government, bicameralism (bi + Latin _la. "camera", chamber) is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. Thus, a bicameral parliament or bicameral legislature is a legislaturewhich consists of two chambers or houses. Bicameralism is an essential and defining feature of the classical notion of mixed government. Bicameral legislatures tend to require a concurrent majorityto pass legislation.
Theory of bicameral congress
Although the ideas on which bicameralism are based can be traced back to the theories developed in Ancient
Sumerand later ancient Greece, ancient India, and Rome, recognizable bicameral institutions first arose in medieval Europe where they were associated with separate representation of different estates of the realm. For example, one house would represent the aristocracy, and the other would represent the commoners. The Founding Fathers of the United Statesalso favored a bicameral legislature, though not based on class distinction. As part of the Great Compromise, they invented a new rationale for bicameralism in which the upper house would have states represented equally, and the lower house would have them represented by population.
In subsequent constitution making, federal states have often adopted bicameralism, and the solution remains popular when regional differences or sensitivities require more explicit representation, with the second chamber representing the constituent states. Nevertheless, the older justification for second chambers — providing opportunities for second thoughts about legislation — has survived. A trend towards
unicameralismin the 20th century appears now to have been halted.
Growing awareness of the complexity of the notion of representation and the multifunctional nature of modern legislatures may be affording incipient new rationales for second chambers, though these do generally remain contested institutions in ways that first chambers are not. An example of political controversy regardinga second chamber has been the debate over the powers of the
Canadian Senateor the election of the Senate of France[http://www.liberation.fr/politiques/010132156-senat-le-triomphe-de-l-anomalie] .
The relationship between the two chambers varies; in some cases, they have equal power, while in others, one chamber is clearly superior in its powers. The first tends to be the case in federal systems and those with presidential governments. The latter tends to be the case in unitary states with
Some political scientists believe that bicameralism makes meaningful political reforms more difficult to achieve and increases the risk of deadlock (particularly in cases where both chambers have similar powers). Others argue strongly for the merits of the '
checks and balances' provided by the bicameral model, which they believe helps prevent the passage into law of ill-considered legislation.
Some countries, such as
Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Germany, India, Malaysia, Mexico, Pakistan, Russia, Switzerland, and the United Stateslink their bicameral systems to their federal political structure.
In the United States, Australia, and Mexico, for example, each state is given the same number of seats in the legislature's upper house. This takes account of population differences between states — it is designed to ensure that smaller states are not overshadowed by more populous ones. (In the United States, the deal that ensured this arrangement is known as the
Connecticut Compromise.) In the lower houses of each country, these provisions do not apply, and seats are allocated based purely on population. The bicameral system, therefore, is a method of combining the principle of democratic equality with the principle of federalism — all citizens are equal in the lower houses, while all states are equal in the upper houses.
In Canada, the country as a whole is divided into a number of Senate Divisions, each with a different number of Senators, based on a number of factors. These Divisions are
Quebec, Ontario, Western Provinces, and the Maritimes, each with 24 Senators, Yukon, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, each with 1 Senator, and Newfoundland and Labradorhas 6 Senators, making for a total of 105 Senators.
In the German, Indian, and Pakistani systems, the upper houses (the Bundesrat, the
Rajya Sabha, and the Pakistani Senate respectively) are even more closely linked with the federal system, being appointed or elected directly by the governments of each German Bundesland, Indian State, or Pakistani Province. (This was also the case in the United States before the 17th Amendment.) The Indian Upper House does not have the states represented equally, but on the basis of their population.
There are also instances of bicameralism in countries that are not federations, but which have upper houses with representation on a territorial basis. For example in
South Africa, the National Council of Provinces(and before 1997, the Senate) has its members chosen by each Province's legislature. "
In Spain the
Spanish Senatefunctions as a "de facto" territorial-based upper house, and there has been some pressure from the Autonomous Communitiesto reform it into a strictly territorial chamber.
