- The War of the Worlds (radio)
"The War of the Worlds" was an episode of the American
radio dramaanthology series "Mercury Theatre on the Air". It was performed as a Halloweenepisode of the series on October 30, 1938and aired over the WABC Radio network. Directed and narrated by Orson Welles, the episode was an adaptation of H. G. Wells' novel " The War of the Worlds".
The first two thirds of the 60-minute broadcast was presented as a series of simulated news bulletins, which suggested to many listeners that an actual
Martianinvasion was in progress. Compounding the issue was the fact that the "Mercury Theatre on the Air" was a 'sustaining show' (i.e., it ran without commercial breaks), thus adding to the dramatic effect. Some fled their homes; others were terrified. The news-bulletin format was decried as cruelly deceptive by some newspapers and public figures, leading to an outcry against the perpetrators of the broadcast, but the episode launched Welles to fame.
Welles's adaptation was one of the
Radio Project's first studies.
H. G. Wells' novel is about an alien invasion of Earth, set in Woking, England at the end of the 19th century. The radio play's story was adapted by and written primarily by Howard Koch, with input from Orson Welles and the staff of
CBS's "Mercury Theatre On The Air". The action was transferred to contemporary Grover's Mill, an unincorporated village in West Windsor Township, New Jerseyin the United States. The program's format was to simulate a live newscastof developing events. To this end, Welles played recordings of Herbert Morrison's radio reports of the "Hindenburg" disaster for actor Frank Readick and the rest of the cast, to demonstrate the mood he wanted.
About half of the 55 1/2 minute play was a contemporary retelling of events of the novel, presented as news bulletins in documentary style. This approach was not new. Fr. Ronald Knox's satirical "newscast" of a riot overtaking London over the
British Broadcasting Companyin 1926 had a similar approach (and created much the same effect on its audience). Welles had been influenced by the Archibald MacLeishdramas "The Fall of The City" and "Air Raid", the former using Welles himself in the role of a live radio news reporter. But the approach had never been done with as much continued verisimilitude and the innovative format has been cited as a key factor in the confusion that would follow.
The program, broadcast from the 20th floor at 485 Madison Avenue in
New York City, starts with an introduction from the novel, describing the intentions of the aliens and noting that the adaptation was set in 1939, a year ahead of the broadcast. The program continues as a weather report, then as an ordinary music show (actually the CBS orchestra under the direction of Bernard Herrmann) that is interrupted by news flashes about strange explosions on Mars. Welles makes his first appearance as "famous astronomer" Professor Richard Pierson, who refutes speculation about life on Mars.
The news grow more frequent and increasingly ominous as a cylindrical meteorite lands in
Grover's Mill, New Jersey. A crowd gathers at the site and events are related by reporter "Carl Phillips." The meteorite unscrews, revealing itself as a rocket machine, and onlookers catch a glimpse of a tentacled, pulsating, barely mobile Martian before it incinerates the crowd with " Heat-Rays." Phillips' shouts about incoming flames are cut off in mid-sentence. (Later surveys indicate that many listeners heard only this portion of the show before contacting neighbors or family to inquire about the broadcast. Many contacted others in turn, leading to rumors and confusion.)
Regular programming breaks down as the studio struggles to keep up with casualty updates,
firefightingdevelopments and the like. A fairly shaken Pierson speculates about Martian technology. The New Jersey state militia declares martial law and attacks the cylinder; a message from their field headquarters goes on about the overwhelming force of properly equipped infantry and the helplessness of the Martians in Earth's gravity until a tripod rears up.
The studio returns to establish the Martians as an invading army with the obliteration of the militia force. Emergency response bulletins give way to damage reports and evacuation instructions while millions of refugees clog the roads. Three Martian tripods from the cylinder destroy power stations and uproot bridges and railroads, reinforced by three others from a second cylinder as gas explosions continue. An unnamed Secretary of the Interior advises the nation. (The "secretary" was intended to be a portrayal of
Franklin D. Roosevelt, then President, but CBS insisted this detail, among others, be changed. The "secretary" did, however, sound like Roosevelt as the result of directions to actor Kenny Delmarby Welles.)
A live connection is established to a
field artillerybattery. Its gun crew reports damaging one machine and a release of poison gas before fading in to the sound of coughing. The lead plane of a wing of bombers broadcasts its approach and remains on the air as their engines are burned by the Heat Ray and the plane dives on the invaders. Radio operators go active and fall silent, most right after reporting the approach of the black smoke. The planes destroyed one machine, but cylinders are falling all across the country.
This section ends famously: a news reporter (played by Ray Collins), broadcasting from atop the CBS building, describes the Martian invasion of New York City — "five great machines" wading across the
Hudson River, poison smoke drifting over the city, people running and diving into the East River"like rats", others "falling like flies" — until he, too, succumbs to the poison gas. Finally, a despairing ham radiooperator is heard calling, "2X2L calling CQ ... Isn't there anyone on the air? Isn't there anyone on the air? Isn't there ... anyone?"
