Late Quaternary prehistoric birds

Late Quaternary prehistoric birds

Prehistoric birds are various taxa of birds that became extinct before recorded history, or more precisely, before they could be studied alive by bird scientists. They are known from subfossil remains and sometimes folk memory, as in the case of Haast's Eagle from New Zealand.

Birds (Aves) are generally believed to have evolved from feathered dinosaurs, and there is no real dividing line between birds and dinosaurs except of course that the former survived the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event and the latter did not. For the purposes of this article, a "bird" is considered to be any member of the clade Neornithes, that is the bird lineage as exists today. The other lineages of the Aves also became extinct at the end of the Cretaceous.

Taxon extinctions taking place before the Late Quaternary happened in the absence of significant human interference. Rather, reasons for extinction are stochastic abiotic events such as bolide impacts, climate changes, mass volcanic eruptions etc. Alternatively, species may have gone extinct due to evolutionary displacement by successor or competitor taxa - it is notable for example that in the early Neogene, seabird biodiversity was much higher than today; this is probably due to competition by the radiation of marine mammals after that time. The relationships of these ancient birds are often hard to determine, as many are known only from very fragmentary remains and due to the complete fossilization precludes analysis of information from DNA, RNA or protein sequencing.

:"For further discussion, see main article Fossil birds"

=Late Quaternary avian extinctions=

This page lists bird taxa that have been become extinct before they could be researched by science, but nonetheless survived into (geologically) recent times. Their remains are not or not completely fossilized and therefore may yield organic material for molecular analyses to provide additional clues for resolving their taxonomic affiliations. As these species' extinction coincided with the expansion of "Homo sapiens" across the globe, in most (but not necessary all) cases, anthropogenic factors have played a crucial part in their extinction, be it through hunting, introduced predators or habitat alteration. It is notable that a large proportion of the species are from oceanic islands, especially in Polynesia. Bird taxa that evolved on oceanic islands are usually very vulnerable to hunting or predation by rats, cats, dogs or pigs - animals commonly introduced by humans -, as there evolved in the absence of mammalian predators and therefore only have rudimentary predator avoidance behavior. Many, especially rails, have additionally become flightless for the same reason and thus presented even easier prey.

The taxa in this list became extinct during the Late Quaternary - the Holocene or Late Pleistocene -, but before the period of global scientific exploration that started in the late 15th century. More precisely, their extinction was coincident with the expansion of "Homo sapiens" beyond Africa and Eurasia, i.e. this list basically deals with extinctions between 40000 BC and 1500 AD. They should be classified with the "Prehistoric" in their individual accounts.

=Taxonomic list of Late Quaternary prehistoric birds=All of these are Neornithes.


The Ostrich and related ratites.
*†Aepyornithidae - Elephant Birds
***"Aepyornis hildebrandti" (Madagascar)
***"Aepyornis maximus" (Madagascar)
***"Aepyornis medius" (Madagascar)
***"Aepyornis gracilis" (Madagascar)Up to 4 more undescribed species are known, but taxonomy is not fully resolved. "A. maximus" and/or "A. medius" probably survived until historic times.
*†Dinornithidae - Moa
***Bush Moa, "Anomalopteryx didiformis" (South Island, New Zealand)
***North Island Broad-billed Moa, "Euryapteryx curtus" (North Island, New Zealand)
***South Island Broad-billed Moa, "Euryapteryx geranoides" (South Island, New Zealand)
***Crested Moa, "Pachyornis australis" (South Island, New Zealand)
***Heavy-footed Moa, "Pachyornis elephantopus" (South Island, New Zealand)
***"Pachyornis" cf. "elephantopus" (South Island, New Zealand)
***Mappin's Moa, "Pachyornis mappini" (North Island, New Zealand)
***"Pachyornis" cf. "mappini" (North Island, New Zealand)
***North Island Giant Moa, "Dinornis novaezealandiae" (North Island, New Zealand)
***South Island Giant Moa, "Dinornis robustus" (South Island, New Zealand)
***"Dinornis" cf. "robustus" (South Island, New Zealand)
***"Dinornis" cf. "robustus" (South Island, New Zealand)
***Eastern Moa, "Emeus crassus" (South Island, New Zealand)
***Benham's Megalapteryx, "Megalapteryx benhami" (South Island, New Zealand)
***Lesser Megalapteryx, "Megalapteryx didinus" (South Island, New Zealand) - may have survived until historic times
*Struthionidae - Ostriches
**Extinct species of extant genera
***Asian Ostrich, "Struthio asiaticus" (Central Asia to China)
*Apterygidae - Kiwi
**Extinct species of extant genera
***Eastern Tokoeka, "Apteryx" sp. (South Island, New Zealand) - possibly the same as the Okarito, Haast or South Island tokoeka.