European Unionmaintains a bicameral legislative system which consists of the European Parliament, which is elected in general elections on the basis of universal suffrage, and the Council of the European Unionwhich consists of members of the governments of the Member States which are competent for the relevant field of legislation. Although the European Union is not considered a state, it enjoys the power to legislate in many areas of politics; in some areas, those powers are even exclusively reserved to it.
In a few countries, bicameralism involves the juxtaposition of democratic and aristocratic elements.
The best known example is the British
House of Lords, which includes a number of hereditary peers. The House of Lords represents a vestige of the aristocratic system which once predominated in British politics, while the other house, the House of Commons, is entirely elected. Over the years, there have been proposals to reform the House of Lords, some of which have been at least partly successful — the House of Lords Act 1999limited the number of hereditary peers (as opposed to life peers, appointed by the government) to 92, down from around 700. The ability of the House of Lords to block legislation is curtailed by the Parliament Act. Further reform of the Lords is planned.
Another example of aristocratic bicameralism was the
Japanese House of Peers, abolished after World War IIand replaced with the present House of Councillors.
Many bicameral systems are not connected with either federalism or an aristocracy, however.
Japan, France, Italy, the Netherlands, the Philippines, the Czech Republic, the Republic of Irelandand Romaniaare examples of bicameral systems existing in unitary states. In countries such as these, the upper house generally exists solely for the purpose of scrutinising and possibly vetoing the decisions of the lower house.
In some of these countries, the upper house is indirectly elected. Members of France's Senate, Ireland's
Seanad Éireannare chosen by electoral colleges consisting of members of the lower house, local councillors, the Taoiseach, and graduates of selected universities, while the Netherlands' First Chamber is chosen by members of provincial assemblies.
In some countries with federal systems, individual states (like those of the
United Statesand Australia) may also have bicameral legislatures. Only two such states, Nebraskain the US and Queenslandin Australia, have adopted unicameral systems.
However, in early United States history, unicameral state legislatures were not totally uncommon: even though twelve of the original thirteen States (
Pennsylvaniabeing the only exception) had a bicameral legislature at the time of the Philadelphia Convention, some of the new States didn't immediately adopt such system. It was not until 1836, for example, that Vermontfinally created a Senate.
During the 1930s, the Legislature of the State of Nebraska was reduced from
bicameralto unicameral with the 43 members that once comprised that state's Senate. One of the arguments used to sell the idea at the time to Nebraska voters was that by adopting a unicameral system, the perceived evils of the " conference committee" process would be eliminated.
A conference committee is appointed when the two chambers cannot agree on the same wording of a proposal, and consists of a small number of legislators from each chamber. This tends to place much power in the hands of only a small number of legislators. Whatever legislation, if any, the conference committee finalizes must then be approved in an unamendable "take-it-or-leave-it" manner by both chambers.
During his term as
Governorof the State of Minnesota, Jesse Venturaproposed converting the Minnesotan legislature to a single chamber with proportional representation, as a reform that he felt would solve many legislative difficulties and impinge upon legislative corruption. In his book on political issues, "Do I Stand Alone?", Ventura argued that bicameral legislatures for provincial and local areas were excessive and unnecessary, and discussed unicameralism as a reform that could address many legislative and budgetary problems for states.
In Australian states the lower house was traditionally elected based on the one-vote-one-value principle, whereas the upper house was partially appointed and elected, with a bias towards country voters. In Queensland, the appointed upper house was abolished in 1922, while
New South Walesthere were similar attempts at abolition, before the upper house was reformed in the 1970s to provide for direct election. Nowadays, the upper house is elected using proportional voting and the lower house through preferential voting, except in Tasmania, where proportional voting is used for the lower house, and preferential voting for the upper house.