After an intermission which mentions the show's fictionality, the last third is a
monologueand dialog, with Welles returning as Professor Pierson, describing the aftermath of the attacks. The story ends, as does the novel, with the Martians falling victim to earthly germs and bacteria.
After the play, Welles breaks character to remind listeners that the broadcast was a Halloween concoction, the equivalent of dressing up in a sheet and saying "boo" like a ghost. Popular mythology holds this "disclaimer" was added to the broadcast at the insistence of CBS executives as they became aware of panic inspired by the program; in fact, it appears in Koch's working script for the play as presented in his 1968 book "The Panic Broadcast"...
Some listeners heard only a portion of the broadcast, and in the atmosphere of tension and anxiety leading to
World War II, took it to be a news broadcast. Newspapers reported that panic ensued, people fleeing the area, others thinking they could smell poison gas or could see flashes of lightning in the distance.
Professor Richard J. Hand cites studies by unnamed historians who "calculate [d] that some six million heard the CBS broadcast; 1.7 million believed it to be true, and 1.2 million were 'genuinely frightened'".cite book |last=Hand |first=Richard J. |title=Terror on the Air!: Horror Radio in America, 1931-1952 |year=2006 |publisher=Macfarlane & Company |location=Jefferson, North Carolina |isbn=0-786-42367-6 |page=7] While Welles and company were heard by a comparatively small audience (in the same period, NBC's audience was an estimated 30 million), the uproar was anything but minute: within a month, there were 12,500
newspaperarticles about the broadcast or its impact, while Adolf Hitlercited the panic, as Hand writes, as "evidence of the decadence and corrupt condition of democracy."
Later studies suggested this "panic" was less widespread than newspapers suggested. During this period, many newspapers were concerned that radio, a new medium, would make them defunct. In addition, this was a time of
yellow journalism, where newspapers were not held to the same standards as today. As a result, journalists took this opportunity to demonstrate the dangers of broadcast by embellishing the story, and the panic that ensued, greatly. [Mass Communication Theory: Foundations, Ferment, and Future By Stanley J. Baran, Dennis K. Davis]
Robert Bartholomew and Hilary Evans suggest in "Panic Attacks" that hundreds of thousands were frightened in some way, but note that evidence of people taking action based on this fear is "scant" and "anecdotal." Indeed, contemporary news articles indicate that police were swamped with hundreds of calls in numerous locations, but stories of people doing anything more than calling the authorities typically involve groups of ones or tens and were often reported by people who were panicking themselves.
Later studies indicate that many missed the repeated notices that the broadcast was fictional, partly because the Mercury Theatre (an unsponsored "cultural" program with a relatively small audience) ran opposite the popular "
Chase and Sanborn Hour" over the Red Networkof NBC, hosted by Don Amecheand featuring comic ventriloquist Edgar Bergenand singer Nelson Eddy, three of the most popular figures in broadcasting. About 15 minutes into the "Chase and Sanborn" program the first comic sketch ended and a musical number began, and many listeners began tuning around the dial at that point. According to the American Experienceprogram " The Battle Over Citizen Kane", Welles knew the schedule of the "Chase & Sanborn" show, and scheduled the first report from Grover's Mill at the 12-minute mark to heighten the audience's confusion. As a result, some listeners happened upon the CBS broadcast at the point the Martians emerge from their spacecraft.
Many listeners were apparently confused. It must be noted that the confusion cannot be credited entirely to
naïveté. Though many of the actors' voices should have been recognisable from other radio shows, nothing like "The War of the Worlds" broadcast had been attempted in the United States, so listeners were accustomed to accepting newsflashes as reliable.
Compounding the problem is that the [http://jeff560.tripod.com/script.html working script] had only three statements concerning the fictional nature of the program: at the beginning, at 40 minutes, and at the end. In fact, the warning at the-40 minutes mark is the only one after the actors start speaking in character, and before Welles breaks character at the end. This structure is similar to earlier "Mercury Theatre" broadcasts: due to the lack of sponsorship (which often included a commercial message at the 30-minute mark during an hour-long show), Welles and company were able to schedule breaks at will, depending on the pacing of a narrative. Furthermore, the show's technique of jumping between scenes and narratives made it hard for the audience to distinguish between fact and fiction, so it is understandable that they were no more likely to perceive the three statements of the fictional nature of the program as being 'outside' the narrative, than they were to perceive the introduction (and subsequent interruption) of the music as being 'inside' the narrative.
While "War of the Worlds" was in progress, some residents in northeastern cities went to ask neighbors what was happening (many homes still did not have telephones). As the story was repeated, rumours began and caused some panic.
