- Joseph Conrad
name = Joseph Conrad
birthdate = birth date|1857|12|3|df=y
Berdychiv, Russian Empire(now Ukraine)
deathdate = death date and age|1924|8|3|1857|12|3|df=y
occupation = Novelist
Psychological realismand Modernism
Joseph Conrad (born Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski, 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924) was a Polish-born English novelist. Many critics regard him as one of the greatest novelists in the English language—a fact that is remarkable as he did not learn to speak English fluently until he was in his twenties (and always with a Polish accent).
Conrad is recognized as a master
prosestylist. Some of his works have a strain of romanticism, but more importantly he is recognized as an important forerunner of modernist literature. His narrative style and anti-heroic characters have influenced many writers, including Ernest Hemingway, D. H. Lawrence, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Graham Greene, William S. Burroughs, Joseph Heller, V.S. Naipaul, Italo Calvinoand J. M. Coetzee. [ [http://noblisci.bnet.pl/2001-10/2003/2003.html Literacka Nagroda Nobla ] ]
Conrad's novels and stories have also inspired such films as "Sabotage" (1936, directed by
Alfred Hitchcock, adapted from Conrad's " The Secret Agent"); Francis Ford Coppola's " Apocalypse Now" (1979, adapted from Conrad's " Heart of Darkness"); " The Duellists" (a 1977 Ridley Scottadaptation of Conrad's "The Duel", from "A Set of Six"); and a 1996 film inspired by " The Secret Agent", starring Bob Hoskins, Patricia Arquetteand Gérard Depardieu.
Writing during the apex of the
British Empire, Conrad drew upon his experiences serving in the French and later the British Merchant Navyto create novels and short stories that reflected aspects of a world-wide empire while also plumbing the depths of the human soul. Conrad became a naturalized British citizen in 1886.
Conrad was born in Berdyczów (now
Berdychiv, Ukraine) into a highly patriotic, impoverished Polish noble family bearing the "Nałęcz" coat-of-arms. His father Apollo Korzeniowskiwas a writer of politically themed plays, and a translatorof Alfred de Vigny, Victor Hugo, Charles Dickensand Shakespearefrom the French and English. He encouraged his son Konrad to read widely in Polish and French.
In 1861 the elder Korzeniowski was arrested by
Imperial Russian authorities in Warsawfor helping organize what would become the January Uprisingof 1863–64, and was exiled to Vologda, a city with a very harsh climate, approximately convert|300|mi|km north of Moscow. His wife, Ewelina Korzeniowska (" née" Bobrowska), and four-year-old son followed him into exile. Due to Ewelina's weak health, Apollo Korzeniowskiwas allowed in 1865 to move to Chernihiv, Ukraine, where wıthin a few weeks Conrad's mother died of tuberculosis. Conrad's father died four years later in Kraków, leaving Conrad orphaned at the age of eleven. In Kraków, young Conrad was placed in the care of his maternal uncle, Tadeusz Bobrowski—a more cautious figure than his parents. Bobrowski nevertheless allowed Conrad to travel to Marseilleand begin a career as a seaman at the age of 16. This came after Conrad was rejected for Austro-Hungarian citizenship, leaving him liable to conscription into the Russian Army.
Conrad lived an adventurous life, becoming involved in
gunrunningand political conspiracy, which he later fictionalized in his novel " The Arrow of Gold", and apparently had a disastrous love affair, which plunged him into despair. His voyage down the coast of Venezuelawould provide material for " Nostromo". The first mateof Conrad's vessel became the model for " Nostromo"'s hero.
In 1878, after a failed suicide attempt in
Marseilleby shooting himself in the chest, [cite news |first= |last= |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=Bibliomania: Joseph Conrad. |url=http://www.bibliomania.com/0/0/15/frameset.html |quote= |publisher= Bibliomania|date= |accessdate=2008-03-11 ] Conrad took service on his first British ship bound for Constantinople, before its return to Lowestoft, his first landing in Britain.
