Glutamate aspartate transporter

Glutamate aspartate transporter

Solute carrier family 1 (glial high affinity glutamate transporter), member 3, also known as SLC1A3, is a human gene.cite web | title = Entrez Gene: SLC1A3 solute carrier family 1 (glial high affinity glutamate transporter), member 3| url =| accessdate = ]

The GLutamate ASpartate Transporter (GLAST) is a protein in the inner mitochondrial membrane which is part of the malate-aspartate shuttle.cite journal | author = Ralphe JC, Segar JL, Schutte BC, Scholz TD | title = Localization and function of the brain excitatory amino acid transporter type 1 in cardiac mitochondria | journal = J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. | volume = 37 | issue = 1 | pages = 33–41 | year = 2004 | pmid = 15242733 | doi = 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2004.04.008 | issn = ] GLAST is also often called the Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 1 (EAAT1).


GLAST mediates the transport of glutamic and aspartic acid with the cotransport of three Na+ and one H+ cations and counter transport of one K+ cation. This co-transport coupling allows the transport of glutamate into cells against a concentration gradient.cite journal | author = Kanai Y, Hediger MA | title = The glutamate/neutral amino acid transporter family SLC1: molecular, physiological and pharmacological aspects | journal = Pflugers Arch. | volume = 447 | issue = 5 | pages = 469–79 | year = 2004 | pmid = 14530974 | doi = 10.1007/s00424-003-1146-4 | issn = ]

Tissue distribution

GLAST is highly expressed in astrocytes and Bergmann glia in the cerebellum.cite journal | author = Storck T, Schulte S, Hofmann K, Stoffel W | title = Structure, expression, and functional analysis of a Na(+)-dependent glutamate/aspartate transporter from rat brain | journal = Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. | volume = 89 | issue = 22 | pages = 10955–9 | year = 1992 | pmid = 1279699 | doi = 10.1073/pnas.89.22.10955 | issn = ] cite journal | author = Rothstein JD, Martin L, Levey AI, Dykes-Hoberg M, Jin L, Wu D, Nash N, Kuncl RW | title = Localization of neuronal and glial glutamate transporters | journal = Neuron | volume = 13 | issue = 3 | pages = 713–25 | year = 1994 | pmid = 7917301 | doi = 10.1016/0896-6273(94)90038-8 | issn = ] In the retina, GLAST is expressed in Muller cells.cite journal | author = Rauen T, Taylor WR, Kuhlbrodt K, Wiessner M | title = High-affinity glutamate transporters in the rat retina: a major role of the glial glutamate transporter GLAST-1 in transmitter clearance | journal = Cell Tissue Res. | volume = 291 | issue = 1 | pages = 19–31 | year = 1998 | pmid = 9394040 | doi = 10.1007/s004410050976 | issn = ] GLAST is also expressed in a number of other tissues including cardiac myocytes.

Clinical significance

It is associated with type 6 .cite journal | author = Jen JC, Wan J, Palos TP, Howard BD, Baloh RW | title = Mutation in the glutamate transporter EAAT1 causes episodic ataxia, hemiplegia, and seizures | journal = Neurology | volume = 65 | issue = 4 | pages = 529–34 | year = 2005 | pmid = 16116111 | doi = 10.1212/01.wnl.0000172638.58172.5a | issn = ]


