- Wrought iron
Wrought iron is commercially pure
iron. In contrast to steel, it has a very low carboncontent. It is a fibrous material due to the slaginclusions (a normal constituent). This is also what gives it a "grain" resembling wood, which is visible when it is etched or bent to the point of failure. Wrought iron is tough, malleable, ductile and easily welded.
Examples of items that used to be produced from wrought iron include:
rivets, chains, railway couplings, water and steampipes, raw material for manufacturing of steel, nuts, bolts, horseshoes, handrails, straps for timber roof trusses, boiler tubes, and ornamental ironwork.
Wrought iron is no longer produced on a commercial scale. Many products described as wrought iron, such as guard rails, are made of
mild steel. They retain that description because they were formerly made of wrought iron or have the appearance of wrought iron. True wrought iron is occasionally required for the authentic conservation of historic structures.
Wrought iron is so named because it is worked from a bloom of porous iron mixed with slag and other impurities. The word "wrought" is an archaic past tense form of the verb "to work". As irregular past-tense forms in English have historically been phased out over long periods of time, "wrought" became "worked". "Wrought iron" literally means "worked iron". Another theory is that "wrought" is the past tense of "wring".
Wrought iron is a general term for the commodity, but is also used more specifically for finished iron goods, as manufactured by a
blacksmithor other smith. It was used in this narrower sense in British Customsrecords, such manufactured iron being subject to a higher rate of duty than what might be called "unwrought" iron.
In the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, wrought iron went by a wide variety of terms according to its form, origin, or quality.
*Bar iron — iron in bars, which are the usual product of the
finery forge, but not necessarily made by that process. These might be square or flat, and flat bars might be narrow or broad.
*Rod iron — cut from flat bar iron in a
slitting millto provide the raw material for nails.
*Hoop iron — suitable for the hoops of barrels, apparently made by passing rod iron through flat rolls.
*Plate iron — sheets of iron suitable for use as
*Blackplate — sheets of iron, perhaps thinner than plate iron, from the black rolling stage of
*Voyage iron — narrow flat bar iron, made or cut into bars of a particular weight, a commodity for sale in
Africafor the Atlantic slave trade. The number of bars per ton gradually increased from 70 per ton in the 1660s to 75–80 per ton in 1685 and "near 92 to the ton" in 1731. [C. Evans and G. Rydén, Baltic Iron in the Atlantic World in the Eighteenth Century" (Brill, Boston, Mass. 2007), 163–73. ]
Oregrounds iron— a particularly pure grade of bar iron made ultimately from iron orefrom the Dannemoramine in Sweden. Its most important use was as the raw material for the cementationprocess of steelmaking. [See Oregrounds iron]
*Danks iron — originally iron imported to
Great Britainfrom Danzig(now Gdansk), but in the 18th century more probably the kind of iron (from eastern Sweden) that once came from Danzig.
*Forest iron — iron from the
Forest of Dean, where haematite ore enabled tough iron to be produced.
*Lukes iron — iron imported from Liège, whose Dutch name is "Luik."W. R. Childs, "England's Iron trade in the Fifteenth Century" "Economic History Review" 2nd ser. (1981), 25–47. ]
*Ames iron or amys iron — another variety of iron imported to
Englandfrom northern Europe. Its origin has been suggested to be Amiens, but it seems to have been imported from Flandersin the 15th century and Hollandlater, suggesting an origin in the Rhinevalley. Its origins remain controversial.
*Botolf iron or Boutall iron — from
Butow( Pommerania) or Beuthen( Silesia).
*Sable iron (or Old Sable) — iron bearing the mark (a
sable) of the Demidovfamily of Russian ironmasters, one of the better brands of Russian iron. [A. Kahan, "The Plow, the Hammer, and the Knout: an economic history of eighteenth century Russia" (Univ. of Chicago Press, 1985) ]
*Tough iron — also spelt "tuf".
*Blend iron — made using a mixture of different types of
*Best iron — in the 19th century, iron that had gone through several stages of piling and rolling, might reach the stage of being best iron.
*Marked Bar iron — iron made by members of the
Marked Bar Associationand marked with the maker's brand mark as a sign of its quality.
*Iron is redshort if it contains sulfur in excess quantity. It has sufficient tenacity when cold, but cracks when bent or finished at a red heat. It is therefore useless for welding or forging.
