uniform until Wexford Harbourat the mouth of the River Slaney. [cite web | last= Joyce | first = P.W. | title = Description of County Wexford | work = Atlas and Cyclopedia of Ireland | publisher = | year = 1900 | url = http://www.libraryireland.com/Atlas/Wexford.php | accessdate = 2008-02-02 ] On the southern coast, Waterford Harbouris situated at the mouth of the River Suir[cite web | last= Joyce | first = P.W. | title = Description of County Waterford | work = Atlas and Cyclopedia of Ireland | publisher = | year = 1900 | url = http://www.libraryireland.com/Atlas/Waterford.php | accessdate = 2008-02-02 ] (into which the other two of the Three Sisters ( River Noreand River Barrow) flow). The next major inlet is Cork Harbour, at the mouth of the River Lee, in which Great Islandis situated. Dunmanus Bay, Bantry Bay, Kenmare estuary and Dingle Bayare all inlets between the peninsulas of County Kerry. North of these is the Shannon estuary. Between north County Clare and County Galway is Galway Bay. Clew Bayis located on the coast of County Mayo, south of Achill Island, while Blacksod Bayis north of the island. Killala Bayis on the north coast of Mayo. Donegal Bayis a major inlet between County Donegal and County Sligo.
Malin Headis the most northerly point in Ireland, [cite web | title = Malin Head | work = Weather Observing Stations | publisher = Met Éireann| url = http://www.met.ie/about/weatherobservingstations/malinhead.asp | accessdate = 2008-02-02 ] while Mizen Headis one of the most southern points, hence the term "Malin head to Mizen head" (or the reverse) is used for anything applying to the island of Ireland as a whole. Carnsore Pointis another extreme point of Ireland, being the southeasternmost point of Ireland. Further along the coast is Hook Headwhile the Old Head of Kinsalein is one of many headlands along the south coast of Ireland. Loop Headis the headland at which County Clare comes to a point on the west coast of Ireland, with the Atlantic on the north, and further inland on the south, the Shannon estuary. Hags Headis another headland further up Clare's north/western coastline, with the Cliffs of Moheralong the coastline north of the point. Erris Headis the northwesternmost point of Connacht.
Islands and peninsulas
Achill Island, in the northwest, is the largest island off Ireland's coast. The island is inhabited, and is connected to the mainland by a bridge. [cite book |title=Oileain: A Guide to the Irish Islands |last=Walsh |first=David |coauthors=Sean Pierce |year=2004 |publisher=Pesda Press |isbn=0953195694 |pages= p.158 |url=http://books.google.ie/books?id=ax9li9GGzcsC | accessdate =2008-01-30 ] Some of the next largest islands are the
Aran Islands, off the coast of southern Connacht, host to an Irish-speaking community, or Gaeltacht. Valentia Islandoff the Iveragh peninsulais also one of Ireland's larger islands, and is relatively settled, as well as being connected by a bridge at its southeastern end. Omey Island, off the coast of Connemarais a tidal island.
Some of the best-known peninsulas in Ireland are in County Kerry; the
Dingle peninsula, the aforementioned Iveragh peninsula and the Beara peninsula. The Ards peninsulais one of the larger peninsulas outside Kerry. The InishowenPeninsula includes Ireland's most northerly point, Malin Head and several important towns including Buncranaon Lough Swilly, Carndonaghand Movilleon Lough Foyle. Ireland's most northerly land feature is Inishtrahull island, off Malin Head. RockallIsland may deserve this honour but its status is disputed, being claimed by the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, Denmark(for the Faroe Islands) and Iceland. The most southerly point is the Fastnet Rock.