The group that includes modern ducks and geese.
*†Dromornithidae - The Australian "mihirung"s or "demon ducks"
***"Genyornis newtoni" (Australia)
*Anatidae - Ducks, geese and swans
***Wetmore's Goose, "Geochen rhuax" (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands)
***South Island Goose, "Cnemiornis calcitrans" (South Island, New Zealand)
***North Island Goose, "Cnemiornis gracilis" (North Island, New Zealand)
***Chatham Island Duck, "Pachyanas chathamica" (Chatham Islands, SW Pacific)
***Malagasy Sheldgoose, "Centrornis majori" (Madagascar)
***Turtle-jawed Moa-nalo, "Chelychelynechen quassus" (Kaua'i, Hawaiian Islands)
***Small-billed Moa-nalo, "Ptaiochen pau" (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
***Maui Nui Large-billed Moa-nalo, "Thambetochen chauliodous" (Maui and Moloka‘i, Hawaiian Islands)
***O'ahu Large-billed Moa-nalo, "Thambetochen xanion" (O'ahu, Hawaiian Islands)
***Law's Diving-goose, "Chendytes lawi" (California and Southern Oregon Coasts and Channel Islands, E Pacific)
**Extinct species of extant genera
***Aitutaki Whistling-duck, "Dendrocygna" sp. (Aitutaki, Cook Islands)
***Nēnē-nui, "Branta hylobadistes" (Maui, possibly Kaua‘i and O‘ahu, Hawaiian Islands)
***Chatham Islands Shelduck, "Tadorna" cf. "variegata" (Chatham Islands, SW Pacific)
***Malagasy Shelduck, "Alopochen sirabensis" (Madagascar; may be subspecies of the Mauritian Shelduck)
***Scarlett's Duck, "Malacorhynchus scarletti" (New Zealand)
***Finsch's Duck, "Chenonetta finschi" (New Zealand; possibly survived to 1870)
***Bermuda Flightless Duck, "Anas pachyscelus" (Bermuda, W Atlantic) [ [ Ausgerottete Arten ] ]
***Macquarie Islands Teal, "Anas" cf. "chlorotis" (Macquarie Islands, SW Pacific)
***Chatham Islands Merganser, "Mergus" cf. "australis" (Chatham Islands, SW Pacific)
***New Zealand Stiff-tailed Duck, "Oxyura vantetsi" (North Island, New Zealand)
***de Lautour's Duck or New Zealand Musk Duck, "Biziura delautouri" (New Zealand)
***Extinct subspecies of extant species
****New Zealand Swan, "Cygnus atratus sumnerensis" (New Zealand, possibly Chatham Islands)
****Chatham Islands Teal, "Anas chlorotis" ssp. nov. (Chatham Islands, SW Pacific)
**Placement unresolved
***Giant Hawai'i Goose, ?"Branta" sp. (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands)
***Giant O'ahu Goose, Anatidae sp. et gen. indet. (O'ahu, Hawaiian Islands)
***Long-legged "Shelduck", Anatidae sp. et gen. indet. (Kaua'i, Hawaiian Islands)
***Rota Flightless Duck, Anatidae sp. et gen. indet. (Rota, Marianas)
***Small-eyed Duck, Anatidae sp. et gen. indet. (Kaua‘i, Hawaiian Islands)


The group that includes modern chickens and quails.
*†Sylviornithidae - The Sylviornis or New Caledonian Giant Megapode
***Sylviornis, "Sylviornis neocaledoniae" (New Caledonia, Melanesia)
*Megapodidae - Megapodes
***Noble Megapode, "Megavitiornis altirostris" (Viti Levu, Fiji)
**Extinct species of extant genera
***Consumed Scrubfowl, "Megapodius alimentum" (Tonga and Fiji)
***Viti Levu Scrubfowl, "Megapodius amissus" (Viti Levu and possibly Kadavu, Fiji) - may have survived to the early 19th or the 20th century.
***Pile-builder Megapode, "Megapodus molistructor" (New Caledonia and Tonga) - may have survived to the late 18th century
***'Eua Scrubfowl, "Megapodius" sp. ('Eua, Tonga)
***Lifuka Scrubfowl, "Megapodius" sp. (Lifuka, Tonga)Verify source|date=January 2008
***New Ireland Scrubfowl, "Megapodius" sp. (New Ireland, Melanesia)
***"Leipoa gallinacea" ("Progura gallinacea" and "Progura naracoortensis" are synonyms) (Australia)
*Phasianidae - Pheasants and allies
**Extinct species of extant genera
***Canary Islands Quail, "Coturnix gomerae" (Canary Islands, East Atlantic)