Contemporary accounts spawned
urban legends, many of which have come to be accepted through repetition. Several people reportedly rushed to the "scene" of the events in New Jersey to see the unfolding events, including a few geologists from Princeton Universitywho went looking for the "meteorite" that had fallen near their school. Some people, who had brought firearms, reportedly mistook a farmer's water tower for an alien spaceship and shot at it.
Initially Grover's Mill was deserted, but crowds developed. Eventually police were sent to control the crowds. To people arriving later in the evening, the scene really did look like the events being narrated, with panicked crowds and flashing police lights streaming across the masses.
Some people called CBS, newspapers or the police in confusion over the realism of the news bulletins. There were instances of panic throughout the US as a result of the broadcast, especially in
New Yorkand New Jersey.
Seattle, WA CBS affiliate stations KIRO and KVI broadcast Orson Welles' radio drama. While this broadcast was heard around the country, it made a deep impact in Concrete, WA. At the point where the Martian invaders were invading towns and the countryside with flashes of light and poison gases, a power failure plunged almost the entire town of 1,000 into darkness. Some listeners fainted while others grabbed their families to head into the mountains. Others headed for the hills to guard their moonshine stills. One was said to have jumped up out of his chair and, in bare feet, run two miles to the center of town. Some men grabbed their guns, and one Catholic businessman got his wife into the car, drove to the nearest service station and demanded gasoline. Without paying the attendant, he rushed to Bellingham, WA (50 miles away) to see his priest for a last-minute absolution of sins. He reportedly told the gas-station attendant that paying for the gas " [wouldn't] make any difference, everyone is going to die!"
Because phone lines as well as electricity were out, residents were unable to call neighbors, family or friends to calm their fears. Of course, the real story was not as fantastic as the radio drama: all that had occurred was that the Superior Portland cement company's sub-station suffered a short-circuit with a flash of brilliant light, and the town's lights went dark. The more conservative radio-listeners in Concrete (who had been listening to Charlie McCarthy on another station), calmed neighbors by assuring that they hadn't heard about any "disaster". Reporters heard soon after of the coincidental blackout of Concrete and sent the story over the newswire and soon the town of Concrete was known world-wide. [ [http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/tv/144991_radiobeat23.html Radio Beat: Oct. 30, 1938 - The broadcast that scared a nation ] ]
Edgar Bergenand Don Ameche, who were continuing their "Chase & Sanborn Hour" broadcast on NBC, are often credited with "saving the world". It is said many listeners were reassured by hearing their tones on a neighbouring station.
In the aftermath of the reported panic, a public outcry arose, but CBS informed officials that listeners were reminded throughout the broadcast that it was a performance. Welles and the Mercury Theatre escaped punishment, but not censure, and CBS had to promise never again to use "we interrupt this program" for dramatic purpose.Fact|date=November 2007 Some find this hard to accept considering many radio commercials to this day start with the phrase, "We interrupt this program".
A study by the
Radio Projectdiscovered that some who panicked presumed that Germans — not Martians — had invaded. Other studies suggest that the extent of the panic was exaggerated by contemporary mediaFact|date=November 2007.
When a meeting between H.G. Wells and Orson Welles was broadcast on Radio KTSA San Antonio on
October 28, 1940, Wells expressed a lack of understanding of the apparent panic and that it was, perhaps, only pretense, like the American version of Halloween, for fun. The two men and their radio interviewer joked about the matter, though with embarrassment. KTSA, as a CBS affiliate, had carried the broadcast.
"War of the Worlds" and the panic have become examples of
mass hysteriaand the delusions of crowds.
In 1988, during the weekend nearest the 50th anniversary of the broadcast,
West Windsor Township, in which Grovers Mills is located, held a Martian festival. Designed to attract tourist revenue, this included "Martians" firing "ray guns" and carnival rides and hucksters' stalls. The "New Yorker" magazine review began "It's not every day we get to see the Martians invade..."
It has been suggested that "War of the Worlds" was a
psychological warfareexperiment. In the 1999 documentary, "Masters of the Universe: The Secret Birth of the Federal Reserve", writer Daniel Hopsicker claims the Rockefeller Foundationfunded the broadcast, studied the panic, and compiled a report available to a few. A variation has the Radio Projectand the Rockefeller Foundationas conspirators. [cite web
title= 2X2L - double cRoss to hell:
Council on Foreign RelationsExperiments in Fear
author= |last= |first= |authorlink= |coauthors= |date= |year= |month=
accessdate= 2007-11-10 ] In a
theatrical trailerfor his film " F For Fake", Welles joked about such theories, jesting that the broadcast indeed "had secret sponsors".