Barely a month after reaching England, Conrad had signed on for the first of six voyages between July and September 1878, from Lowestoft to Newcastle on a coaster misleadingly named "Skimmer of the Sea". Crucially for his future career, he 'began to learn English from East Coast chaps, each built to last for ever and coloured like a Christmas card.'
In London on 21 September 1881, Conrad set sail for Newcastle as second mate on the small vessel "Palestine" (13 hands) to pick up a cargo of 557 tons of 'West Hartley' coal bound for Bangkok. From the outset things went wrong. A gale hampered progress (sixteen days to the Tyne), then the "Palestine" had to wait a month for a berth, and was finally rammed by a steam vessel.
"Palestine" sailed from the Tyne at the turn of the year. The ship sprang a leak in the Channel and was stuck in Falmouth for a further nine months. After all these misfortunes, Conrad writes: 'Poor old Captain Beard looked like a ghost of a Geordie skipper.' The ship set sail from Falmouth on 17 September 1882 and reached the Sunda Strait in March 1883. Finally, off Java Head, the cargo ignited and fire engulfed the ship. The crew, including Conrad, reached shore safely in open boats. The ship is re-named "Judaea" in Conrad's famous story "Youth", which covers all these events. This voyage from the Tyne was Conrad's first fateful contact with the exotic East, the setting for many of his later works.
In 1886 he gained both his
Master Mariner's certificate and British citizenship, officially changing his name to "Joseph Conrad." Prior to his retirement from the sea in 1894, Conrad served a total of sixteen years in the merchant navy. In 1883 he joined the "Narcissus" in Bombay, a voyage that inspired his 1897 novel " The Nigger of the Narcissus".
A childhood ambition to visit central Africa was realised in 1889, when Conrad contrived to reach the
Congo Free State. He became captain of a Congo steamboat, and the atrocities he witnessed and his experiences there not only informed his most acclaimed and ambiguous work, " Heart of Darkness", but served to crystalise his vision of human nature — and his beliefs about himself. These were in some measure affected by the emotional trauma and lifelong illness he contracted there. During his stay, he became acquainted with Roger Casement, whose 1904 Congo Report detailed the abuses suffered by the indigenous population.
The journey upriver that the book's protagonist,
Charles Marlow, made closely follows Conrad's own, and he appears to have experienced a disturbing insight into the nature of evil. Conrad's experience of lonelinessat sea, of corruption and of the pitilessness of natureconverged to form a coherent, if bleak, vision of the world. Isolation, self-deception, and the remorseless working out of the consequences of character flaws are threads running through much of his work. Conrad's own sense of loneliness throughout his exile's life would find memorable expression in the 1901 short story, " Amy Foster."
In 1891, Conrad stepped down in rank to sail as first mate on the "Torrens", quite possibly the finest ship ever launched from a
Sunderlandyard (James Laing's Deptford Yard, 1875). For fifteen years (1875–90), no ship approached her speed for the outward passage to Australia. On her record-breaking run to Adelaide, she covered 16,000 miles in 64 days. Conrad writes of her:
"A ship of brilliant qualities - the way the ship had of letting big seas slip under her did one's heart good to watch. It resembled so much an exhibition of intelligent grace and unerring skill that it could fascinate even the least seamanlike of our passengers." Fact|date:September 2008|date=September 2008
Conrad made two voyages to Australia aboard her, but in 1894 he had parted from the sea for ever and embarked upon his literary career—having begun writing his first novel "Almayer's Folly" on board the "Torrens".
In March 1896 Conrad married an Englishwoman, Jessie George, [cite news |first= |last= |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=Books and Writers: Joseph Conrad. |url=http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/jconrad.htm |quote= |publisher= |date= |accessdate=2008-03-11 ] and together they moved into a small semi-detached villa in Victoria Road,
Stanford-le-Hopeand later to a medieval lath-and-plaster farmhouse, "Ivy Walls," in Billet Lane. He subsequently lived in London and near Canterbury, Kent. The couple had two sons, John and Borys.
