- Fantasy film
Fantasy films are films with fantastic themes, usually involving magic,
supernaturalevents, make-believe creatures, or exotic fantasy worlds. The genre is considered to be distinct from science fiction filmand horror film, although the genres do overlap.
The boundaries of the
fantasy literary genreare not well-defined, and the same is therefore true for the film genre as well. Categorizing a movie as fantasy may thus require an examination of the themes, narrative approach and other structural elements of the film.
For example, much about the "
Star Wars" saga suggests fantasy, yet it has the feel of science fiction, whereas much about " Time Bandits" (1981) suggests science fiction, yet it has the feel of fantasy. Some film critics borrow the literary term Science Fantasy to describe such hybrids of the two genres.
Animated films featuring fantastic elements are not always classified as fantasy, particularly when they are intended for children. "
Bambi", for example, is not fantasy, nor is 1995's Toy Story, though the latter is probably closer to fantasy than the former. " The Secret of NIMH" from 1982, however, may be considered to be a fantasy film because there is actual magic involved.
Other children's movies, such as
Walt Disney's 1937 classic "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" are also difficult to categorize. "Snow White" features a medieval setting, dwarven characters, the use of sorcery, and other tropes common to fantasy. Yet many fans of the genre do not believe such movies qualify as fantasy, placing them in instead in a separate fairy talegenre. Superhero filmsalso fulfill the requirements of the fantasy or science fiction genres but are often considered to be a separate genre. Some critics, however, classify superhero literature and film as a subgenre of fantasy (Superhero Fantasy) rather than as an entirely separate category.
Films that rely on magic primarily as a gimmick, such the 1976 film "Freaky Friday" and its 2003 re-make in which a mother and daughter magically switch bodies, may technically qualify as fantasy but are nevertheless not generally considered part of the genre.
Surrealist film also describes the fantastic, but it dispenses with genre narrative conventions and is usually thought of as a separate category. Finally, many
Martial arts films feature medieval settings and incorporate elements of the fantastic (see for example " Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon"), but fans of such films do not agree if they should also be considered examples of the fantasy genre.
Several sub-categories of fantasy films can be identified, although the delineations between these subgenres, much as in fantasy literature, are somewhat fluid.
The most common fantasy subgenres depicted in movies are
High Fantasyand Sword and Sorcery. Both categories typically employ quasi-medieval settings, wizards, magical creatures and other elements commonly associated with fantasy stories.
High Fantasy films tend to feature a more richly developed fantasy world, and may also be more character-oriented or thematically complex. Often, they feature a hero of humble origins and a clear distinction between good and evil set against each other in an epic struggle. Many scholars cite
J. R. R. Tolkien's " The Lord of the Rings" novel as the prototypical modern example of High Fantasy in literature, and the recent Peter Jacksonfilm adaptation of the books is a good example of the High Fantasy subgenre on the silver screen.
Sword and Sorcery movies tend to be more plot-driven than high fantasy and focus heavily on action sequences, often pitting a physically powerful but unsophisticated warrior against an evil wizard or other supernaturally-endowed enemy. Although Sword and Sorcery films sometimes describe an epic battle between good and evil similar to those found in many High Fantasy movies, they may alternately present the hero as having more immediate motivations, such as the need to protect a vulnerable maiden or village, or even being driven by the desire for vengeance.
The 1982 film adaptation of
Robert E. Howard's " Conan the Barbarian", for example, is a personal (non-epic) story concerning the hero's quest for revenge and his efforts to thwart a single megalomaniac -- while saving a beautiful princess in the process. Some critics refer to such films by the term Sword and Sandal rather than Sword and Sorcery, although others would maintain that the Sword and Sandal label should be reserved only for the subset of fantasy films set in ancient times on the planet Earth, and still others would broaden the term to encompass films that have no fantastic elements whatsoever. To some, the term Sword and Sandal has pejorative connotations, designating a film with a low-quality script, bad acting and poor production values.
Another important sub-genre of fantasy films that has become more popular in recent years is Contemporary Fantasy. Such films feature magical effects or supernatural occurrences happening in the "real" world of today. The most prominent example in the early 21st century is the "Harry Potter" series of films adapted from the novels of
J. K. Rowling.
Fantasy films set in the
afterlife, called Bangsian Fantasy, are less common, although films such as the 1991 Albert Brookscomedy " Defending Your Life" would likely qualify. Other uncommon subgenres include Historical Fantasy and Romantic Fantasy, although 2003's "" successfully incorporated elements of both.