*Iron is coldshort (or "coldshear" or "colshire" or "bloodshot"), if it contains phosphorus in excess quantity. It is very brittle when it is cold. It cracks if bent. It may, however, be worked at high temperature. Historically, coldshort iron was considered good enough for nails. Nevertheless, phosphorus is not necessarily detrimental to iron:
**Ancient Indian smiths did not add lime to their furnaces; the absence of CaO in the slag, and the deliberate use of wood with high phosphorus content during the smelting, induces a "higher P content" (> 0.1%, average 0.25%) than in modern iron. There is more phosphorus as solid solution throughout the metal than in the slags (one analysis gives 0.10% in the slags for 18% in the iron itself, for a total P content of 0.28% in the metal). This high P content and particular repartition are essential factors in the formation of a passive protective film of “misawite” (d-FeOOH), an amorphous iron oxyhydroxide that forms a barrier by adhering next to the interface between metal and rust. From this technology recently rediscovered by metallurgists at
IIT Kanpurthrough the study of the Iron Pillar of Delhi, rust-proof iron is at the last stages of being commercialized. This 1600 years-old rust-proof pillar is also of a remarkable strength, having withstood the impact of a cannon ball in the 18th century. Copper has a similar effect as phosphate regarding the formation of a passive protection film. [ [http://home.iitk.ac.in/%7Ebala/journalpaper/journal/journalpaper_17.pdf On the Corrosion Resistance of the Delhi Iron Pillar, R. Balasubramaniam, Corrosion Science, Volume 42 (2000) pp. 2103–2129] ] [ [http://www.iisc.ernet.in/currsci/jun102002/1357.pdf On the Growth Kinetics of the Protective Passive Film of the Delhi Iron Pillar, R Balasubramaniam, "Current Science", Volume 82 (2002) pp. 1357–1365] ] [On the Origin of High Phosphorus Content in Ancient Indian Iron, Vikas Kumar and R. Balasubramaniam, "International Journal of Metals, Materials and Processes", Volume 14 (2002) pp. 1–14]
**Furthermore, the presence of phosphorus (without carbon) produces a ductile iron suitable for
wire drawing, for pianowire. [Martha Goodaway, 'Phosphorus in antique iron music wire' "Science" 236 (1987) 927–32. ]
blast furnace, "Tiangong Kaiwu" encyclopediapublished in 1637, written by Song Yingxing(1587–1666).]
Wrought iron has been used for many centuries, and is the "iron" that is referred to throughout western history. The other form of iron,
cast iron, was not introduced into Western Europe until the 15th century; even then, due to its brittleness, it could only be used for a limited number of purposes. Throughout much of the Middle Ages iron was produced by the direct reduction of ore in manually operated bloomeries, although waterpowerhad begun to be employed by 1104. [A. Lucas, "Wind, Water, Work: Ancient and Medieval Milling Technology" (Brill, Leiden NL and Boston Mass. 2006), 251–5 347.]
The raw material produced by all indirect processes is pig iron. It has a high carbon content and as a consequence it is brittle and could not be used to make hardware. The
osmond processwas the first of the indirect processes, developed by 1203, but bloomery production continued in many places. The process depended on the development of the blast furnace, of which medieval examples have been discovered at Lapphyttan, Swedenand in Germany.
The bloomery and osmond processes were gradually replaced from the 15th century by finery processes, of which there were two versions, the German and Walloon. They were in turn replaced from the late 18th century by puddling, with certain variants such as the Swedish
Lancashire Process. These too are now obsolete, and wrought iron is no longer manufactured commercially.
Wrought iron was originally produced by a variety of smelting processes, all described today as bloomeries. Different forms of bloomery were used at different places and times. The bloomery was charged with
charcoaland iron ore and then lit. Air was blown in through a tuyereto heat the bloomery to a temperature somewhat below the melting point of iron. In the course of the smelt, slag would melt and run out, and carbon monoxidefrom the charcoal would reduce the ore to iron, which formed a spongy mass. The iron remained in the solid state. If the bloomery was allowed to become hot enough to melt the iron, carbon would dissolve into it and form pig or cast iron, but that was not the intention.
After smelting was complete, the bloom was removed, and the process could then be started again. It was thus a batch process, rather than a continuous one. The spongy mass contained iron and also silicate (slag) from the ore; this was iron bloom from which the technique got its name. The bloom had to be forged mechanically to consolidate it and shape it into a bar, expelling slag in the process. [R. F. Tylecote, "A History of Metallurgy" (2nd edn, Institute of Metals 1992), 46–57 62–66.]