Gulls, auks, shorebirds
*Laridae - Gulls
**Extinct species of extant genera
***Huahine Gull, "Larus utunui" (Huahine, Society Islands)
***Kaua'i Gull, "Larus" sp. (Kaua'i, Hawaiian Islands)
***"Larus" sp. (Saint Helena, Atlantic) - may be extant form
*Charadriidae - Lapwings and plovers
**Extinct species of extant genera
***Malagasy Lapwing, "Vanellus madagascariensis" (Madagascar)
*Alcidae - Auks
**Extinct species of extant genera
***Dow's Puffin, "Fratercula dowi" (Channel Islands, E Pacific)
*Scolopacidae - Waders and snipes
**Extinct species of extant genera
***Henderson Island Sandpiper, "Prosobonia" sp. (Henderson Island, S Pacific)
***Mangaian Sandpiper, "Prosobonia" sp. (Mangaia, Cook Islands)
***Ua Huka Sandpiper, "Prosobonia" sp. (Ua Huka, Marquesas)
***Forbes' Snipe, "Coenocorypha chathamensis" (Chatham Islands, Southwest Pacific)
***Viti Levu Snipe, "Coenocorypha miratropica" (Viti Levu, Fiji)
***New Caledonia Snipe, "Coenocorypha" sp. (New Caledonia, Melanesia)
***Norfolk Island Snipe, "Coenocorypha" sp. (Norfolk Island, Southwest Pacific)
***"Gallinago" sp. (Cayman Brac, Cayman Islands) - may be the same as
***"Gallinago" sp. (Cuba, West Indies) - may be the same as
***"Gallinago" sp. (Bahamas, West Indies)
***Puerto Rican Woodcock, "Scolopax anthonyi"


