- Politics of Jordan
Politics of Jordan takes place in a framework of a parliamentary
monarchy, whereby the Prime Minister of Jordanis head of government, and of a multi-party system. Jordan is a constitutional monarchybased on the constitutionpromulgated on January 8, 1952.
Abdullah bin al Hussein| 7 February 1999
Nader al-Dahabi| 25 November 2007 Executive authorityis vested in the king and his council of ministers. The king signs and executes all laws. His vetopower may be overridden by a two-thirds vote of both houses of the National Assembly. He appoints and may dismiss all judges by decree, approves amendments to the constitution, declares war, and commands the armed forces. Cabinetdecisions, courtjudgments, and the national currencyare issued in his name. The council of ministers, led by a prime minister, is appointed by the king, who may dismiss other cabinet members at the prime minister's request. The cabinet is responsible to the Chamber of Deputies on matters of general policy and can be forced to resign by a two-thirds vote of "no confidence" by that body.
Legislative power rests in the
bicameralNational Assembly. The National Assembly ("Majlis al-Umma") has two chambers. The Chamber of Deputies ("Majlis al-Nuwaab") has 110 members, 104 elected for a four year term in single-seat constituencies and 6 female members by a special electoral college. Of the 110 seats, Christians are reserved 9 seats and Chechens/Circassians are reserved 3. The Assembly of Senators ("Majlis al-Aayan") has 40 members appointed by the king for an 8-year term.
Political parties and elections
The constitution provides for three categories of courts--civil (in this case meaning 'regular'), religious, and special. Regular courts consist of both civil and criminal varieties at the first level – First Instance or Conciliation Courts, second level – Appelette or Appeals Courts – and the Cassation Court which is the highest judicial authority in the kingdom. There are two types of religious courts: Sharia courts which enforce the provisions of Islamic law and civil status, and tribunals of other religious communities officially recognized in Jordan.
Administratively, Jordan is divided into twelve
governorates, each headed by a governor appointed by the king. They are the sole authorities for all government departments and development projects in their respective areas.
King Hussein ruled Jordan from
1953to 1999, surviving a number of challenges to his rule, drawing on the loyalty of his military, and serving as a symbol of unity and stability for both the East Bankand Palestiniancommunities in Jordan. King Hussein ended martial lawin 1991and legalized political parties in 1992. In 1989and 1993, Jordan held free and fair parliamentary elections. Controversial changes in the election law led Islamist parties to boycott the 1997elections.
King Abdullah II succeeded his father Hussein following the latter's death in February 1999. Abdullah moved quickly to reaffirm Jordan's
peace treatywith Israeland its relations with the United States. Abdullah, during the first year in power, refocused the government's agenda on economic reform.
Jordan's continuing structural economic difficulties, burgeoning population, and more open political environment led to the emergence of a variety of political parties. Moving toward greater independence, Jordan's parliament has investigated corruption charges against several regime figures and has become the major forum in which differing political views, including those of political Islamists, are expressed. While King Abdullah remains the ultimate authority in Jordan, the parliament plays an important role.
Jordan is divided into 12 governorates ("muhafazat", singular - "muhafazah"):
International organization participation
ABEDA, ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UNTAET, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
* [http://www.kinghussein.gov.jo/constitution_jo.html Constitution of Jordan]
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