While "Mercury Theatre" had no sponsor, CBS and the
Rockefeller Foundationwere contracting the leading crowd psychologyresearchers of the time; CBS had Edward Bernays, the Rockefeller Foundationhad Ivy Lee. With the involvement of Frank Stantonin the Radio Projectand his position in the CBS research department, it is possible the "creative curiosity" of Orson Welles came from conversations within these business circles. A detailed documentary on these circles and the ideas behind social manipulation was made by the BBCcalled, " The Century of the Self".
There has been continued speculation that the panic generated by "War of the Worlds" inspired officials to cover up
unidentified flying objectevidence, avoiding a similar panic. U.S. Air Force Captain Edward J. Ruppelt[Ruppelt, Edward J. "The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects. 1956. Doubleday.] , the first head of UFO investigatory Project Blue Bookwrote, "The [U.S. government's] UFO files are full of references to the near mass panic of October 30, 1938, when Orson Welles presented his now famous "The War of the Worlds" broadcast."
Remakes and re-airings
Since the original "Mercury Theatre" broadcast, there have been many re-airings, remakes, reenactments and new dramatizations of the original.
In February 1949, Leonardo Paez and Eduardo Alcaraz produced a Spanish-language version of Welles's 1938 script for Radio Quito in
Quito, Ecuador. The broadcast set off panic in the city. Police and fire brigades rushed out of town to engage the supposed alien invasion force. After it was revealed that the broadcast was fiction, the panic transformed into a riot and hundreds attacked Radio Quito and "El Comercio", the local newspaper. In the days preceding the broadcast, "El Comercio" had participated in the hoax by publishing false reports of unidentified objects in the skies above Ecuador. The riot resulted in six deaths, including those of Paez's girlfriend and nephew. Paez fled to Venezuela, never to return [cite episode
title = War of the Worlds
series = Radio Lab
serieslink = Radio Lab
airdate = 2008-03-07
season = 4
number = 3
url = http://www.wnyc.org/shows/radiolab/episodes/2008/03/07] [cite web |url=http://www.war-ofthe-worlds.co.uk/war_worlds_quito.htm |title=War Of The Worlds radio broadcast, Quito (1949) |accessdate=2008-04-24 |quote= |publisher= ]
Many stations, particularly those that regularly air
old time radioprograms, re-air the original program as a Halloween tradition.
Buffalo station WKBW aired a modernized update in 1968, produced by the station's news department. In this version, revised for 1971 and 1975, Martians invaded the
Niagara Fallsarea. Like the original, this also inspired panic, despite reassurances throughout that it was a dramatization.
Two different remakes created by writer/producer Bob Karson aired ten years apart, both on Halloween night. The first, "War of the Worlds 1987", on
KHOWin Denver, ended with a 10-minute mostly ad-libbed monologue by Charlie Martin (the acerbic half of the Hal and Charlie morning show), in the station's bomb shelter, as the last man on earth. Karson's "War of the Worlds 1997" on Washington, D.C.station WBIG-FMtreated the nation's capitol to a Martian invasion. In addition to a speech from Bill Clintonabove the mayhem in Air Force One, this version has a scene where mayor Marion Barrytries to communicate with one of the capsules, and is zapped. Both were played by actors, but many police and fire officials, scientists and newspeople were real.
PBS also aired a remake on the 50th anniversary of the "Mercury Theatre" play in 1988. It starred
Jason Robards, Steve Allen (who as a youth listened to the 1938 broadcast), Douglas Edwards, Scott Simonand Terry Grossand was nominated for a Grammy Awardfor "Best Spoken Word or Nonmusical Recording" [cite web
title = Grammy Awards and Nominations for 1989
publisher = Tribune Company
date = 1989
url = http://theenvelope.latimes.com/factsheets/awardsdb/env-awards-db-landing,0,3713019.htmlstory
accessdate = 2007-07-31]
In 1994 the L.A. Theater Works' "The Play's the Thing" and
KPCCrebroadcast the original play before a live audience, featuring actors from Star Trek, including Leonard Nimoy, Wil Wheaton, Gates McFadden, Brent Spiner, and Armin Shimerman. John de Lanciewas the director.Fact|date=November 2007
October 31, 2002, talk show host Glenn Beckdid his own live version on his nationally-syndicated radio program.Fact|date=November 2007 XM Satellite Radiohas broadcast an updated version titled "Not From Space", in which Microsoft's Bill Gatesis one of the Martians.Fact|date=November 2007
Since 2005, students from
WXOUradio (at Oakland Universityin Rochester Hills, MI) perform the radio drama live. It was begun by WXOU host Richard Luzenski on his film music program "Cinema Serenade."Fact|date=November 2007 WTBQradio in upstate New York aired local versions in 2006 and 2007, using a modified script with local actors from the [http://paulellisproducer.com/Main/Air-Pirates-Radio-Theater| Air Pirates Radio Theatre] .