Middle Ages, water-power was applied to the process, probably initially for powering bellows, and only later to hammers for forging the blooms. However, while it is certain that water-power was used, the details of this remain uncertain. [R. F. Tylecote, "A History of Metallurgy", 75–76. ] This was the culmination of the direct process of ironmaking. It survived in Spainand southern Franceas Catalan Forges to the mid 19th century, in Austriaas the "stuckofen" to 1775, [R. F. Tylecote, "A History of Metallurgy", 100–1.] and near Garstangin England until about 1770; [ Richard Pococke"The travels through England ... during 1750, 1751, and later years", ed. J.J. Cartwright (Camden Soc. n.s. 42, 1888), 13; W. Lewis, 'The Chemical and Mineral History of Iron' (MS in Cardiff Central Library, c. 1775) iv, 76] it was still in use with hot blastin New York Statein the 1880s. [G.C. Pollard, 'Experimentation in 19th-century bloomery iron production: Evidence from the Adirondacksof New York' "Historical Metallurgy" 32(1) (1998), 33–40. ]
Osmond ironconsisted of balls of wrought iron, produced by melting pig iron and catching the droplets on a staff, which was spun in front of a blast of air so as to expose as much of it as possible to the air and oxidise its carbon content. [H. R. Schubert, "History of the British Iron and Steel Industry from 450 BC to AD 1775 (Routledge and Kegan Paul, London 1957)", 299–304. ] The resultant ball was often forged into bar iron in a hammer mill.
In the 15th century, the blast furnace spread into what is now
Belgiumand was improved. From there, it spread via the Pays de Brayon the boundary of Normandyand then to the Wealdin England. With it, the finery forge spread. These remelted the pig iron and (in effect) burnt out the carbon, producing a bloom, which was then forged into a bar iron. If rod iron was required, a slitting millwas used.
The finery process existed in two slightly different forms. In
Great Britain, France, and parts of Sweden, only the Walloon process was used. This employed two different hearths, a finery hearth for fining the iron and a chafery hearth for reheating it in the course of drawing the bloom out into a bar. The finery always burnt charcoal, but the chafery could be fired with mineral coal, since its impurities would not harm the iron when it was in the solid state. On the other hand, the German process, used in Germany, Russia, and most of Swedenused a single hearth for all stages. [A. den Ouden, 'The production of wrought iron in Finery Hearths' "Historical Metallurgy" 15(2) (1981), 63–87 and 16(1) (1982), 29–32.]
The introduction of coke for use in the
blast furnaceby Abraham Darby in 1709 (or perhaps others a littler earlier) initially had little effect on wrought iron production. Only in the 1750s was coke pig iron used on any significant scale as the feedstock of finery forges. However, charcoal continued to be the fuel for the finery.
Potting and Stamping
From the late 1750s,
ironmasters began to develop processes for making bar iron without charcoal. There were a number of patented processes for this, which are referred to today as potting and stamping. The earliest were developed by John Wood of Wednesburyand his brother Charles Wood of Low Mill at Egremont, patented in 1763. [G. R. Morton and N. Mutton, 'The Transition to Cort's Puddling Process' "Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute 205 (1967), 723–4.] Another was developed for the CoalbrookdaleCompany by the Cranage brothers. [R. Hayman, 'The Cranage brothers and eighteenth-century forge technology' "Historical Metallurgy" 28(2) (2004), 113–20.] Another important one was that of John Wright and Joseph Jesson of West Bromwich. [Morton and Mutton, 725–6. ]
A number of processes for making wrought iron without charcoal were devised as the
Industrial Revolutionbegan during the latter half of the 18th century. The most successful of these was puddling, using a puddling furnace (a variety of the reverberatory furnace). This was invented by Henry Cortin 1784. [R. A. Mott (ed. P. Singer), "Henry Cort, The Great Finer" (The Metals Society, London 1983).] It was later improved by others including Joseph Hall. In this type of furnace, the metal does not come into contact with the fuel, and so is not contaminated by impurities in it. The flame from the fire is reverberated or sent back down onto the metal on the fire bridge of the furnace.
Unless the raw material used is white cast iron, the pig iron or other raw material first had to be refined into
refined ironor finers metal. This would be done in a refinery where raw coal is used to remove siliconand convert carbon from a graphitic form to a combined form.
