- Conservation in New Zealand
Conservation in New Zealand has a history associated with both Māori and Europeans. Both groups of people caused a loss of species and both amended their behaviour after realising their effect on indigenous flora and fauna.
New Zealand has fourteen national parks, thirty one marine reserves and many other protected areas for the conservation of biodiversity. The introduction of many invasive species is threatening the indigenous biodiversity since the geographical isolation of New Zealand led to the evolution of plants and animals that did not have traits to protect against predation. New Zealand has a high proportion of endemic species, so pest control is generally regarded as a high priority.
The New Zealand Department of Conservation administers approximately 30% of New Zealand's land, along with less than 1% of the country's marine environment, for conservation and recreational purposes. It has published lists, under the New Zealand Threat Classification System, of flora and fauna which is at risk or declining which are included in national and regional plans.
Most of the current 11.9 million hectares of agricultural land had been cleared, representing around 44% of the total land area of New Zealand. Initial attempts to decrease the scale of further deforestation, such as Forestry Rights Registration Act 1983 that created 'forestry rights' have been argued to only be moderately successful. However, they created world class structures of data collection and property rights that made way first for an amendment to the 1949 Forests Act in 1993 and later to the Climate Change Response Act 2002. New Zealand's patterns of greenhouse gas emissions are similar to Scandinavian countries, in that land use and land use change and forestry are amongst the most significant contributors. Forestry came to be seen as main tool in meeting New Zealand's Kyoto Protocol targets. Accordingly, REDD programmes (reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation) were implemented, whereby reforestation and deforestation was tied carbon emissions credits and traded (ETS) and commercial carbon-sink forests were planted. Perhaps due to the government's initial control over REDD and the trade in carbon credits there was initially an increase in deforestation and it was not until private forestry owners gained access to the trading scheme and to carbon credits that the scheme started to produce reductions in deforestation.
As well as government funding for conservation efforts money also comes from numerous NGOs and private individuals. The Nature Heritage Fund and the Community Conservation Fund are both government funded.
Conservation organisations began to form from the 19th century. Scenery Preservation Societies formed in some of the Provinces.
An early conservation lobby group was the Royal Forest and Bird Protection Society of New Zealand, which is now the foremost environmental organisation involved in conservation advocacy in New Zealand. In recent years numerous conservation, landcare and activist groups have formed including:
- Beech Forest Action Committee
- Native Forest Action Council
- Maria Society
- Native Forest Action
- Save Happy Valley Coalition
- Trees for Survival
- Loder Cup
- Wellington Conservation Awards
- The Don Merton Conservation Pioneer Award (named after Don Merton)
- Acclimatisation society (New Zealand)
- Gorse in New Zealand
- Didymo in New Zealand
- Whaling in New Zealand
- Project Crimson, a conservation initiative to promote the protection of pohutukawa and rata
- List of extinct animals of New Zealand
- List of extinct plants of New Zealand
- ^ New Zealand Threat Classification System lists 2005, Hitchmough, R.; Bull, L.; Cromarty, P. (comps) (2007) Department of Conservation, Wellington. 194 p.
- ^ a b c d e f g Cox and Peskett 2010. Commodifying carbon to reduce deforestation: lessons from New Zealand. London: Overseas Development Institute
- ^ Department of Conservation - Wellington Conservation Awards
- ^ "Dr Don Merton immortalised in new award". New Zealand Government (Beehive). 29 October 2011. http://beehive.govt.nz/release/dr-don-merton-immortalised-new-award. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
- Young, David (2004). Our Islands, Our Selves. Dunedin: University of Otago Press. ISBN 1-877276-94-4.
- Wilson, Kerry-Jane (2004). Flight of the Huia. Christchurch: Canterbury University Press. ISBN 0-908812-52-3.
- Walker, Susan; Price, Robbie; Rutledge, Daniel (May 2008). New Zealand’s remaining indigenous cover: recent changes and biodiversity protection needs. Science for conservation 284. Wellington: Department of Conservation. ISBN 978-0-478-14403-1. http://www.doc.govt.nz/upload/documents/science-and-technical/sfc284.pdf.
- Nightingale, Tony; Dingwall, Paul (October 2003). Our Picturesque Heritage: 100 years of scenery preservation in New Zealand. Department of Conservation. ISBN 0-478-22491-5. http://www.doc.govt.nz/upload/documents/science-and-technical/OurPicturesqueHeritageentire.pdf.
- Wilson, Catherine M (1989). Threatened Plants of New Zealand. Wellington, N.Z: DSIR Publishing. ISBN 0477025625.
- de Lange, Peter; Heenan, Peter; Norton, David; Rolfe, Jeremy; Sawyer John (2010). Threatened Plants of New Zealand. Christchurch, N.Z: Canterbury University Press. ISBN 9781877257568.
- "The value of conservation: Benefits of conservation". Wellington, N.Z.: New Zealand Department of Conservation. October 2006. http://doc.govt.nz/publications/conservation/threats-and-impacts/benefits-of-conservation/the-value-of-conservation/.
- Morris, Rod; Ballance, Alison (2009). Rare Wildlife of New Zealand. Random House New Zealand. ISBN 9781869419127. http://books.google.com/books?id=DwU6LwAACAAJ.
- Duncan, Richard P.; Young, Jim R. (2000). "Determinants of plant extinction and rarity 145 years after European settlement of Auckland, New Zealand". Ecology (Ecological Society of America) 81 (11): 3048–3061.
- New Zealand Biodiversity
- Biodiversity and Conservation at Landcare Research
- New Zealand Plant Conservation Network
- Conservation Volunteers New Zealand
Conservation in Oceania Sovereign states Dependencies and
- American Samoa
- Christmas Island
- Cocos (Keeling) Islands
- Cook Islands
- Easter Island
- French Polynesia
- New Caledonia
- Norfolk Island
- Northern Mariana Islands
- Pitcairn Islands
- Wallis and Futuna
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