October 30, 2006, Camden County College's WDBKin Blackwood, New Jerseyaired a new version performed by the current staff. The version was updated and set in West Windsor Township, as well as Blackwood and surrounding towns. The broadcast was a finalist in the CBI Awards in 2007.Fact|date=November 2007
In cooperation with KMHL Broadcasting, "War of the Worlds" will be performed as a radio drama directed by Paula Nemes and Maureen Keimig in Marshall, Minnesota. This production will be broadcast for three days, starting on Wednesday, October 29, 2008, at 7pm CST (the final broadcast will air on Halloween night, also at 7pm). [http://www.marshallareastagecompany.org/2008Season.htm]
Pullman Civic Theatre will stage a production of "War of the Worlds", set in a mockup of the 1938 CBS' studios, directed by Mike Long in
Pullman, WA. This production will be performed live for three days, starting on Wednesday, October 29, 2008, at 7pm PST. In addition, a local radio station will broadcast the production on October 30, 2008 to honor the 70th anniversary. [http://www.pullmancivictheatre.org/]
Malisson Radio ( [http://www.malisson.com/radio] ), an Internet radio station based in Pittsburgh, PA, plans on rebroadcasting the original 1938 staging three times within 24 hours to commemorate the 70th anniversary of the broadcast. Playback is scheduled for 11:59 PM Eastern on October 30, 2008 and at 12:00 PM noon and 11:59 PM Eastern on October 31, 2008.
September 9, 1957, CBS's prestigious live television program, "Studio One", opened its 10th season with Nelson Bond's "The Night America Trembled," the first dramatization of the public panic to the radio adaptation of Wells' novel. The hour-long production was narrated by Edward R. Murrowand featured Ed Asner, James Coburn, Warren Oates, and Warren Beatty.
television moviefor ABC, Howard Koch and Nicholas Meyer's " The Night That Panicked America", also dramatizes the public's panic to the broadcast but as a standard disaster movie (albeit one in which the disaster is assumed rather than actual). The production included Vic Morrow, Meredith Baxter, Michael Constantine, John Ritter, Will Geer, and Tom Bosley.
Northwest Missouri State Universityaired a version of the broadcast on KNWT, the local student-run television network. One of the student-run shows, "ETC.", created a mock newscast, using both students and locals, and spliced it into the episode to look like a real interruption. KNWT did not show or mention any disclaimers about the newscast being fake.
It is sometimes said the news of the Japanese
attack on Pearl Harborwas received in skepticism by the American public, as a consequence of the radio performance. [cite web | last = Rich | first = Frank | authorlink = Frank Rich | title = Two Top Guns Shoot Blanks | publisher = The New York Times | date = 2005-06-19 | url = http://www.nytimes.com/2005/06/19/opinion/19rich.html?pagewanted=print | accessdate = 2008-09-30]
Because of the panic in the 1930s and 1940s, U.S. TV networks deem it necessary to post bulletins to the audience to inform them some TV stories were fictionFact|date=August 2007. Disclaimers were shown during the 1983
televisionmovie " Special Bulletin", and during the 1994 telefilm, "Without Warning", both of which were dramas disguised as news broadcasts ("Without Warning", presenting Earth being hit by three meteor fragments, acknowledged it was a tribute to "War of the Worlds" and was broadcast on CBS TV on the 56th anniversary of the radio broadcast). NBC placed disclaimers in an October 1999 TV movie dramatizing the possible disastrous effects of the Y2K bug even though it was drama unlikely to be confused with reality.
February 16, 1991, a popular Estonian TV satire show "Wigla Sou" reported, using the "we interrupt this program" device, that the government of Finland had voided the bills of one hundred Finnish Markka, most common banknote in Estonia, when the Soviet rublewas not trusted because of high inflation. That was parody of Soviet currency reform, but thousands rushed to get rid of 100 markka bills, some selling many times under market prices. TV reporters Ivar Vigla and Felix Undusk received threats while currency profiteers cheered unexpected high profits . [cite web
title= Viglata Viglast ja sajandi vembust
author= Merike Kungla | date= 2006-03-31
Linnaleht" |pages= 10–11 | format=
accessdate= 2007-11-10 ]
December 22, 1991, the student-run satire TV show "Ku-Ku" on Bulgarian state channel Kanal 1broadcast reports of an accident in the Bulgarian Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant, to draw attention to the lack of preparedness for such an accident. The impact was heightened due to memory of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plantdisaster and its incomplete coverage by official media during 1986. The show used TV news reporters because actors from the show would have been recognized. Reminders of the program's fictional nature were broadcast during music video breaks but largely ignored. There were reports of people taking iodine pills to protect their thyroid glands from radiation. In the aftermath, the show was canceled, but trial charges against director, screenwriter and producer were dismissed.Fact|date=August 2007
In 2005, Danish radio station P2 announced their plan to broadcast a remake of the original broadcast on September 3. As the broadcast was about to start, an announcer interrupted the show to report on a fake story about a biological terrorist attack on
In 2006, a false Belgian news bulletin, broadcasted by
RTBF, reported that the Dutch-speaking Flandersregion of the country had declared its independencefrom Belgium, and led to widespread panic in French-speaking Belgium. It was a hoax inspired by "The War of the Worlds". See " 2006 Belgian Secession Hoax"Fact|date=August 2007.