The group that includes modern rails and cranes.
*Rallidae - Rails
***Snipe-rail, "Capellirallus karamu" (North Island, New Zealand)
***Viti Levu Rail, "Vitirallus watlingi" (Viti Levu, Fiji)
***Hova-gallinule, "Hovacrex roberti" (Madagascar)
***Antillean Cave-Rail, "Nesotrochis debooyi" (Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands, West Indies) - may have survived until historic times
***Haitian Cave-Rail, "Nesotrochis steganinos" (Haiti, West Indies)
***Cuban Cave-Rail, "Nesotrochis picapicensis" (Cuba, West Indies)
**Extinct species of extant genera
***New Caledonian Swamphen, "Porphyrio kukwiedei" (New Caledonia, Melanesia) - may have survived into historic times
***North Island Takahē, "Porphyrio mantelli" (North Island, New Zealand)
***Huahine Swamphen, "Porphyrio mcnabi" (Huahine, Society Islands)
***Marquesas Swamphen, "Porphyrio paepae" (Hiva Oa and Tahuata, Marquesas) - may have survived to the late 19th century
***Buka Swamphen, "Porphyrio" sp. (Buka, Solomon Islands)
***Giant Swamphen, "Porphyrio" sp. (New Ireland, Melanesia)
***Mangaia Swamphen/Woodhen, ?"Porphyrio" sp. (Mangaia, Cook Islands) - if genus "Pareudiastes" is accepted this species probably belongs there
***New Ireland Swamphen, "Porphyrio" sp. (New Ireland, Melanesia)
***Norfolk Island Swamphen, "Porphyrio" sp. (Norfolk Island, Southwest Pacific)
***Rota Swamphen, "Porphyrio" sp. (Rota, Marianas)
***Ibiza Rail, "Rallus eivissensis" (Ibiza, Mediterranean)
***Lifuka Rail, "Nesoclopeus" sp. (Lifuka, Tonga)
***Nuku Hiva Rail, "Gallirallus epulare" (Nuku Hiva, Marquesas)
***Ua Huka Rail, "Gallirallus gracilitibia" (Ua Huka, Marquesas)
***Niue Rail, "Gallirallus huiatua" (Niue, Cook Islands)
***Mangaia Rail, "Gallirallus ripleyi" (Mangaia, Cook Islands)
***Tahuata Rail, "Gallirallus roletti" (Tahuata, Marquesas)
***Huahine Rail, "Gallirallus storrsolsoni" (Huahine, Society Islands)
***'Eua Rail, "Gallirallus vekamatolu" ('Eua, Tonga)
***Marianas Rail, "Gallirallus" cf. "owstoni" (Marianas, West Pacific)
***New Ireland Rail, "Gallirallus" sp. (New Ireland, Melanesia)
***Norfolk Island Rail, "Gallirallus" sp. (Norfolk Island, Southwest Pacific) - may have survived to the 19th century
***Hiva Oa Rail, ?"Gallirallus" sp. (Marquesas, Pacific)
***Great O'ahu Crake, "Porzana ralphorum" (O'ahu, Hawaiian Islands)
***Great Maui Crake, "Porzana severnsi" (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
***Mangaia Crake, "Porzana rua" (Mangaia, Cook Islands)
***Liliput Crake, "Porzana menehune" (Moloka'i, Hawaiian Islands)
***Small O'ahu Crake, "Porzana ziegleri" (O'ahu, Hawaiian Islands)
***Small Maui Crake, "Porzana keplerorum" (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
***Easter Island Crake, "Porzana" sp. (Easter Island, Southeast Pacific)
***Great Big Island Crake, "Porzana" sp. (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands)
***Great Kaua'i Crake, "Porzana" sp. (Kaua'i, Hawaiian Islands)
***Huahine Crake, "Porzana" sp. (Huahine, Society Islands)
***Mangaia Crake #2, "Porzana" sp. (Mangaia, Cook Islands)
***Marquesas Crake, "Porzana" sp. (Ua Huka, Marquesas)
***Marianas Crake, "Porzana" sp. (Marianas, West Pacific) - possibly 2 species
***Medium Kaua'i Crake, "Porzana" sp. (Kaua'i, Hawaiian Islands)
***Medium Maui Crake, "Porzana" sp. (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
***Small Big Island Crake, "Porzana" sp. (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands)
***Hodgen's Waterhen, "Gallinula hodgenorum" (New Zealand)
***Viti Levu Gallinule, ?"Gallinula" sp. (Viti Levu, Fiji) - would also be separated in "Pareudiastes" if that genus is considered valid, or may be new genus.
***Chatham Island Coot, "Fulica chathamensis" (Chatham Islands, Southwest Pacific)
***New Zealand Coot, "Fulica prisca" (New Zealand)
**Placement unresolved
***Barbados Rail, Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. (Barbados, West Indies) - formerly "Fulica podagrica" ("partim")
***Easter Island Rail, Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. (Easter Island)
***Fernando de Noronha Rail, Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. (Fernando de Noronha, Atlantic) - probably survived to historic times
*Gruidae - Cranes
**Extinct species of extant genera
***Cuban Flightless Crane, "Grus cubensis" (Cuba, West Indies)
*†Aptornithidae - Adzebills (probably belongs in distinct order)
***North Island Adzebill, "Aptornis otidiformis" (North Island, New Zealand)
***South Island Adzebill, "Aptornis defossor" (South Island, New Zealand)
*Rhynochetidae - Kagus (probably belongs in distinct oder)
**Extinct species of extant genera
***Lowland Kagu, "Rhynochetos orarius" (New Caledonia, Melanesia)


The diverse group that includes storks, herons and New World vultures.
*Ardeidae - Herons
**Extinct species of extant genera
***Bennu Heron, "Ardea bennuides" (United Arab Emirates)
***'Eua Night Heron, "Nycticorax" sp. ('Eua, Tonga)
***Lifuka Night Heron, "Nycticorax" sp. (Lifuka, Tonga) - may be same as ‘Eua species
***Niue Night Heron, "Nycticorax kalavikai" (Niue, Cook Islands)
**Placement unresolved
***Ardeidae gen. et sp. indet. (Easter Island, E Pacific)
*Threskiornithidae - Ibises
***Maui Upland Apteribis, "Apteribis brevis" (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
***Moloka'i Apteribis, "Apteribis glenos" (Moloka'i, Hawaiian Islands)
***Maui Lowland Apteribis, "Apteribis" sp. (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
***Club-winged Ibis, "Xenicibis xympithecus" (Jamaica, West Indies)
*†Teratornithidae - Teratorns
***Merriam's Teratorn, "Teratornis merriami" (SW and S USA)
*Cathartidae - New World Vultures
**Extinct species of extant genera
***Pleistocene Black Vulture, "Coragyps occidentalis" (SW and W USA)
**Placement unresolved
***?"Cathartes" sp. (Cuba, West Indies)


The group that includes modern pelicans and cormorants.
*Sulidae - Gannets and boobies
**Extinct subspecies of extant species
***Ua Huka Booby, "Papasula abbotti costelloi" (Ua Huka, Marquesas)