Ireland's climate is
temperate, [cite web|url=http://www.met.ie/marine/marine_climatology.asp|title=Marine Climatology|publisher=Met Éireann|accessdate=2008-01-30] though significantly warmer than almost all other locations at similar latitude, such as Poland (on the continent) or Newfoundland (on the opposite edge of the Atlantic), due to the warming influence of the North Atlantic drift. The prevailing wind blows from the southwest, breaking on the high mountains of the west coast. Rainfall is therefore a particularly prominent part of western Irish life, with Valentia Island, off the west coast of County Kerry, getting almost twice as much annual rainfall as Dublin on the east (1400 mm vs. 762 mm). Across the country, about 60% of the annual rainfall occurs between August and January.
January and February are the coldest months of the year, and mean daily air temperatures fall between 4 and 7 °C during these months. July and August are the warmest, with a range of 14 to 16 °C. The sunniest months are May and June, with an average of five to seven hours sunshine per day. [cite web|url=http://www.met.ie/climate/sunshine.asp|title=Sunshine in Ireland|accessdate=2008-01-23|publisher=Met Éireann] Though extreme weather events in Ireland are comparatively rare when compared with other countries in the European Continent, they do occur. Explosive Atlantic depressions, occurring mainly in the months of December, January and February, can occasionally bring winds of up to 160 km/ph (100 mph) to Western coastal counties; while the summer months, and particularly around late July/early August, sudden and violent thunderstorms can develop, more especially, but not exclusively, across midland and western areas of the country.
The table shows mean climate figures for the Dublin Airport weather station over a thirty-year period. Climate statistics based on the counties of Northern Ireland vary slightly but are not significantly different. [cite web | title = Northern Ireland climate information | publisher = UK Met Office | url = http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/climate/uk/location/nireland/index.html | accessdate = 2008-01-28 ]
Political and human geography
Ireland is divided into four provinces,
Connacht, Leinster, Munsterand Ulster, and 32 counties.cite web | title = Placenames (Counties and Provinces) Order 2003 | work = [http://www.pobail.ie/en/IrishLanguage/ThePlacenamesBranch/PlacenamesOrders/ Legal Status of Ireland's Placenames] | publisher = Department of Community, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs| date = 2003-10-30| url = http://www.pobail.ie/en/IrishLanguage/ThePlacenamesBranch/PlacenamesOrders/file,3922,en.pdf | format = PDF | accessdate = 2008-01-30 ] Six of the nine Ulster counties form Northern Ireland and the other 26 form the Republic of Ireland. The map shows the county boundaries for all 32 counties.
From an administrative viewpoint, 20 of the counties in the Republic are units of local government. The other six have more than one local authority area, producing a total of 34 county-level authorities. Tipperary has two parts,
North Tipperaryand South Tipperary. [cite web | title = Key Facts About Tipperary | work = | publisher = discoverireland.ie | url = http://www.discoverireland.ie/tipperary/about/Key-Facts.aspx | accessdate = 2008-01-28 ] The cities of Dublin, Cork, Limerick, Galwayand Waterfordhave city councils and are administered separately from the counties bearing those names. The remaining part of County Dublinis split into Dun Laoghaire-Rathdown, Fingal, and South Dublin.