As noted above, superhero movies and fairy tale films might each be considered subgenres of fantasy films, although most would classify them as altogether separate movie genres.
Fantasy movies and the film industry
As a cinematic genre, fantasy has traditionally not been regarded as highly as the related genre of science fiction film. Undoubtedly, the fact that until recently fantasy films often suffered from the "Sword and Sandal" afflictions of inferior production values, over-the-top acting and decidedly poor special effects was a significant factor in fantasy film's low regard. Even 1981's "
Raiders of the Lost Ark", which did much to improve the genre's reputation in public as well critical circles, was still derided in some quarters because of its comic book-like action sequences and tongue in cheek comedy.
Since the late 1990s, however, the genre has gained new respectability, driven principally by the successful adaptations of J.R.R. Tolkien's "The Lord of the Rings" and J.K. Rowling's "Harry Potter" series. Jackson's "The Lord of the Rings" trilogy is particularly notable due to its ambitious scope, serious tone and thematic complexity. These pictures achieved phenomenal commercial and critical success, and the of the trilogy became the first fantasy film ever to win the
Academy Award for Best Picture.
Following the success of these ventures, Hollywood studios have greenlighted additional big-budget productions in the genre. These have included adaptations of the second book in
C. S. Lewis' "The Chronicles of Narnia" series and the teen novel "Eragon", as well as an adaptation of Susan Cooper's "The Dark Is Rising".
Fantasy movies in recent years, such as the "Lord of the Rings" films, 2005's "Narnia" and 2006's "Eragon" adaptations, have most often been released in November and December. This is in contrast to science fiction films, which are often released during the northern hemisphere summer (June - August). The latter two installments of the "Pirates of the Caribbean" fantasy films, however, were released in July 2006 and May 2007 respectively, and the latest release in the "Harry Potter" series was released in July, 2007. The huge commercial success of these pictures may indicate a change in Hollywood's approach to big-budget fantasy film releases.
Fantasy films have a history almost as old as the medium itself. However, fantasy films were relatively few and far between until the 1980s, when high-tech filmmaking techniques and increased audience interest caused the genre to flourish.
What follows are some notable Fantasy films. For a more complete list see:
List of fantasy films
In the era of
silent filmthe outstanding fantasy films were Douglas Fairbanks' "The Thief of Bagdad" (1924) and Fritz Lang's " Die Nibelungen" (1924). Following the advent of sound films, audiences of all ages embraced what is surely the best loved fantasy film of all time, 1939's "The Wizard of Oz". Also notable of the era, the iconic 1933 film "King Kong" is not a pure example of the genre, but borrows heavily from the Lost World subgenre of fantasy fiction. And Frank Capra's 1937 picture "Lost Horizon" transported audiences to the Himalayan fantasy kingdom of Shangri-La, where the residents magically never age.
The 1940s then saw several full color fantasy films produced by
Alexander Korda, including "The Thief of Bagdad" (1940) and "Jungle Book" (1942). In 1946, Jean Cocteau's classic adaptation of "Beauty and the Beast" won praise for its surreal elements and for transcending the boundaries of the fairy talegenre. "Sinbad the Sailor" (1947), starring Douglas Fairbanks, Jr., has the feel of a fantasy film though it does not actually have any fantasticelements. Conversely, " It's a Wonderful Life" and "A Matter of Life and Death", both from 1946, do not feel like fantasy films yet both feature supernaturalelements and the latter movie could reasonably be cited as an example of Bangsian fantasy.
Several other pictures featuring supernatural encounters and aspects of Bangsian fantasy were produced in the 1940s during
World War II. These include "Beyond Tomorrow", "The Devil and Daniel Webster", and " Here Comes Mr. Jordan", all from 1941, "Heaven Can Wait" the musical " Cabin in the Sky" (1943), the comedy " The Horn Blows at Midnight" and romances such as " The Ghost and Mrs. Muir" (1947), "One Touch of Venus" and " Portrait of Jennie", both 1948.