A further insight into Conrad's emotional life is provided by an episode which inspired one of his strangest and least known stories, "
A Smile of Fortune." In September 1888 he put into Mauritius, as captain of the sailing barque "Otago". His story likewise recounts the arrival of an unnamed English sea captain in a sailing vessel, come for sugar. He encounters “the old French families, descendants of the old colonists; all noble, all impoverished, and living a narrow domestic life in dull, dignified decay. . . . The girls are almost always pretty, ignorant of the world, kind and agreeable and generally bilingual. The emptiness of their existence passes belief.”
The tale describes Jacobus, an affable gentleman chandler beset by hidden shame. Extramarital passion for the bareback rider of a visiting circus had resulted in a child and scandal. For eighteen years this daughter, Alice, has been confined to Jacobus’s house, seeing no one but a governess. When Conrad’s captain is invited to the house of Jacobus, he is irresistibly drawn to the wild, beautiful Alice. "For quite a time she did not stir, staring straight before her as if watching the vision of some pageant passing through the garden in the deep, rich glow of light and the splendour of flowers."
The suffering of Alice Jacobus was true enough. A copy of the "Dictionary of Mauritian Biography" unearthed by the scholar
Zdzisław Najderreveals that her character was a fictionalised version of seventeen-year-old Alice Shaw, whose father was a shipping agent and owned the only rose garden in the town. While it is evident that Conrad too fell in love while in Mauritius, it was not with Alice. His proposal to young Eugénie Renouf was declined, the lady being already engaged. Conrad left broken-hearted, vowing never to return.
Something of his feelings is considered to permeate the recollections of the captain. "I was seduced by the moody expression of her face, by her obstinate silences, her rare, scornful words; by the perpetual pout of her closed lips, the black depths of her fixed gaze turned slowly upon me as if in contemptuous provocation."
Later life and death
In 1894, aged 36, Conrad reluctantly gave up the sea, partly because of poor health and partly because he had become so fascinated with writing that he decided on a literary career. His first novel, "
Almayer's Folly", set on the east coast of Borneo, was published in 1895. Together with its successor, " An Outcast of the Islands" (1896), it laid the foundation for Conrad's reputation as a romantic teller of exotic tales, a misunderstanding of his purpose that was to frustrate him for the rest of his career.
Except for several vacations in France and Italy, a 1914 journey to Poland, and a 1923 visit to the United States, he lived the rest of his life in England.
Financial success evaded Conrad, though a
Civil Listpension of £100 per annum stabilised his affairs, and collectors began to purchase his manuscripts. Though his talent was recognized by the English intellectual elite, popular success eluded him until the 1913 publication of "Chance"—paradoxically so, as it is not now regarded as one of his better novels. Thereafter, for the remaining years of his life, Conrad was the subject of more discussion and praise than any other English writer of the time. Although the quality of his work declined, he enjoyed increasing wealth and status. Conrad had a true genius for companionship, and his circle of friends included talented authors such as Stephen Craneand Henry James. In the early 1900s, he, composed a short series of novels in collaboration with Ford Madox Ford. [ [http://www.dukemagazine.duke.edu/dukemag/issues/050606/depgal2.html Collaborative Literature] ]
In April 1924 Conrad, who possessed a hereditary Polish status of nobility and coat-of-arms ("Nałęcz"), declined the offer of a (non-hereditary) British
knighthoodfrom Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald, and he died shortly thereafter, on 3 August 1924, of a heart attack. He was interred at Canterbury Cemetery, Canterbury, England, under his original Polish surname, Korzeniowski. [cite news |first= |last= |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=Joseph Conrad Dies, Writer of the Sea. Author of 'Victory,' 'The Rover' and 'Youth' Succumbs in England at 67 Years. |url= |quote=Joseph Conrad, the novelist, died suddenly this morning at his house at Bishopsbourne near Canterbury. He was 67 years old. |publisher= New York Times|date=4 August 1924|accessdate=2007-07-21 ]
Of Conrad's novels, "
Lord Jim" and " Nostromo" continue to be widely read, as set texts and for pleasure. " The Secret Agent" and " Under Western Eyes" are also considered to be among his finest books.