Electoral areas in the Republic of Ireland, called constituencies in accordance with Irish law, mostly follow county boundaries. Maintaining links to the county system is a mandatory consideration in the re-organisation of constituency boundaries.. [cite web|title=Electoral Act 1997|url=http://www.constituency-commission.ie/docs/act1997.pdf|format=PDF|accessdate=2008-01-24]
In Northern Ireland, a major re-organisation of local government in 1973 replaced the six traditional counties and two
county boroughs ( Belfastand Derry) by 26 single-tier districts,Cite web|url=http://www.doeni.gov.uk/index/local_government/structure.htm|title=Local Government Policy Division Structure|publisher=Department of the Environment, Northern Ireland|accessdate=2008-01-30] which, apart from Fermanagh cross the traditional county boundaries. The six counties and two county-boroughs remain in use for purposes such as Lieutenancy. In November 2005, proposals were announced which would see the number of local authorities reduced to seven. [" [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/northern_ireland/4459516.stm Major reform of local government] ". bbc.co.ik, 22 November 2005. Retrieved on 23 January 2007.] The island's total populationof approximately 6 million people is concentrated on the east coast, particularly in Dublin and Belfast and their surrounding areas. [cite web | title = Population of each Province, County and City, 2006 | work = Principal Statistics | publisher = Central Statistics Office Ireland | url = http://www.cso.ie/statistics/popofeachprovcountycity2006.htm | accessdate = 2008-01-31 ] [cite web | title = Components of population change by Administrative Area, 2005 to 2006: Table 2.3 | work = Population Statistics | publisher = NISRA | url = http://www.nisra.gov.uk/archive/demography/publications/annual_reports/2006/Table2.3_2006.xls| format = xls | doi = | accessdate = 2008-01-31 ]
Ireland has 12,000 km² (4,633 miles²) of
bogland, [cite web | last =Abbot | first =Patrick | title =Ireland's Peat Bogs | work = | publisher =The Ireland Story | date = | url =http://www.wesleyjohnston.com/users/ireland/geography/bogs.html | format = | doi = | accessdate =2008-01-21 ] consisting of two distinct types, blanket bogs and raised bogs. Blanket bogs are the more widespread of the two types. They are essentially a product of human activity aided by the moist Irish climate. Blanket bogs formed on sites where Neolithicfarmers cleared trees for farming. As the land so cleared fell into disuse, the soil began to leach and become more acidic, producing a suitable environment for the growth of heather and rushes. The debris from these plants accumulated and a layer of peatformed. [cite web | title =Blanket Bogs | publisher =Irish Peatland Conservation Council | url =http://www.ipcc.ie/infoblanketbogfs.html | accessdate =2008-01-21 ]
Raised bogs are most common in the Shannon basin. They formed when depressions left behind after the ice age filled with water to form lakes. Debris from reeds in these lakes formed a layer at the bottom of the water. This eventually choked the lakes and raised above the surface, forming raised bogs. [cite web | title =Raised Bogs | publisher =Irish Peatland Conservation Council | url =http://www.ipcc.ie/inforaisedbogfs.htmll | accessdate =2008-01-21 ]
Since the 17th century, peat has been cut for fuel for domestic heating and cooking and it is called turf when so used. The process accelerated as commercial exploitation of bogs grew. In the 1940s, machines for cutting turf were introduced and larger-scale exploitation became possible. In the Republic, this became the responsibility of a semi-state company called
Bord na Móna. In addition to domestic uses, commercially extracted turf is used in a number of industries, especially electricity generation. [cite web | title =Peat Energy History | work = | publisher = Bord na Móna| date = | url =http://www.bnm.ie/energy/index.jsp?nID=452&pID=434 | accessdate =2008-01-21 ]
In recent years, the high level of bog being destroyed by cutting has raised environmental concerns. The problem is particularly acute for raised bogs as they yield a higher-grade fuel than blanket bogs. Plans are now in place in both the Republic and Northern Ireland to conserve most of the remaining raised bogs on the island. [cite web | title = Written Answers. - Raised Bog Conservation | work =Dáil Éireann Parliamentary Debates – Volume 487 | publisher =Office of the Houses of the Oireachtas | date =1998-02-26 | url =http://historical-debates.oireachtas.ie/D/0487/D.0487.199802260091.html | format = | doi = | accessdate =2008-01-21 ]
