- Eicosanoid biosynthesis
Eicosanoids are signaling molecules, synthesized by most living creatures. (The IUPAC and the IUBMB use the equivalent term Icosanoid.cite web
author=Cyberlipid Center| title=Prostanoids
url= http://www.cyberlipid.org/prost1/pros0001.htm#9 | accessdate=June 1| accessyear=2006] ) These oxygenated
essential fatty acidsare not stored within cells, but are generated as required. They derive from fatty acids, which are cleaved from larger molecules— phospholipids and diacylglycerols—found in the cell membraneand nuclear membrane.
The four classical eicosanoid families are generated by via two types of
enzymes, each of which adds oxygen. Lipoxygenaseyields leukotrienes. Cyclooxygenaseyields the three prostanoids—prostaglandins, prostacyclin and thromboxanes. Several other oxidation paths yield additional bioactive signaling molecules—the non-classical eicosanoids.
The first step of eicosanoid biosynthesis occurs when cell is activated by mechanical trauma, cytokines, growth factors or other stimuli. (The stimulus may even be an eicosanoid from a neighboring cell; the pathways are complex.) This triggers the release of a
phospholipaseat the cell wall. The phospholipase travels to the nuclear membrane.There, the phospholipase catalyzes ester hydrolysisof phospholipid (by A2) or diacylglycerol (by phospholipase C).This frees a 20-carbon essential fatty acid. This hydrolysis appears to be the rate-determining stepfor eicosanoid formation.
The fatty acids may be released by any of several phospholipases. Of these, type IV cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) is the key actor, as cells lacking cPLA2 are generally devoid of eicosanoid synthesis. The phospholipasecPLA2 is specific for phospholipids that contain AA, EPA or GPLA at the SN2 position.Interestingly, cPLA2 may also release the lysophospholipid that becomes
platelet-activating factor.cite web
author=University of Kansas Medical Center
year = 2004
title = Eicosanoids and Inflammation
url = http://classes.kumc.edu/som/bioc801/small_group/eicosanoids/eicosanoids-2004.pdf
accessdate = 2007-01-05|format=PDF]
Peroxidation and reactive oxygen species
Next, the free fatty acid is oxygenated along any of several pathways; see the "Pathways" table. The eicosanoid pathways ("via"
lipoxygenaseor COX) add molecular oxygen (O2). Although the fatty acid is symmetric, the resulting eicosanoids are chiral; the oxidation proceeds with high stereospecificity.
The oxidation of lipids is hazardous to cells, particularly when close to the nucleus.There are elaborate mechanisms to prevent unwanted oxidation. COX, the lipoxygenases and the phospholipases are tightly controlled—there are at least eight proteins activated to coordinate generation of leukotrienes. Several of these exist in multiple
author=Soberman, Roy J. and Christmas, Peter
title =The organization and consequences of eicosanoid signaling
journal =J. Clin. Invest| volume= 111 |pages=1107–1113 |year=2003
url = http://www.jci.org/cgi/content/full/111/8/1107
doi = 10.1172/JCI200318338
accessdate = 2007-01-05] Oxidation by either COX or lipoxygenase releases
reactive oxygen species(ROS) and the initial products in eicosanoid generation are themselves highly reactive peroxides. LTA4 can form adducts with tissue DNA. Other reactions of lipoxygenases generate cellular damage; murine models implicate 15-lipoxygenase in the pathogenesisof atherosclerosis.cite journal
journal= J Clin Invest
month= June | year= 1999 |volume = 103| number =11| pages= 1597–1604n
title=Disruption of the 12/15-lipoxygenase gene diminishes atherosclerosis in apo E–deficient mice
doi=10.1172/JCI5897] cite journal
author=Schewe T. |journal= Biol Chem. |year= 2002 Mar-Apr| volume= 383|issue= 3-4
title = 15-lipoxygenase-1: a prooxidant enzyme
url = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=12033428
unused_data = |pages: 365-74] The oxidation in eicosanoid generation is compartmentalized; this limits the peroxides' damage.The enzymes which are biosynthetic for eicosanoids (e.g. glutathione-S-transferases, epoxide
hydrolases and carrier proteins) belong to families whose functions are largely involved with cellular detoxification. This suggests that eicosanoid signaling may have evolved from the detoxification of ROS.
The cell must realize some benefit from generating lipid hydroperoxides close-by its nucleus.PGs and LTs may signal or regulate DNA-transcription there; LTB4 is ligand for PPARα.cite journal
author=Funk, Colin D. | journal=Science |date=
30 November 2001
volume= 294| issue= 5548 |pages= 1871–1875 |doi = 10.1126/science.294.5548.1871
title= Prostaglandins and Leukotrienes: Advances in Eicosanoid Biology
accessdate = 2007-01-08
url= http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/294/5548/1871] "(See diagram at PPAR)."
Biosynthesis of prostanoids
Prostanoid#Biosynthesis." Cyclooxygenase("COX") catalyzes the conversion of the free essential fatty acids to prostanoids by a two-step process. First, two molecules of O2 are added as two peroxide linkages, and a 5-member carbon ring is forged near the middle of the fatty acid chain. This forms the short-lived, unstable intermediate Prostaglandin G (PGG). Next, one of the peroxide linkages sheds a single oxygen, forming PGH. "(See diagrams and more detail of these steps at Cyclooxygenase)."
All three classes of prostanoids originate from PGH. All have distinctive rings in the center of the molecule.They differ in their structures.The PGH compounds (parents to all the rest) have a 5-carbon ring, bridged by two oxygens (a peroxide.) As the example in "Structures of Selected Eicosanoids" figure shows, the derived prostaglandins contain a single, unsaturated 5-carbon ring.In prostacyclins, this ring is conjoined to another oxygen-containing ring.In thromboxanes the ring becomes a 6-member ring with one oxygen. The leukotrienes do not have rings."(See more detail, including the enzymes involved, in diagrams at
Several drugs lower inflammation by blocking prostanoid synthesis; see detail at
Cyclooxygenase, Aspirinand NSAID.
Biosynthesis of leukotrienes
The enzyme 5-
lipoxygenase(5-LO) uses 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP) to convert arachidonic acidinto 5-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HPETE), which spontaneously reduces to 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE). The enzyme 5-LO acts again on 5-HETE to convert it into leukotrieneA4 (LTA4), which may be converted into LTB4 by the enzyme leukotriene A4 epoxide hydrolase. Eosinophils, mast cells, and alveolar macrophages use the enzyme leukotriene C4 synthase to conjugate glutathionewith LTA4 to make LTC4, which is transported outside the cell, where a glutamic acid moietyis removed from it to make LTD4. The leukotriene LTD4 is then cleaved by dipeptidases to make LTE4. The leukotrienesLTC4, LTD4 and LTE4 all contain cysteineand are collectively known as the cysteinyl leukotrienes.
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