Arguably Conrad's most influential work remains "
Heart of Darkness", to which many have been introduced by Francis Ford Coppola's film, " Apocalypse Now", inspired by Conrad's novella and set during the Vietnam War. The themes of "Heart of Darkness", and the depiction of a journey into the darkness of the human psyche, still resonate with modern readers.
As an artist, he famously aspired, in his preface to "
The Nigger of the 'Narcissus'" (1897), "by the power of the written word to make you hear, to make you feel... before all, to make you "see". That — and no more, and it is everything. If I succeed, you shall find there according to your deserts: encouragement, consolation, fear, charm — all you demand — and, perhaps, also that glimpse of truth for which you have forgotten to ask." [cite news |first= |last= |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=Wikiquote: The Nigger of the Narcissus. |url=http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/The_Nigger_of_the_'Narcissus' |quote= |publisher= [ |date= |accessdate=2008-03-11 ]
Writing in what to the
visual artswas the age of Impressionism, Conrad showed himself in many of his works a prose poet of the highest order: thus, for instance, in the evocative "Patna" and courtroom scenes of " Lord Jim"; in the "melancholy-mad elephant" and gunboat scenes of " Heart of Darkness"; in the doubled protagonists of " The Secret Sharer"; and in the verbal and conceptual resonances of " Nostromo" and " The Nigger of the 'Narcissus'".
The singularity of the universe depicted in Conrad's novels, especially compared to those of near-contemporaries like
John Galsworthy, is such as to open him to criticism similar to that later applied to Graham Greene. [Regions of the Mind: the Exoticism of Greeneland; Andrew Purssell, University of London. http://www.dur.ac.uk/postgraduate.english/AndrewPurssellArticle.htm] But where "Greeneland" has been characterised as a recurring and recognisable atmosphere independent of setting, Conrad is at pains to create a sense of place, be it aboard ship or in a remote village. Often he chose to have his characters play out their destinies in isolated or confined circumstances.
In the view of
Evelyn Waughand Kingsley Amis, it was not until the first volumes of Anthony Powell's sequence, " A Dance to the Music of Time", were published in the 1950s, that an English novelist achieved the same command of atmosphere and precisionof language with consistency, a view supported by present-day critics like A. N. Wilson. This is the more remarkable, given that English was Conrad's third language. Powell acknowledged his debt to Conrad.
Conrad's third language remained inescapably under the influence of his first two — Polish and French. This makes his English seem unusual. It was perhaps from Polish and French
prose styles that he adopted a fondness for triple parallelism, especially in his early works ("all that mysterious life of the wilderness that stirs in the forest, in the jungles, in the hearts of wild men"), as well as for rhetorical abstraction("It was the stillness of an implacable force brooding over an inscrutable intention"). T. E. Lawrence, one of many writers whom Conrad befriended, offered some perceptive observations about Conrad's writing:
:He's absolutely the most haunting thing in prose that ever was: I wish I knew how every paragraph he writes (... they are all paragraphs: he seldom writes a single sentence...) goes on sounding in waves, like the note of a tenor bell, after it stops. It's not built in the rhythm of ordinary prose, but on something existing only in his head, and as he can never say what it is he wants to say, all his things end in a kind of hunger, a suggestion of something he can't say or do or think. So his books always look bigger than they are. He's as much a giant of the subjective as Kipling is of the objective. Do they hate one another? [Jeffrey Meyers, "Joseph Conrad: a Biography", p. 343.]
In Conrad's time,
literary critics, while usually commenting favourably on his works, often remarked that his exotic style, complex narration, profoundthemes and pessimistic ideas put many readers off. Yet as Conrad's ideas were borne out by 20th-century events, in due course he came to be admired for beliefs that seemed to accord with subsequent times more closely than with his own.