Oil, natural gas and minerals
Offshore exploration for
natural gasbegan in 1970.Shannon, Corcoran & Haughton (2001), "The petroleum exploration of Ireland's offshore basins: introduction" (Geological Society, London Lyell Collection—Special Publications, p 2] The first major discovery was the Kinsale Head gas fieldin 1971. Next was the smaller Ballycotton gas fieldin 1989, and the Corrib gas field in 1996. [cite web | title =Outline of the Irish Licensing Regime | publisher =Lansdowne Oil & Gas plc | url =http://www.lansdowneoilandgas.com/outline_irish_regime.htm | accessdate =2008-01-21 ] Exploitation of the Corrib project has yet to get off the ground because the controversial proposal to refine the gas onshore, rather than at sea has been met with widespread opposition. Gas from these fields is pumped ashore and used for both domestic and industrial purposes. The Helvick oil field, estimated to contain over convert|28|Moilbbl|m3 of oil, is another recent discovery. [cite web | title = Providence sees Helvick oil field as key site in Celtic Sea | publisher = Irish Examiner| date = 2000-07-17 | url = http://archives.tcm.ie/irishexaminer/2000/07/17/current/bpage_2.htm | accessdate = 2008-01-27 ] Ireland is the largest European producer of zincwith three operating zinc- lead mines at Navan, Galmoyand Lisheen. Other mineral deposits with actual or potential commercial value include gold, silver, gypsum, talc, calcite, dolomite, roofing slate, limestoneaggregate, building stone, sandand gravel. [cite web | title = Mining | work = Exploration and Mining Division | publisher = Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources | url = http://www.minex.ie/Mining/ | accessdate = 2008-01-27 ]
In May 2007 the
Department of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources(now replaced by the Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources) reported that there may be volumes over convert|130|Goilbbl|m3 of petroleumand convert|50|Tcuft|km3 of natural gas in Irish waterscite web | title =Ireland on the verge of an oil and gas bonanza | publisher = independent.ie| date =2007-05-20 | url =http://www.independent.ie/national-news/ireland-on-the-verge-of-an-oil-and-gas-bonanza-679889.html | accessdate = 2008-01-11 ] - worth trillions of Euro, if true. The minimum 'guaranteed' amount of oil in the Irish Atlantic waters is convert|10|Goilbbl|m3, worth over €450 billion. There are also areas of petroleum and natural gas on shore, for example the Lough Allenbasin, with convert|9.4|Tcuft|km3 of gas and convert|1.5|Goilbbl|m3 of oil, valued at €74.4 billion. Already some fields are being exploited, such as the Spanish Pointfield, with convert|1.25|Tcuft|km3 of gas and convert|206|Moilbbl|m3 of oil, valued at €19.6 billion. The Corrib Basin is also quite large, worth anything up to €87 billion, while the Dunquin gas fieldcontains convert|25|Tcuft|km3 of natural gas and convert|4.13|Goilbbl|m3 of petroleum.
Geography of the Republic of Ireland
Geography of the United Kingdom
*Mitchell, Frank and Ryan, Michael. "Reading the Irish landscape" (1998). ISBN 1-86059-055-1
*Whittow, J. B. "Geography and Scenery in Ireland" (Penguin Books 1974)
*Abbot, Patrick. [http://www.wesleyjohnston.com/users/ireland/geography/bogs.html Ireland's Peat Bogs] . Retrieved on 23 January 2008.
* [http://foreignaffairs.gov.ie/information/publications/facts/fai/default.asp Irish Department of Foreign Affairs: Facts about Ireland] .
* [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ei.html Ireland] –
The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved on 23 January 2008.
* [http://www.onlineweather.com/v4/ireland/climate/ OnlineWeather.com] – climate details for Ireland. Retrieved on 23 January 2008.
* [http://www.irelandgeography.org Ireland Geography Guide]
* [http://www.osi.ie/mapping/FAQ/mountains.shtml OSI FAQ] – Lists of the longest, highest and other statistics
* A discussion on RTÉ Radio One's science show Quantum Leap about the quality of
GPSmapping in Ireland is available [http://www.rte.ie/radio1/quantum/rams/2007/18january.smil here] . The discussion starts 8mins 17sec into the show. It was aired on [http://www.rte.ie/radio1/quantum/1060745.html 18 Jan 2007] Requires Real player.Maps from
* [http://www.irelandstory.com/ irelandstory.com]
* [http://www.irelandgeography.org Geography Ireland]
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