Arab political reform
A [http://www.cfr.org/pdf/Arab_Democracy_TF.pdf 2005 report] on democratic reform in the Arab world by the US
Council on Foreign Relationsco-sponsored by former Secretary of State Madeleine Albrighturged Arab states to adopt bicameralism, with upper chambers appointed on a 'specialised basis'. The Council claimed that this would protect against the ' tyranny of the majority', expressing concerns that without a system of checks and balances extremists would use the single chamber parliaments to restrict the rights of minoritygroups.
Bahrainadopted a bicameral system with an elected lower chamber and an appointed upper house. This led to a boycott of parliamentary elections that year by the Al Wefaqparty, who said that the government would use the upper house to veto their plans. Many secular critics of bicameralism were won round to its benefits in 2005, after many MPs in the lower house voted for the introduction of so-called morality police.
* Parliament in
Australia, which consists of House of Representatives and Senate; all of the state parliaments except Queensland's are also bicameral.
* The Parliament in
Austria, which consists of the _de. Nationalrat and the _de. Bundesrat; all of the _de. "Bundesländer" have unicameral parliaments.
Congresso Nacionalin Brazilwhich consists of the Senado and the Câmara dos Deputados; all of the 26 state legislatures and the Federal District legislature are unicameral.
* The Congreso de la Unión of
Mexicowhich consists of the Cámara de Senadores and the Cámara de Diputados; all the 31 State Congresses and the Legislative Assembly of the Federal District are unicameral.
* Parliament in
Canada, which consists of the House of Commons and the Senate; all of the provincial legislatures are unicameral.
* Parliament in the Fifth French Republic which consists of the _fr. Assemblée Nationale (National Assembly) and the _fr. Sénat (Senate)
* the _de.
Bundestagand _de. Bundesrat in Germany; they form two distinct bodies not framed by a comprehensive institution; all of the _de. "Länder" have today unicameral parliaments.
* Parliament in
India, which consists of the _hi. Lok Sabha(House of the People) and the _hi. Rajya Sabha(Council of States); some of the states also have bicameral legislatures namely _hi. Vidhan Sabha(Legislative Assembly) and _hi. Vidhan Parishad(Legislative Council).
* The Parliament in
Italy, which consists of two chambers that have same role and power: the Senato della Repubblica (Senate of the Republic, commonly considered the "upper house") and the Camera dei Deputati(Chamber of Deputies, considered the "lower house") with twice as many members as the Senate.
* The Diet of
Japanis bicameral, consisting of the House of Representatives ( _ja. 衆議院; _ja. Shūgi-in) as the lower house and the House of Councillors ( _ja. 参議院; _ja. Sangi-in) as the upper house.
* The _ga.
Oireachtasof the Republic of Irelandwhich consists of _ga. Dáil Éireann(the House of Representatives) and _ga. Seanad Éireann(the Senate)
* Parliament in
Malaysia, which consists of the _ms. " Dewan Rakyat" (House of Representatives) and the _ms. " Dewan Negara" (Senate); all of the state legislatures are unicameral.
Netherlands States-General, which consists of the _nl. Tweede Kamer(Second Chamber) and the _nl. Eerste Kamer(First Chamber)
Pakistan, which consists of the National Assembly and the Senate; all of the provincial assemblies are unicameral.
Spain, the _es. Cortes Generales, with the _es. Congreso de los Diputados (Congress of Deputies) and the _es. Senado (Senate)
South Africawhich consists of the National Assembly and the National Council of Provinces; all of the provincial legislatures are unicameral.
*The Federal Assembly in
Switzerland, which consists of the National Council and the Council of States; all of the cantons have unicameral parliaments.
*The Federal Assembly in
Russian Federation, which consists of the State Dumaand the Federation Council; all of the provincial parliaments are unicameral.
* Parliament in the
United Kingdomwhich consists of the House of Commons and the House of Lords
* The Congress of the
Philippinesconsists of a Senate and a House of Representatives
* Congress in the
United Stateswhich consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives; all of the state legislatures except Nebraska are also bicameral.
List of national legislatures
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