The group that includes modern albatrosses, petrels and storm-petrels.
*Procellariidae - Petrels
**Extinct species of extant genera
***Hole's Shearwater, "Puffinus holeae" (Fuerteventura, Canary Islands, and Atlantic coast of Iberian peninsula)
***Lava Shearwater or Olson's Shearwater, "Puffinus olsoni" (Canary Islands, E Atlantic)
***Scarlett's Shearwater, "Puffinus spelaeus" (South Island, New Zealand)
***Menorcan Shearwater, "Puffinus" sp. (Menorca, Balearic Islands) - possibly extirpated population of extant species
***O'ahu Petrel, "Pterodroma jugabilis" (O'ahu, Hawaiian Islands)
***Canary Islands Petrel, "Pterodroma" sp. (El Hierro, Canary Islands) - possibly extirpated population of extant species
***Chatham Extinct Petrel, "Pterodroma" sp. (Chatham Islands, SW Pacific)
***Henderson Island Petrel, "Pterodroma" sp. (Henderson Island, S Pacific)
**Placement unresolved
***Procellariidae sp. (Easter Island, East Pacific) - possibly extirpated population of extant species


*Spheniscidae - Penguins
**Extinct species of extant genera
***Chatham Islands Penguin, "Eudyptes" sp. (Chatham Islands, Southwest Pacific) - possibly still extant in 1867


*Columbidae - Doves and pigeons
***St Helena Dove, "Dysmoropelia dekarchiskos" (Saint Helena, Atlantic) - may have survived to the 16th century
***Viti Levu Giant Pigeon, "Natunaornis gigoura" (Viti Levu, Fiji)
***Henderson Island Archaic Pigeon, "Bountyphaps obsoleta" (Henderson Island, S Pacific)
**Extinct species of extant genera
***Society Islands Cuckoo-dove, "Macropygia arevarevauupa" (Huahine, Society Islands)
***Marquesan Cuckoo-dove, "Macropygia heana" (Marquesas, Pacific)
***Puerto Rican Quail-dove, "Geotrygon larva" (Puerto Rico, West Indies)
***Great Ground-dove, "Gallicolumba nui" (Marquesas and Cook Islands)
***Henderson Island Ground-dove, "Gallicolumba leonpascoi" (Henderson Island, S Pacific)
***New Caledonian Ground-dove, "Gallicolumba longitarsus" (New Caledonia)
***Huahine Ground-dove, "Gallicolumba" sp. (Huahine, Society Islands) - "G. nui"?
***Mangaia Ground-dove, "Gallicolumba" sp. (Mangaia, Cook Islands) - "G. nui"?
***Rota Ground Dove, "Gallicolumba" sp. (Rota, Marianas)
***Tongan Tooth-billed Pigeon, "Didunculus placopedetes" (Tonga, Pacific)
***Greater Maned Pigeon, "Caloenas canacorum" (New Caledonia, Tonga)
***Henderson Island Imperial-pigeon, "Ducula harrisoni" (Henderson Island, S Pacific)
***Lakeba Imperial-pigeon, "Ducula lakeba" (Lakeba, Fiji)
***Steadman's Imperial-pigeon, "Ducula david" ('Eua, Tonga, and Wallis Island)
***Tongan Imperial-pigeon, "Ducula" sp. ('Eua, Foa and Lifuka, Tonga) - may be "D. david", "D. lakeba" or new species
***"Ducula" cf. "galeata" (Cook Islands) - possibly new species
***"Ducula" cf. "galeata" (Society Islands) - possibly new species
***"Ducula" sp. (Viti Levu, Fiji) - may be "D. lakeba"
***Tubuai Fruit-dove, "Ptilinopus" sp. (Tubuai, Austral Islands)


*Cacatuidae - Cockatoos
**Extinct species of extant genera
***New Caledonian Cockatoo, "Cacatua" sp. (New Caledonia)
***New Ireland Cockatoo, "Cacatua" sp. (New Ireland)
*Psittacidae - Parrots, parakeets and lorikeets
**Extinct species of extant genera
***Sinoto's Lorikeet, "Vini sinotoi" (Marquesas, Pacific)
***Conquered Lorikeet, "Vini vidivici" (Mangaia, Cook Islands, and Marqesas)
***Chatham Islands Kaka, "Nestor" sp. (Chatham Islands, Southwest Pacific)
***Oceanic Eclectus Parrot, "Eclectus infectus" (Tonga, Vanuatu, possibly Fiji) - may have survived to the 18th century or even longer.
***Saint Croix Macaw, "Ara autocthones" (Saint Croix, West Indies) [cite journal | last = Wetmore | first = A. | title = Ancient records of birds from the island of St. Croix with observations on extinct and living of Puerto Rico|journal = J. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico | volume = 21 | pages = 5–16 | date = 1937]
**Extinct subspecies of an extant species
***Virgin Islands Parrot "(Amazona vittata subsp. indet.)"
**Placement unresolved
***Psittacidae gen. et sp. indet. 1 (Easter Island)
***Psittacidae gen. et sp. indet. 2 (Easter Island)
***Psittacidae gen. et sp. indet. (Rota, Marianas)