Possible influence on Welles
BBCreport suggested that Welles' idea and style may have been influenced by an earlier 1926 hoax broadcast by Ronald Knoxon BBC Radio. Knox's broadcast also mixes breathless reporting of a revolution sweeping across London with dance music and sound effects of destruction. Moreover, Knox's broadcast also caused a minor panic among listeners who did not know that the program was fictional.
A similar hoax from 1874 used wild animals rather than aliens claiming that they were escaping from
New York Central Park Zooand this also seems to have generated some public panic. [cite web
title= The Central Park Zoo Scare of 1874
year= 2004 | month= August | work=
h2g2| publisher= BBC
accessdate= 2007-11-10 ]
References in fiction
Arthur C. Clarke's "" and Michael Crichton's "Sphere" cites the Orson Welles broadcast as an example of why, in the event of an actual alien arrival, it would be more prudent to anticipate mass panic on the part of humanity rather than wonder and awe. There has been similar speculation for decades in ufology: that the "War of the Worlds" broadcast is the reason evidence supporting the reality of unidentified flying objects has been suppressed.:*The 1968 novel "Sideslip" by Ted White and Dave Van Arnam takes place in an alternative history where aliens (quite different from Wells' and Welles' Martians) took advantage of the confusion following the broadcast to carry out an actual invasion, and ruled Earth for three decades (until overthrown thanks to the intervention of an intrepid private eye from our own reality).:*"The War of the Worlds Murder" [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0425204014] by Max Allan Collinswas published by Berkley in 2005, blending fact and fiction for an exciting tale where Orson Wellesis accused of murder and teams with " The Shadow" writer Walter Gibsonto clear his name.:*" The Doomsday Conspiracy" by Sidney Sheldonmakes a mention of this event, using it as a way for one of the U.S. Generals to justify withholding information from the public to prevent a mass panic.:*In Kim Newman's short story "The Other Side of Midnight" (set in his alternate history Anno Dracula series), the Mercury Theatre is said to have aired a version of H. G. Wells' (fictional) "The Flowering of the Strange Orchid", convincing the country that "writhing vampire blossoms" were overrunning America.
*In film:*In the 1984 movie "
The Adventures of Buckaroo Banzai Across the 8th Dimension", the plot hinges around an alien race of Red Lectroids whose arrival on earth in Grover's Mill, New Jersey instigates Orson Welles' "The War of the Worlds" radio broadcast, with the aliens hypnotizing Welles and causing him to pass the broadcast off as a drama, when it was indeed factual. Their later cover is that of employees of a fictional defense contracting company called Yoyodyne.:*In the 1990 film " Spaced Invaders", a crew of rather dimwitted Martians intercepts radio signals from a rebroadcast of the performance and believes the entire Martian invasion fleet is moving in, leading them to land on Earth and get stranded, setting up the plot of the film.:*The episode is briefly referred to in the 1989 film " Radio Days" by Woody Allen.:*In the George Romero film Diary of the Dead, it can be heard mentioned by a news reporter voiced by Wes Craven.:*The 1946 Looney Tunescartoon " Kitty Kornered" briefly spoofs the incident.