This metal was placed into the hearth of the puddling furnace where it was melted. The hearth was lined with oxidizing agents such as
haematiteand iron oxide. This mixture is subjected to a strong current of air and stirred with long bars, called puddling bars or rabbles, [W. K. V. Gale, "The Iron and Steel Industry: a Dictionary of Terms" (David and Charles, Newton Abbot 1971), 165.] cite book | last = Overman | first = Fredrick | title = The Manufacture of Iron, in All Its Various Branches | publisher = H. C. Baird | date = 1854 | location = Philadelphia | pages = 267, 287, 344 | url = http://books.google.com/books?id=Gani2eHvhAkC] through working doors.R. F. Tylecote, 'Iron in the Industrial Revolution' in R. F. Tylecote, "The Industrial Revolution in Metals" (Institute of Metals, London 1991), 236–40.] The air, stirring, and "boiling" action of the metal help the oxidizing agents to oxidize the impurities and carbon out of the pig iron to their maximum capability. As the impurities oxidize, the retaining material solidifies into spongy wrought iron balls, called puddle balls.cite book | last = Rajput | first = R.K. | title = Engineering Materials | publisher = S. Chand | date = 2000 | pages = 223 | url = http://books.google.com/books?id=6yr-NMgM6HQC | isbn = 8121919606]
There is still some slag left in the puddle balls so while they are still hot they must be shingledcite book | last = Camp | first = James McIntyre | coauthor = Francis, Charles Blaine | title = The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel | publisher = Carnegie Steel Company | date = 1920 | location = Pittsburgh | pages = 173–174 |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=P9MxAAAAMAAJ] to remove the remaining slag and cinder. It may be achieved by forging the balls under a power hammer or by squeezing the bloom in a machine. The material obtained at the end of shingling is known as bloom and it is still red-hot. The blooms are not useful in this form so they must be rolled into a final product.
Sometimes European ironworks would skip this step completely and roll the puddle balls. The only drawback to this is that the edges of the rough bars are not as well compressed. When the rough bar is reheated, the edges may separate and be lost into the furnace.
The bloom is passed through grooved rollers and flat bars were produced. These bars of wrought iron were of poor quality, called muck bars [W. K. V. Gale, "Dictionary", 137.] or puddle bars. To improve the quality of wrought iron, these bars were cut up, piled and tied together by wires, a process known as
faggotingor piling. They were then reheated and rolled again in merchant rolls. This process may be repeated several times to get wrought iron of desired quality. Wrought iron that has been rolled multiple times is called merchant bar or merchant iron. [W. K. V. Gale, "The British Iron and Steel Industry" (David and Charles, Newton Abbot, 1967), 79–88. ]
The advantage of puddling was that it used coal, not charcoal as fuel. However this was little advantage in
Sweden, which lacks coal. Gustaf Ekmanobserved charcoal fineries at Ulverstone, which were quite different from any in Sweden. After his return to Sweden in the 1830s, he experimented and developed a process similar to puddling but using forewood and charcoal, which was widely adopted in the Bergslagenin the following decades. [G. Rydén, 'Responses to Coal Technology without Coal: Swedish Iron Making in the Nineteenth Century' in C. Evans and G. Rydén (eds.), "The Industrial Revolution in Iron: The impact of British coal technology in 19th century Europe" (Ashgate, Aldershot, 2005), 121–4; C. Evans and G. Rydén, "Baltic Iron in the Atlantic World in the 18th century" (Brill, Leiden NL and Boston, Mass.), 282–5. ]
The Aston process
James Astonof the United Statesdeveloped a process for manufacturing wrought iron quickly and economically. It involves taking molten steel from a Bessemer converter and pouring it into cooler liquid slag. The temperature of the steel is about 1500 °C and the liquid slag is maintained at approximately 1200 °C. The molten steel contains a large amount of dissolved gases so when the liquid steel hits the cooler surfaces of the liquid slag the gases are liberated. The molten steel then freezes to yield a spongy mass having a temperature of about 1370 °C. This spongy mass must then be finished by being shingled and rolled as described under puddling (above). Three to four tons can be converted per batch with this method.
Wrought iron is no longer commercially produced. The last wrought iron facility shut down in 1969.Citation | last = Daniel | first = Todd | title = Clearing the Confusion Over Wrought Iron | date = May 3, 1997 | url = http://www.artmetal.com/project/NOMMA/WROUGHT.HTM | accessdate = 2008-01-05 ] In the 1960s the price of steel production was dropping due to recycling and even using the Aston process wrought iron production was a labor intensive process. It has been estimated that the production of wrought iron costs approximately twice as much as the production of low carbon steel.