Because these movies do not feature elements common to high fantasy or
sword and sorcerypictures, some modern critics do not consider them to be examples of the fantasy genre.
In the 1950s there were a few major fantasy films, including "
Darby O'Gill and the Little People" and " The 5000 Fingers of Dr. T", the latter penned by Dr. Seuss. Jean Cocteau's Orphic Trilogy, begun in 1930 and completed in 1959, is based on Greek mythologyand could be classified either as fantasy or surrealist film, depending on how the boundaries between these genres are drawn. Russian fantasy director Aleksandr Ptushkocreated three mythological epics from Russian fairytales, " Sadko" (1953), "Ilya Muromets" (1956), and "Sampo" (1959).
Other notable pictures from the 1950s that feature fantastic elements and are sometimes classified as fantasy are: "Harvey" (1950), featuring a
púcaof Celtic mythology; "Scrooge", the 1951 adaptation of Charles Dickens' " A Christmas Carol"; and Ingmar Bergman's 1957 masterpiece, " The Seventh Seal". Disney's 1951 animated film "Alice in Wonderland" is also a fantasy classic.
There were also a number of low budget fantasies produced in the 1950s, typically based on Greek or Arabian legend. The most notable of these is probably 1958's "
The 7th Voyage of Sinbad", featuring special effects by Ray Harryhausen.
1960s and 1970s
Harryhausen worked on a series of fantasy films in the 1960s, most importantly "Jason and the Argonauts" (1963). Many critics have identified this film as Harryhausen's masterwork for its
stop-motionanimated statues, skeletons, harpies, hydra, and other mythological creatures. Other Harryhausen fantasy and science fantasy collaborations from the decade include the 1961 adaptation of Jules Verne's "Mysterious Island", the critically panned " One Million Years B.C." starring Raquel Welch, and " The Valley of Gwangi" (1969).
Otherwise, the 1960s were almost entirely devoid of fantasy films. The fantasy picture "
7 Faces of Dr. Lao", in which Tony Randallportrayed several characters from Greek mythology, was released in 1964. But the 1967 adaptation of the Broadway musical "Camelot" removed most of the fantasy elements from T. H. White's classic " The Once and Future King", on which the musical had been based.
Fantasy elements of
Arthurian legendwere again featured, albeit absurdly, in 1975's " Monty Python and the Holy Grail". Harryhausen also returned to the silver screen in the 1970s with two additional "Sinbad" fantasies, " The Golden Voyage of Sinbad" (1974) and " Sinbad and the Eye of the Tiger" (1977). The animated movie "Wizards" (1977) had limited success at the box office but achieved status as a cult film. Some would consider 1977's " Oh God!", starring George Burnsto be a fantasy film, and "Heaven Can Wait" (1978) was a successful Bangsian fantasy remake of 1941's "Here Comes Mr. Jordan" (not 1943's "Heaven Can Wait").
A few low budget "Lost World" pictures were made in the 1970s, such as 1975's "The Land That Time Forgot". Otherwise, the fantasy genre was largely absent from mainstream movies in this decade, although 1971's "
Bedknobs and Broomsticks" and " Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory" were two fantasy pictures in the public eye.
The release of the historical fantasy "
Raiders of the Lost Ark" in 1981 began a fantasy explosion which continues into the twenty-first century. The modern sword and sorcery boom also began at this time with 1982's "Conan the Barbarian".
* This is only a partial list. For a more complete list of fantasy films, including those since 1980 see:
List of fantasy films.
Edward Scissorhands":"Ghost":"Ghost in the Machine":"Green Mile, The":"Groundhog Day":"Indian in the Cupboard, The" :"Jumanji":" Meet Joe Black":" Princess Mononoke" ("Mononoke Hime"):"Sixth Sense, The"
Harry Potter film series/ Harry Potter": " The Lord of the Rings film trilogy/ The Lord of the Rings": " The Chronicles of Narnia film series/ The Chronicles of Narnia": " Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon": " Pan's Labyrinth": " Pirates of the Caribbean films": " The Science of Sleep": " Nanny McPhee": "Eragon / Eragon": "Night Watch / Day Watch": "Stardust": " / The Dark Is Rising Sequence": "The Golden Compass": "300": "I Am The Spiderwick Chronicles (film)/ The Spiderwick Chronicles"
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