*In television:*A similar realistic-looking "hoax" was a 1977 British
science fictionprogram titled " Alternative 3" which was presented as a science documentary, though the credits showed a production date of April Fool's Day. To this day, there are many who contend the events documented in "Alternative 3" were at least partly factual.:*The "War of the Worlds" TV series also incorporated a similar premise. In an episode taking place in Grover's Mill during the 50th anniversary of the broadcast, it is revealed that Orson Welles was hired by the government to orchestrate the broadcast in order to cover up what was a reconnaissancemission by the same aliens who would launch an all-out war 15 years later.:*" The X-Files" episode "War of the Coprophages" parodied the 1938 panic as a small town called "Miller's Grove" (a reference to the Welles program's "Grover's Mill") is seized by fear of an invading horde of tiny robot cockroaches.:*In a Halloween episode of " Hey Arnold", Arnold and Gerald conduct their own radio broadcast in an attempt to scare the residents of Arnold's boarding house much like Orson Welles did. They also trick their 4th grade class, who were all trick-or-treating as aliens, into visiting Arnold's house precisely after the broadcast had finished. However, the broadcast is inadvertently picked up by a paranormal investigator, who mistakes it for legitimate and re-broadcasts it across the city as a real news bulletin. The water tower covered with Christmas lights also resulted in an electricity breakdown that made the broadcast even more believable. [cite web
title= "Hey Arnold!": "Arnold's Halloween"
accessdate= 2007-11-10 ] :*A "
Doctor Who" audio drama titled "Invaders from Mars" is set in New York City at the time of the broadcast, with unusual events occurring in the city's underworld, which mirror the radio story.:*The 1992 BBC TVHalloween special " Ghostwatch" was similar in its shocking displays of a haunted house in North London.:*An " Animaniacs" segment starring Pinky and the Brain, "Battle for the Planet", featured a plan to recreate the broadcast in hopes of actually taking over the world during the panic. However, the Brain fails to realize that the public has grown more sophisticated in viewing such material, especially considering the amateurish effort the pair attempt, and no one takes it seriously (The character of The Brain is based on Orson Welleshimself):*In an episode of " The Flintstones", there was a publicity stunt in the form of a Halloween radio broadcast about a coming invasion of the Way-Outs, which was really just a Beatles-like music group wearing odd costumes. Much of Bedrock was scared, but the fear was exacerbated by Fred trying to get to the Water Buffalo Lodge in his secret spaceman costume. Eventually, the broadcaster is forced by the police to explain his previous announcements were fictitious.:*The British children's cartoon " Budgie the Little Helicopter" featured an episode where the characters (who are anthropomorphic aircraft) are mistaken as spacecraft during a stormy night by a driver listening to a Welles-esque radio drama, leading to local panic.:*In "Madeline and the Spider Lady", an episode of the animated series "The New Adventures of Madeline", the girls played around in an 'unused' radio studio and acted out a phony news broadcast concerning giant polka-dotted ants who were attacking New York, and got broadcast when a technician at the station accidentally hits a lever and switched the broadcast from the Spider Lady drama to the girls' phony news report. What follows is mass hysteria similar to those reported as the outcome of the Orson Welles "War of the Worlds" radio drama broadcast.:*A similar plot was used in the short-lived animated series adaptation of the American "Dennis the Menace" comic strip, in which Dennis and his cohorts visit a radio station studio to record a radio play for a school project. Unfortunately, in this version, Martians did really try to invade earth, but the plans were foiled by the coincidence of Dennis' play accidentally leaking out to the public after Ruff accidentally flips a lever and causes the recording to be broadcast. The panicking townspeople drive off the aliens, who were counting on the element of surprise.:*" Touched By An Angel" featured parts of the original broadcast in a Halloween episode titled " The Sky Is Falling", where an old man had to deal with the trauma he endured during the nation wide panic, including the death of his father due to a misfire by a paranoid citizen. It also set the scene for the first encounter between the two leads, Monica and Tess.:*A 1989 " Saturday Night Live" episode hosted by Tony Danzafeatured a sketch in which "Da War of Da Woilds" is dramatized by Da Brooklyn Academy of Fine Art.:*" The Simpsons" has alluded to the broadcast several times:::*In the episode titled " Radio Bart", Homer buys Bart a microphone that can be used to broadcast on nearby radios. One of the pranks Bart pulls is to pretend he is the leader of a Martian invasion of Earth and has eaten the president of the United States, which Homer subsequently believes.::*In the opening sequence of " Treehouse of Horror IV", Marge interrupts Bart's " Night Gallery"-esque introduction to suggest he warn viewers that the episode is frightening and that "maybe they'd rather listen to that old "War of the Worlds" broadcast on NPR".::*Yet another "Simpsons" episode, " Treehouse of Horror XVII", features a segment titled "The Day the Earth Looked Stupid", which adapts the storyline of Orson Welles' famous broadcast and takes place in Springfield circa 1938. The episode has people act like animals instead of acting suicidal until the hoax is revealed. Maurice LaMarcheprotrays Orson Welles, the actor's impression of him used earlier for The Brain.:*The November 4, 2007episode of " Cold Case" dealt with a murder that took place during the panic surrounding the original 1938 radio broadcast.:* In the October 15, 1956episode of " I Love Lucy", "Lucy Meets Orson Welles", Lucy is shopping for scuba gear in Macy's at the same time Welles is signing record albums of his Shakespearian readings. After Lucy approaches him still wearing a Scuba mask, flippers and assorted air hoses, Wells takes one look at her and says, "My "Man from Mars" broadcast was 18 years ago...where were you?":*"Panic", a 1997 episode of HBO's " Perversions of Science", based loosely on a story from the comic book "Weird Science" (see below), featured Jamie Kennedyand Jason Lee as listeners confused and alarmed by a "War of the Worlds"-style radio broadcast. However, in this instance, Kennedy and Lee play two extra-terrestrial invaders disguised as humans, who mistakenly believe that the broadcast relates to an invasion of Earth by their own people, about which they had not been informed.:*In the first episode of " Rocky and Bullwinkle", in the part where Earth thinks moon people are going to land, there is a part where a man named "Dorson Bells" says on a radio program that "Moon Men are nearing the Earth and this is not a play so please feel free to panic.":*In an episode of " Arthur", when D.W. thought that Mars had giant dinosaurs on it and her father told there was no such thing, she said she felt silly about believing there were Martians. Her father then tells her how Orson Wells did the radio broad cast and many people thought that the country was being invaded by aliens.