The slag inclusions in wrought iron give it properties not found in other forms of ferrous metal. There are approximately 250,000 inclusions per square inch. A fresh fracture shows a clear bluish color with a high silky luster and fibrous appearance.
Wrought iron lacks the carbon content necessary for hardening through
heat treatment, but in areas where steel was uncommon or unknown, tools were sometimes cold-worked (hence cold iron) in order to harden them. An advantage of its low carbon content is its excellent weldability. Furthermore, sheet wrought iron cannot bend as much as steel sheet metal (when cold worked). [Citation| title =The Wrought Iron Advisory Centre| publisher = The Real Wrought Iron Company, Ltd.| url =http://www.realwroughtiron.com/wiac.asp| accessdate =2008-02-22.] [Citation| last =Husband| first =Joseph| last2 =Harby| first2 =William| year =1911| title =Structural Engineering| place =New York| publisher =Longmans, Green, and Co.| page =21| url =http://books.google.com/books?id=pktDAAAAIAAJ| accessdate =2008-02-22.] [Citation| last =Byrne| first =Austin Thomas| year =1899| title =Inspection of the Materials and Workmanship Employed in Construction| edition =1st| place =New York| publisher =John Wiley & Sons| page =105| url =http://books.google.com/books?id=2U80AAAAMAAJ| accessdate =2008-02-22.] Wrought iron can be cast, however there is no engineering advantage as compared to cast iron; cast iron is much easier to produce and thus cheaper, so it is exclusively chosen over wrought iron. [Citation| last =Scoffern| first =John| year =1861| title =The Useful Metals and Their Alloys, Including Mining Ventilation, Mining Jurisprudence, and Metallurgic Chemistry | place =London | publisher =Houlston and Wright | page =328| url =http://books.google.com/books?id=SSkKAAAAIAAJ| accessdate =2008-02-20.] [Citation| last =Adams| first =Henry| year =1891| title =Handbook for Mechanical Engineers| edition = 2nd| place =New York| publisher =E. & F. N. Spon| page =29| url =http://books.google.com/books?id=0q03AAAAMAAJ| accessdate =2008-02-20.]
Wrought iron is less affected by rust than most other ferrous metals due to its slag inclusions. The slag fibers tend to disperse the corrosion into an even film, thereby resisting pitting. Wrought iron has a rough surface so it can hold platings and coatings better. For instance, a galvanic zinc finish is approximately 25–40% thicker than the same finish on steel.
In Table 1 the chemical composition of wrought iron is compared to that of pig iron and
carbon steel. Although it appears that wrought iron and plain carbon steel have similar chemical compositions, this is deceiving. Most of the manganese, sulfur, phosphorus, and silicon are incorporated into the slag fibers present in the wrought iron, so wrought iron really is purer than plain carbon steel.
Amongst its other properties, wrought iron becomes soft at
red heat, and can be easily forgedand forge welded. [cite book |last=Richter |first=Victor von |last2=Smith |first2=Edgar Fahs |year=1885| title =A Text-book of Inorganic Chemistry | edition =2nd| place =Philadelphia| publisher =P. Blakiston, Son & Co.|page=396 |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=7Q45AAAAMAAJ |accessdate=2008-02-21.] It can be used to form temporary magnets, but cannot be magnetized permanently, [Citation| last = American Technical Society| year =1916| title =Cyclopedia of Applied Electricity| volume =1| publisher =American Technical Society| page =14| url =http://books.google.com/books?id=zaMOAAAAYAAJ&source=gbs_other_versions_sidebar_s&cad=6| accessdate =2008-02-21.] [Citation| last =Timbie| first =William Henry| last2 =Bush| first2 =Vannevar| year =1922| title =Principles of Electrical Engineering| place =New York| publisher = John Wiley & Sons, Inc.| pages =318–319| url =http://books.google.com/books?id=X6dEAAAAIAAJ| accessdate =2008-02-21.] and is ductile, malleableand tough.
Wrought iron furniture
* [http://www.realwroughtiron.com/wiac.asp The Wrought Iron Advisory Centre] — Commercial site
* [http://www.csititanic.com Forensic Studies of the Titanic's wrought iron rivets] — Jennifer Hooper McCarty and Tim Foecke
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