*Cuculidae - Cuckoos
**Extinct species of extant genera
***Henderson Island Koel, "Eudynamis" cf. "taitensis"
***Ancient Coua, "Coua primaeva" (Madagascar)
***Bertha's Coua, "Coua berthae" (Madagascar)
***"Extinct subspecies of extant species"
****Conkling's Roadrunner, "Geococcyx californianus conklingi" (Inland SW North America)


Birds of prey
*Accipitridae - Hawks and eagles
***Bermuda Hawk, "Bermuteo avivorus" (Bermuda, W Atlantic)
***Cuban Giant-hawk, "Gigantohierax suarezi" (Cuba, West Indies)
***Bahaman Titan-hawk, "Titanohierax gloveralleni" (Bahamas, West Indies)
***Hispaniolan Titan-hawk, "Titanohierax" sp. (Hispaniola, West Indies)
***Haast's Eagle, "Harpagornis moorei" (South Island, New Zealand)
**Extinct species of extant genera
***Powerful Goshawk, "Accipiter efficax" (New Caledonia, Melanesia)
***Gracile Goshawk, "Accipiter quartus" (New Caledonia, Melanesia)
***"Accipiter" sp. 1 (New Ireland, Melanesia)
***"Accipiter" sp. 2 (New Ireland, Melanesia) - one of the two New Ireland species may be Meyer's Goshawk
***Malagasy Eagle, "Aquila" sp. (Madagascar)
***Borras' Eagle-hawk, "Buteogallus borrasi" (Cuba, West Indies) - formerly in "Aquila"/"Titanohierax"
***Mime Harrier, "Circus dossenus" (Moloka‘i, Hawaiian Islands)
***Eyles' Harrier, "Circus eylesi" (New Zealand) (The Forbes' Harrier, "Circus teauteensis", is considered as synonym of the Eyles' Harrier by some authors)
***A subfossil sea eagle ("Haliaeetus") from Maui may be a valid species or subspecies; another one listed from the Chatham Islands is in error.
***Malagasy Crowned Eagle, "Stephanoaetus mahery" (Madagascar)
*Falconidae - Falcons
**Extinct species of extant genera
***Bahaman Caracara, "Caracara creightoni" (Bahamas and Cuba, West Indies) - may be same as "C. latebrosus"
***Puerto Rican Caracara, "Caracara latebrosus" (Puerto Rico, West Indies)
***Cuban Caracara, "Milvago carbo" (Cuba, West Indies)
***Jamaican Caracara, ?"Milvago" sp. (Jamaica, West Indies)
***Cuban Kestrel, "Falco kurochkini" (Cuba, West Indies)


Nightjars and potoos
*Caprimulgidae - Nightjars
**Extinct species of extant genera
***Cuban Poorwill, "Siphonorhis daiquiri" (Cuba, West Indies) - possibly extant


**Extinct species of extant genera
***New Zealand Owlet-nightjar, "Aegotheles novaezealandiae" (New Zealand) - formerly "Megaegotheles"


Swifts and hummingbirds.
*Apodidae - Swifts
**Extinct species of extant genera
***Mangaia Swiftlet, "Aerodramus manuoi" (Mangaia, Cook Islands) - formerly "Collocalia"


Kingfishers and related birds.
*Bucerotidae - Hornbills
**Extinct species of extant genera
***Lifou Hornbill, "Aceros" sp. (Lifou, Loyalty Islands)