*In radio:*An "
Adventures in Odyssey" episode, "Terror From the Skies", is based on and makes many references to "The War of the Worlds". Like Orson Welles' broadcast, it features a dramatized radio broadcast that tells about an alien invasion of Earth.
*In video games:*In the video game "", supporting character
Para-Medicfrom Snake's radio frequency gives an amusing retelling of her parents' panic during the radio play.
EC Comicsdid a story in "Weird Science" where a TV network decides to a televise a remake of the "War of the Worlds" broadcast. To avoid confusion, they publicize the event weeks ahead of time. Unfortunately, a real invasion occurs the same night, and as the station breaks into the hoax report with a real report, no one believes it.:* DC Comicshad a similar story where Orson Welles himself learns of an actual Martian invasion, but his radio warnings are useless since no one takes them seriously because of his radio play. Fortunately, Supermanrealizes that Welles is serious and stops the invasion.:*In issue 11 of DC Comics' "The Shadow Strikes" (1989), The Shadow teams up with a radio announcer named "Grover Mills" -- a character based on the young Orson Welles -- who has been impersonating the Shadow on the radio. (Welles played The Shadow on radio prior to the "War of the Worlds" broadcast.)
*In songs:*Queen's song "
Radio Ga Ga", which is a tribute to the medium of radio written by Roger Taylor, includes the lyrics "You gave them all those old time stars / Through wars of worlds - invaded by Mars", obviously referencing the radio broadcast.:*Crimson Glory's song "March to Glory", an introduction to their album "Astronomica", contains clips from the "War of the Worlds" broadcast, juxtaposed with speeches by Adolf Hitlerand WWII-era radio news broadcasts announcing the invasion of Normandyand the later death of Hitler. The next song on the album is entitled "War of the Worlds", and is about an alien invasion.
* Cantril, Handley, Howard Koch, Hazel Gaudet, Herta Herzog, H. G. Wells. (1940). "The Invasion from Mars: A Study in the Psychology of Panic". Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691093997 (1982 reprint)
* Hand, Richard J. (2006). "Terror on the Air!: Horror Radio in America, 1931-1952". Jefferson, NC: Macfarlane & Company. ISBN 0786423676
* Koch, Howard. (1970). "The Panic Broadcast: Portrait of an Event". Boston, MA: Little, Brown. ISBN 0316500607
*Ruppelt, Edward J. (1956). " [http://www.nicap.org/rufo/contents.htm The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects] ". Garden City, NY: Doubleday. 1956. ISBN 096653123X (2002 reprint)
* [http://www.worldandi.com/newhome/public/2004/january/writerspub.asp The imagination, prognostications, and politics of H. G. Wells]
* [http://www.csicop.org/si/9811/martian.html The Martian Panic Sixty Years Later] from CSICOP
* [http://www.engl.duq.edu/servus/FirstClass/Stewart102.html The Martian Invasion] describes instances of panic, outcry over the panic and the responses by the FCC and CBS
* [http://www.emanuellevy.com/article.php?articleID=264 Once Upon a Time, When Radio Was King...] Orson Welles’ Broadcast of War of the Worlds, by Emanuel Levy
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/factual/the_riot_that_never_was.shtml BBC report on the 1926 Knox riot hoax]
* [http://www.mercurytheatre.info/ The Mercury Theatre Online] With downloadable MP3 of the 1938 broadcast.
* [http://www.archive.org/details/WAROFTHEWORLDS2 Mp3 download] from the
* [http://www.war-ofthe-worlds.co.uk/ History of the "War of the Worlds" broadcast]
* [http://www.war-of-the-worlds.org/Radio/ War-of-the-worlds.org]
* [http://www.oddthingsiveseen.com/2007/05/war-of-worlds-monument.html O.T.I.S.: Odd Things I've Seen — travelogue entry for Grover's Mill]
* [http://www.waroftheworlds.org/ Site about broadcast maintained by West Windsor, New Jersey — the site of the alleged landing]
* [http://www.radio4all.net/proginfo.php?id=13189 mp3 of King Daevid MacKenzie's "Echoes of a Century"] 2005 program which contains sections of the "Chase & Sanborn" and "Mercury Theatre" broadcasts of October 30, 1938, edited together in a manner approximating the sequence believed to have generated the reported panic
* [http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-6292577234133732501 Who's Out There?] NASA film with commentary on the 1938 broadcast and extraterrestrial life, circa 1975
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