Conrad's was, indeed, a starkly lucid view of the
human condition— a vision similar to that which had been offered in two micro-stories by his ten-years-older Polish compatriot, Bolesław Prus(whose work Conrad admired): " Mold of the Earth" (1884) and "Shades" (1885). Conrad wrote:
:Faith is a myth and beliefs shift like mists on the shore; thoughts vanish; words, once pronounced, die; and the memory of yesterday is as
shadowy as the hope of to-morrow....:In this world — as I have known it — we are made to suffer without the shadow of a reason, of a cause or of guilt....:There is no morality, no knowledge and no hope; there is only the consciousness of ourselves which drives us about a worldthat... is always but a vain and floating appearance....:A moment, a twinkling of an eye and nothing remains — but a clot of mud, of cold mud, of dead mud cast into black space, rolling around an extinguished sun. Nothing. Neither thought, nor sound, nor soul. Nothing. [Jeffrey Meyers, "Joseph Conrad: a Biography", p. 166.]
Conrad is the novelist of man in extreme situations. "Those who read me," he wrote in the preface to "
A Personal Record", "know my conviction that the world, the temporal world, rests on a few very simple ideas; so simple that they must be as old as the hills. It rests, notably, among others, on the idea of Fidelity."
Fidelity is the barrier man erects against nothingness, against corruption, against the evil that is all about him, insidious, waiting to engulf him, and that in some sense is within him unacknowledged. But what happens when fidelity is submerged, the barrier broken down, and the evil without is acknowledged by the evil within? At his greatest, that is Conrad's theme.
Chinua Achebepublished an essay, "," wherein he labeled Conrad a "thoroughgoing racist." The essay set off a storm of controversy regarding Conrad's legacy. Achebe's point of view is that "Heart of Darkness" cannot be considered "a great work of art" because it is "a novel which celebrates... dehumanization, which depersonalizes a portion of the human race." [ [http://social.chass.ncsu.edu/wyrick/debclass/achcon.htm Achebe: An Image of Africa: Racism in Conrad's "Heart of Darkness" ] at social.chass.ncsu.edu]
Referring to Conrad as a "talented, tormented man," Achebe drew on several instances of apparent racism in Conrad's writings in which the author derided "niggers" as variously "unreasoning," "savage" and "inscrutable." [ [http://social.chass.ncsu.edu/wyrick/debclass/achcon.htm Achebe: An Image of Africa: Racism in Conrad's "Heart of Darkness" ] at social.chass.ncsu.edu] Conrad's advocates, however, in defending his reputation and the ongoing value of his work, have reproached Achebe with disregarding the "historical context" of Conrad's work. [http://caxton.stockton.edu/hod/achebe] [ [http://www.qub.ac.uk/schools/SchoolofEnglish/imperial/africa/Conrad-readings.htm Two Readings of Heart of Darkness ] at www.qub.ac.uk]
Citing "Heart of Darkness", Conrad's advocates have also noted that he refers to the rhetorically noble aims of European colonialists sardonically, thus illustrating his cynicism of the presumption that white men are inherently virtuous—the popular sentiment of his day. This is a central theme of the novel itself. The character
Charles Marlow's experiences in Africa expose the brutal reality of colonialism and the falseness of the rationalisations given for it. Ending a passage describing the condition of chained, emaciated slave workers, Conrad remarks, "After all, I also was a part of the great cause of these high and just proceedings."
Baltic Seacoast at Gdyniafeatures an anchor-shaped monument to Conrad.
San Francisco, California, in 1979, a small triangular square at Columbus and Bay Streets, near Fisherman's Wharf, was dedicated as " Joseph Conrad Square" after Conrad, who had twice visited San Francisco.
Notwithstanding the undoubted sufferings that Conrad endured on many of his voyages, he contrived to put up at the best lodgings at many of his destinations.
Hotels across the Far Eaststill lay claim to him as an honoured guest, often naming the rooms he stayed in after him: in the case of Singapore's Raffles Hotel, the wrong suite has been named in his honour, apparently for marketing reasons. His visits to Bangkokare also lodged in that city's collective memory, and are recorded in the official history of the Oriental Hotel, along with that of a less well-behaved guest, Somerset Maugham, who pilloried the hotel in a short story in revenge for attempts to eject him.