Owls and barn owls.
*Strigidae - Typical owls
***Kauaʻi Stilt-owl, "Grallistrix auceps" (Kauaʻi, Hawaiian Islands)
***Maui Stilt-owl, "Grallistrix erdmani" (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
***Molokaʻi Stilt-owl, "Grallistrix geleches" (Molokaʻi, Hawaiian Islands)
***O'ahu Stilt-owl, "Grallistrix orion" (O'ahu, Hawaiian Islands)
***Cuban Giant Owl, "Ornimegalonxy oteroi" (Cuba, West Indies)
***"Ornimegalonyx" sp. - probably subspecies of "O. oteroi"
**Extinct species of extant genera
***Cuban Horned Owl, "Bubo osvaldoi" (Cuba, West Indies)Verify source|date=September 2008
***Cretan Little Owl, "Athene cretensis" (Crete, Mediterranean)
***New Caledonia Boobook, "Ninox" cf. "novaeseelandiae" (New Caledonia, Melanesia) - possibly extant
**Placement unresolved
***Ibiza Owl, Strigidae gen. et sp. indet. (Ibiza, Mediterranean)
*Tytonidae - Barn-owls
**Extinct species of extant genera
***Puerto Rican Barn-owl, "Tyto cavatica" (Puerto Rico, West Indies) - may still have existed in 1912
***New Caledonian Barn-owl, "?Tyto letocarti" (New Caledonia, Melanesia)
***Maltese Barn-owl, "Tyto melitensis" (Malta, Mediterranean) - possibly paleosubspecies of "Tyto alba"
***Noel's Barn-owl, "Tyto noeli" (Cuba, West Indies)
***Hispaniolan Barn-owl, "Tyto ostologa" (Hispaniola, West Indies)
***Bahaman Barn-owl, "Tyto pollens" (Andros, Bahamas)
***Rivero's Barn-owl, "Tyto riveroi" (Cuba, West Indies)
***Barbudan Barn-owl, "Tyto neddi" (Barbuda , West Indies)
***Antiguan Barn-owl "Tyto" sp. (Antigua, West Indies)
***Mussau Barn-owl, "Tyto" cf. "novaehollandiae" (Mussau, Melanesia)
***New Ireland Greater Barn-owl, "Tyto" cf. "novaehollandiae" (New Ireland, Melanesia)
***New Ireland Lesser Barn-owl, "Tyto" cf. "alba/aurantiaca" (New Ireland, Melanesia)
***Cuban Barn-owl, "Tyto" sp. (Cuba, West Indies)


*Placement unresolved
**Slender-billed Kauaʻi Passerine, Passeriformes gen. et sp. indet. (Kauaʻi, Hawaiian Islands)
**Tiny Kauaʻi Passerine, Passeriformes gen. et sp. indet. (Kauaʻi, Hawaiian Islands)
*Acanthisittidae - New Zealand "Wrens"
***Yaldwyn's Wren, "Pachyplichas yaldwyni" (North Island, New Zealand)
***Grant-Mackie's Wren, "Pachyplichas jagmi" (South Island, New Zealand) - may be subspecies of "P. yaldwyni"
***Long-billed Wren, "Dendroscansor decurvirostris" (South Island, New Zealand)
***"Extinct subspecies of extant species"
****North Island Piwauwau, "Xenicus gilviventris" ssp. nov. (North Island, New Zealand) - Rock Wren subspecies

*Meliphagidae - Honeyeaters
**Prehistorically extinct species of Recently extinct genera
***Oʻahu Kioea, "Chaetoptila" cf. "angustipluma" (Oʻahu and Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
***Narrow-billed Kioea, ?"Chaetoptila" sp. (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)

*Corvidae - Crows, Ravens, Jays and Magpies
**Extinct species of extant genera
***Chatham Islands Raven, "Corvus moriorum" (Chatham Islands, Southwest Pacific)
***High-billed Crow, "Corvus impluviatus" (O'ahu, Hawaiian Islands)
***"Corvus sp." (Pu‘u Wa‘awa‘a’, North Kona District, Hawaii, Hawaiian Islands)
***New Zealand Raven, "Corvus antipodum" (New Zealand)
**** North Island Raven, "Corvus antipodum antipodum" (North Island, New Zealand)
**** South Island Raven, "Corvus antipodum pycrafti" (South Island, New Zealand)
***Robust Crow, "Corvus viriosus" (O'ahu and Moloka'i, Hawaiian Islands)
***New Ireland Crow, "Corvus" sp. (New Ireland, Melanesia)
***Puerto Rican Crow, "Corvus pumilis" (Puerto Rico and St Croix, West Indies) - probably a subspecies of "C. nasicus" or "C. palmarum"

*Sturnidae - Starlings
**Extinct species of extant genera
***Huahine Starling, "Aplonis diluvialis" (Huahine, Society Islands)

*Sylviidae - Old World warblers
**Extinct species of extant genera
***'Eua Bush Warbler, "Cettia" sp. ('Eua, Tonga)

*Zosteropidae - White-eyes
**Placement unresolved
***Tongan White-Eye, Zosteropidae gen. et sp. indet. ('Eua, Tonga)

*Turdidae - Thrushes
**Extinct species of extant genera
***Maui Olomaʻo, "Myadestes" cf. "lanaiensis" (Maui, Hawaiian Islands) - may have survived until the 19th century