Further reading

citations =
*cite journal | author=Arriza JL, Fairman WA, Wadiche JI, "et al." |title=Functional comparisons of three glutamate transporter subtypes cloned from human motor cortex. |journal=J. Neurosci. |volume=14 |issue= 9 |pages= 5559–69 |year= 1994 |pmid= 7521911 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Nomura N, Nagase T, Miyajima N, "et al." |title=Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. II. The coding sequences of 40 new genes (KIAA0041-KIAA0080) deduced by analysis of cDNA clones from human cell line KG-1. |journal=DNA Res. |volume=1 |issue= 5 |pages= 223–9 |year= 1995 |pmid= 7584044 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Takai S, Yamada K, Kawakami H, "et al." |title=Localization of the gene (SLC1A3) encoding human glutamate transporter (GluT-1) to 5p13 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. |journal=Cytogenet. Cell Genet. |volume=69 |issue= 3-4 |pages= 209–10 |year= 1995 |pmid= 7698014 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Shashidharan P, Huntley GW, Meyer T, "et al." |title=Neuron-specific human glutamate transporter: molecular cloning, characterization and expression in human brain. |journal=Brain Res. |volume=662 |issue= 1-2 |pages= 245–50 |year= 1995 |pmid= 7859077 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Kirschner MA, Arriza JL, Copeland NG, "et al." |title=The mouse and human excitatory amino acid transporter gene (EAAT1) maps to mouse chromosome 15 and a region of syntenic homology on human chromosome 5. |journal=Genomics |volume=22 |issue= 3 |pages= 631–3 |year= 1995 |pmid= 8001975 |doi= 10.1006/geno.1994.1437
*cite journal | author=Kawakami H, Tanaka K, Nakayama T, "et al." |title=Cloning and expression of a human glutamate transporter. |journal=Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. |volume=199 |issue= 1 |pages= 171–6 |year= 1994 |pmid= 8123008 |doi= 10.1006/bbrc.1994.1210
*cite journal | author=Shashidharan P, Plaitakis A |title=Cloning and characterization of a glutamate transporter cDNA from human cerebellum. |journal=Biochim. Biophys. Acta |volume=1216 |issue= 1 |pages= 161–4 |year= 1993 |pmid= 8218410 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, "et al." |title=A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library construction. |journal=Anal. Biochem. |volume=236 |issue= 1 |pages= 107–13 |year= 1996 |pmid= 8619474 |doi= 10.1006/abio.1996.0138
*cite journal | author=Stoffel W, Sasse J, Düker M, "et al." |title=Human high affinity, Na(+)-dependent L-glutamate/L-aspartate transporter GLAST-1 (EAAT-1): gene structure and localization to chromosome 5p11-p12. |journal=FEBS Lett. |volume=386 |issue= 2-3 |pages= 189–93 |year= 1996 |pmid= 8647279 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Yu W, Andersson B, Worley KC, "et al." |title=Large-scale concatenation cDNA sequencing. |journal=Genome Res. |volume=7 |issue= 4 |pages= 353–8 |year= 1997 |pmid= 9110174 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Dunlop J, Lou Z, McIlvain HB |title=Properties of excitatory amino acid transport in the human U373 astrocytoma cell line. |journal=Brain Res. |volume=839 |issue= 2 |pages= 235–42 |year= 1999 |pmid= 10519046 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Koch HP, Kavanaugh MP, Esslinger CS, "et al." |title=Differentiation of substrate and nonsubstrate inhibitors of the high-affinity, sodium-dependent glutamate transporters. |journal=Mol. Pharmacol. |volume=56 |issue= 6 |pages= 1095–104 |year= 1999 |pmid= 10570036 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Ye ZC, Rothstein JD, Sontheimer H |title=Compromised glutamate transport in human glioma cells: reduction-mislocalization of sodium-dependent glutamate transporters and enhanced activity of cystine-glutamate exchange. |journal=J. Neurosci. |volume=19 |issue= 24 |pages= 10767–77 |year= 2000 |pmid= 10594060 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Szymocha R, Akaoka H, Dutuit M, "et al." |title=Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1-infected T lymphocytes impair catabolism and uptake of glutamate by astrocytes via Tax-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha. |journal=J. Virol. |volume=74 |issue= 14 |pages= 6433–41 |year= 2000 |pmid= 10864655 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Mordrelle A, Jullian E, Costa C, "et al." |title=EAAT1 is involved in transport of L-glutamate during differentiation of the Caco-2 cell line. |journal=Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. |volume=279 |issue= 2 |pages= G366–73 |year= 2000 |pmid= 10915646 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Seal RP, Shigeri Y, Eliasof S, "et al." |title=Sulfhydryl modification of V449C in the glutamate transporter EAAT1 abolishes substrate transport but not the substrate-gated anion conductance. |journal=Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. |volume=98 |issue= 26 |pages= 15324–9 |year= 2002 |pmid= 11752470 |doi= 10.1073/pnas.011400198
*cite journal | author=Palmada M, Kinne-Saffran E, Centelles JJ, Kinne RK |title=Benzodiazepines differently modulate EAAT1/GLAST and EAAT2/GLT1 glutamate transporters expressed in CHO cells. |journal=Neurochem. Int. |volume=40 |issue= 4 |pages= 321–6 |year= 2002 |pmid= 11792462 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Scott HL, Pow DV, Tannenberg AE, Dodd PR |title=Aberrant expression of the glutamate transporter excitatory amino acid transporter 1 (EAAT1) in Alzheimer's disease. |journal=J. Neurosci. |volume=22 |issue= 3 |pages= RC206 |year= 2002 |pmid= 11826152 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, "et al." |title=Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. |journal=Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. |volume=99 |issue= 26 |pages= 16899–903 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12477932 |doi= 10.1073/pnas.242603899
*cite journal | author=Vallat-Decouvelaere AV, Chrétien F, Gras G, "et al." |title=Expression of excitatory amino acid transporter-1 in brain macrophages and microglia of HIV-infected patients. A neuroprotective role for activated microglia? |journal=J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. |volume=62 |issue= 5 |pages= 475–85 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12769187 |doi=

External links


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