Conrad is also reported to have stayed at Hong Kong's
Peninsula Hotel. Later literary admirers, notably Graham Greene, followed closely in his footsteps, sometimes requesting the same room. No Caribbeanresort is yet known to have claimed Conrad's patronage, although he is believed to have stayed at a Fort-de-France"pension" upon arrival in Martiniqueon his first voyage, in 1875, when he travelled as a passenger on the "Mont Blanc".
Anchor-shaped Conrad monument, Gdynia, on Poland's Baltic Seacoast.]
Novellas and short stories
* "The Idiots" (Conrad's first short story; written during his honeymoon, published in "Savo" 1896 and collected in "Tales of Unrest", 1898).
* "The Black Mate" (written, according to Conrad, in 1886; published 1908; posthumously collected in "Tales of Hearsay", 1925).
The Lagoon" (composed 1896; published in "Cornhill Magazine" 1897; collected in "Tales of Unrest", 1898).
An Outpost of Progress" (written 1896 and named in 1906 by Conrad himself, long after the publication of "Lord Jim" and "Heart of Darkness", as his 'best story'; published in "Cosmopolis" 1897 and collected in "Tales of Unrest" 1898; often compared to "Heart of Darkness", with which it has numerous thematic affinities).
* "The Return" (written circa early 1897; never published in magazine form; collected in "Tales of Unrest", 1898; Conrad, presaging the sentiments of most readers, once remarked, "I hate it").
* "Karain: A Memory" (written February–April 1897; published Nov. 1897 in "Blackwood's" and collected in "Tales of Unrest", 1898).
* "Youth" (written in 1898; collected in "Youth, a Narrative and Two Other Stories", 1902)
* "Falk" (novella/story, written in early 1901; collected only in "Typhoon and Other Stories", 1903).
Amy Foster" (composed in 1901; published the "Illustrated London News", Dec. 1901 and collected in "Typhoon and Other Stories", 1903).
* "To-morrow" (written early 1902; serialized in "Pall Mall Magazine", 1902 and collected in "Typhoon and Other Stories", 1903).
* "The End of the Tether" (written in 1902; collected in "Youth, a Narrative and Two Other Stories", 1902)
* "Gaspar Ruiz" (written after "Nostromo" in 1904–05; published in "Strand Magazine" in 1906 and collected in "A Set of Six", 1908 UK/1915 US. This story was the only piece of Conrad's fiction ever adapted by the author for cinema, as "Gaspar the Strong Man", 1920).
* "An Anarchist" (written in late 1905; serialized in "Harper's" in 1906; collected in "A Set of Six", 1908 UK/1915 US.)
* "The Informer" (written before January 1906; published in December 1906 in "Harper's" and collected in "A Set of Six", 1908 UK/1915 US.)
* "The Brute" (written in early 1906; published in "The Daily Chronicle" in December 1906; collected in "A Set of Six", 1908 UK/1915 US.)
* "The Duel" (aka "The Point of Honor": serialized in the UK in "Pall Mall Magazine" in early 1908 and in the US periodical "Forum" later that year; collected in "A Set of Six" in 1908 and published by Garden City Publishing in 1924.
Joseph Fouchémakes a cameo appearance)
* "Il Conde" (i.e., 'Conte' [count] : appeared in "Cassell's" [UK] 1908 and "Hampton's" [US] in 1909; collected in "A Set of Six", 1908 UK/1915 US.)