*Fringillidae - Finches
**Extinct species of extant genera
***Trías Greenfinch, "Carduelis triasi" (La Palma, Canary Islands)

*Drepanididae - Hawaiian Honeycreepers
***Highland Finch, "Orthiospiza howarthi" (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
***Cone-billed Finch, "Xestospiza conica" (Kauaʻi and Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands)
***Ridge-billed Finch, "Xestospiza fastigialis" (Oʻahu, Maui and Molokaʻi, Hawaiian Islands)
***Strange-billed Finch, "Vangulifer mirandus" (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
***Thin-billed Finch, "Vangulifer neophasis" (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
***Oʻahu Icterid-like Gaper, "Aidemedia chascax" (Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands)
***Sickle-billed Gaper, "Aidemedia zanclops" (Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands)
***Maui Nui Icterid-like Gaper, "Aidemedia lutetiae" (Maui and Molokaʻi, Hawaiian Islands)
**Prehistorically extinct species of extant and Recently extinct genera
***Kauaʻi Finch, "Telespiza persecutrix" (Kauaʻi and Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands)
***Maui Nui Finch, "Telespiza ypsilon" (Maui and Molokaʻi, Hawaiian Islands)
***Maui Finch, "Telespiza" cf. "ypsilon" (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
***Pila's Palila, "Loxioides kikuichi" (Kauaʻi, Hawaiian Islands) - possibly survived until early 18th century
***Scissor-billed Koa-finch, "Rhodacanthis forfex" (Kauaʻi and Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
***Primitive Koa-finch, "Rhodacanthis litotes" (Oʻahu and Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
***O'ahu Grosbeak Finch, "Chloridops wahi" (Oʻahu and Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
***Giant ("King Kong") Grosbeak Finch, "Chloridops regiskongi" (Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands)
***Kauaʻi Grosbeak Finch, "Chloridops" sp. (Kauaʻi, Hawaiian Islands) - may be same as "Chloridops wahi"
***Maui Grosbeak Finch, "Chloridops" sp. (Maui, Hawaiian Islands)
***Giant ʻAmakihi, "Hemignathus vorpalis" (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands)
***Giant ʻAkialoa, "Hemignathus" sp. (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands) - sometimes in genus "Akialoa"
***Hoopoe-billed ʻAkialoa, "Hemignathus upupirostris" (Kauaʻi and Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands) - sometimes in genus "Akialoa"
***Stout-legged Finch, "Ciridops tenax" (Kauaʻi, Hawaiian Islands)
***Molokaʻi Ula-ai-Hawane, "Ciridops" cf. "anna" (Molokaʻi, Hawaiian Islands)
***Oʻahu Ula-ai-Hawane, "Ciridops" sp. (Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands)
**Placement unresolved
***Drepanididae gen. et sp. indet. (Maui, Hawaiian Islands) - at least 3 species
***Drepanididae gen. et sp. indet. (Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands)

*Emberizidae - Buntings
***Puerto Rican Obscure Bunting, "Pedinornis stirpsarcana" (Puerto Rico, West Indies)
**Extinct species of extant genera
***Long-legged Bunting, "Emberiza alcoveri" (Tenerife, Canary Islands)

*Hirundinidae - Swallows and martins
***"Extinct subspecies of extant species"
****Henderson Island Pacific Swallow, "Hirundo tahitensis" ssp. nov. (Henderson Island, S Pacific)

*Estrildidae - Waxbills
**Extinct species of extant genera
***Rota Parrotfinch, "Erythrura" sp. (Rota, Marianas)


* Steadman, David William (2006): "Extinction and Biogeography of Tropical Pacific Birds". University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-77142-3
* Balouet, Jean Christophe ; Olson, Storrs L. (1989) "Fossil birds from late Quaternary deposits in New Caledonia". Washington, D.C. Smithsonian contributions to zoology ; Nr. 469. Smithsonian Institution Press
* Goodman, S.M. and Patterson, B.D. (1997) "Natural Change and Human Impact in Madagascar". Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London. 432 S. ISBN 978-1560986836
* del Hoyo, J. , Andrew Elliott, David Christie (2007) "Handbook of the Birds of the World Volume 12 Picathartes to Tits and Chickadees", Lynx Edicions, 2007. ISBN 84-96553-42-6


External links

* [ The GREAT New Zealand Eagle: The World's Biggest Eagle] By Neville Guthrie

See also

*Extinct birds
*List of extinct animals
*Prehistoric life
*Flightless birds
*Holocene extinction event

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