* "Prince Roman" (written 1910, published in 1911 in the "Oxford and Cambridge Review"; based upon the story of Prince
Roman Sanguszkoof Poland 1800–1881)
* "A Smile of Fortune" (a long story, almost a novella, written in mid-1910; published in "London Magazine" in Feb. 1911; collected in "Twixt Land and Sea" 1912)
* "Freya of the Seven Isles" (another near-novella, written late 1910–early 1911; published in "Metropolitan Magazine" and "London Magazine" in early 1912 and July 1912, respectively; collected in "Twixt Land and Sea" 1912)
* "The Partner" (written in 1911; published in "Within the Tides", 1915)
* "The Inn of the Two Witches" (written in 1913; published in "Within the Tides", 1915)
* "Because of the Dollars" (written in 1914; published in "Within the Tides", 1915)
* "The Planter of Malata" (written in 1914; published in "Within the Tides", 1915)
* "The Warrior's Soul" (written late 1915–early 1916; published in "Land and Water", in March 1917; collected in "Tales of Hearsay", 1925)
* "The Tale" (Conrad's only story about
World War I; written 1916 and first published 1917 in "Strand Magazine")
Memoirs and essays
The Mirror of the Sea" (collection of autobiographical essays first published in various magazines 1904–6 ), 1906
A Personal Record" (also published as "Some Reminiscences"), 1912
Notes on Life and Letters", 1921
Last Essays", 1926
List of works by Joseph Conrad.
* Bolesław Prus
ORP Conrad" – a World War II Polish Navy cruisernamed after Joseph Conrad.
King Leopold's Ghost"
* Politics in fiction
* List of Poles
Tim Butcher: "Blood River - A Journey To Africa's Broken Heart", 2007. ISBN 0-701-17981-3.
* Jeffrey Meyers, "Joseph Conrad: a Biography", New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1991.
Zdzisław Najder, "Conrad under Familial Eyes", Cambridge University Press, 1984, ISBN 0-521-25082-X.
Zdzisław Najder, "Joseph Conrad: a Life", translated by Halina Najder, Rochester, Camden House, 2007, ISBN 157113347X.
* J.H. Stape, ed. "The Cambridge Companion to Joseph Conrad", Cambridge University Press, 2006.
* John Stape. "The Several Lives of Joseph Conrad", Pantheon, 2008, ISBN 1400044499.
* T. Scovel, "A Time to Speak: a Psycholinguistic Inquiry into the Critical Period for Human Speech", Cambridge, MA, Newbury House, 1988.
* [http://www.conradfirst.net/ Works by Joseph Conrad] at Conrad First, an archive of every newspaper and magazine in which the work of Joseph Conrad was first published.
* [http://www.archive.org/search.php?query=creator%3Ajoseph%20conrad%20-contributor%3Agutenberg%20AND%20mediatype%3Atexts Works by Joseph Conrad] at
Internet Archive(scanned books original editions)
*gutenberg author|id=Joseph_Conrad|name=Joseph Conrad (plain text and HTML)
Google Books(scanned books original editions)
* [http://onlinebooks.library.upenn.edu/webbin/book/search?author=Conrad+Joseph&amode=words&title=&tmode=words Works by Joseph Conrad] at
The Online Books Page(various)
* [http://librivox.org/newcatalog/search.php?title=&author=joseph+conrad&status=all&action=Search Works by Joseph Conrad] at
* [http://www.booksinmyphone.com/index.php?author=Joseph%20Conrad Works by Joseph Conrad] , at Books In My Phone (cell phone)
Portals and biographies
* [http://www.josephconradsociety.org/ The Joseph Conrad Society (U.K)]
* [http://conrad-centre.w.interia.pl/pages/conrad_life_en.htm Biography of Joseph Conrad] , at The Joseph Conrad Centre of Poland
* [http://www.online-literature.com/conrad/ Biography of Joseph Conrad] , at "The Literature Network"
* [http://www.literaryhistory.com/20thC/Conrad.htm Conrad's page at Literary Journal.com] , a number of research articles on Conrad's work
* [http://caxton.stockton.edu/hod/achebe Chinua Achebe: The Lecture Heard Around The World]
* [http://www.weberberg.de/skool/schwerpunktthema-abitur-one-language-many-voices.html About "An Outpost of Progress"] Interpretations of, and more background on, the short story.
* Henthorne, Tom. "Conrad's Trojan Horses: Imperialism, Hybridity, and the Postcolonial Aesthetic", Texas Tech University Press, 2008. [http://www.ttup.ttu.edu/BookPages/9780896726338.html]
* [http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=20386 Find-A-Grave profile for Joseph Conrad]
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