List of birds of Paraguay

List of birds of Paraguay

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Paraguay. The avifauna of Paraguay includes a total of 700 species, of which 1 is endemic, 2 have been introduced by humans, and 12 are rare or accidental. 27 species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of Clements's 5th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflects this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Paraguay.

The following tags have been used to highlight certain relevant categories. It must be noted that not all species fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are commonly occurring, native species.

* (A) Accidental A species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Paraguay.
* (E) Endemic A species endemic to Paraguay.
* (I) Introduced A species introduced to Paraguay as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions.

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Rheas

Order: StruthioniformesFamily: Rheidae

The rheas are large flightless birds native to South America. Their feet have three toes rather than four which allows them to run faster. There are 2 species and 1 species which occurs in Paraguay.

*Greater Rhea "Rhea americana"

Tinamous

Order: TinamiformesFamily: Tinamidae

The tinamous are one of the most ancient groups of bird. Although they look similar to other ground-dwelling birds like quail and grouse, they have no close relatives and are classified as a single family Tinamidae within their own order, the Tinamiformes. They are distantly related to the ratites (order Struthioniformes), that includes the rheas, emu, and kiwi. There are 47 species worldwide and 13 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Solitary Tinamou "Tinamus solitarius"
*Brown Tinamou "Crypturellus obsoletus"
*Undulated Tinamou "Crypturellus undulatus"
*Small-billed Tinamou "Crypturellus parvirostris"
*Tataupa Tinamou "Crypturellus tataupa"
*Red-winged Tinamou "Rhynchotus rufescens"
*Brushland Tinamou "Nothoprocta cinerascens"
*White-bellied Nothura "Nothura boraquira"
*Lesser Nothura "Nothura minor" (A)
*Spotted Nothura "Nothura maculosa"
*Chaco Nothura "Nothura chacoensis" (E)
*Dwarf Tinamou "Taoniscus nanus" (A)
*Quebracho Crested Tinamou "Eudromia formosa"

Grebes

Order: PodicipediformesFamily: Podicipedidae

Grebes are small to medium-large sized freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes, and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land. There are 20 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Least Grebe "Tachybaptus dominicus"
*Pied-billed Grebe "Podilymbus podiceps"
*White-tufted Grebe "Rollandia rolland"
*Great Grebe "Podiceps major"
*Silvery Grebe "Podiceps occipitalis"

Cormorants

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Phalacrocoracidae

The Phalacrocoracidae is a family of medium-to-large coastal, fish-eating sea-birds that includes cormorants and shags. Plumage colouration varies with the majority having mainly dark plumage, some species being black and white, and a few being colourful. There are 38 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Paraguay.

*Neotropic Cormorant "Phalacrocorax brasilianus"

Darters

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Anhingidae

Darters are frequently referred to as "snake-birds" because of their long thin neck, which gives a snake-like appearance when they swim with their bodies submerged.The males have black and dark brown plumage, an erectile crest on the nape and a larger bill than the female. The females have a much paler plumage especially on the neck and underparts. The darters have completely webbed feet, and their legs are short and set far back on the body. Their plumage is somewhat permeable, like that of cormorants, and they spread their wings to dry after diving. There are 4 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Paraguay.

*Anhinga "Anhinga anhinga"

Bitterns, Herons and Egrets

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Ardeidae

The family Ardeidae contains the bitterns, herons and egrets. Herons and egrets are medium to large sized wading birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more wary. Unlike other long-necked birds such as storks, ibises and spoonbills, members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted. There are 61 species worldwide and 15 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Whistling Heron "Syrigma sibilatrix"
*Capped Heron "Pilherodius pileatus"
*Cocoi Heron "Ardea cocoi"
*Great Egret "Ardea alba"
*Little Blue Heron "Egretta caerulea"
*Snowy Egret "Egretta thula"
*Cattle Egret "Bubulcus ibis"
*Striated Heron "Butorides striata"
*Black-crowned Night-Heron "Nycticorax nycticorax"
*Boat-billed Heron "Cochlearius cochlearius"
*Rufescent Tiger-Heron "Tigrisoma lineatum"
*Zigzag Heron "Zebrilus undulatus"
*Stripe-backed Bittern "Ixobrychus involucris"
*Least Bittern "Ixobrychus exilis"
*Pinnated Bittern "Botaurus pinnatus"

torks

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Ciconiidae

Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked, wading birds with long, stout bills. Storks are mute; bill-clattering is an important mode of stork communication at the nest. Their nests can be large and may be reused for many years. Many species are migratory. There are 19 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Wood Stork "Mycteria americana"
*Maguari Stork "Ciconia maguari"
*Jabiru "Jabiru mycteria"

Ibises and Spoonbills

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Threskiornithidae

The Threskiornithidae is a family of large terrestrial and wading birds which includes the ibises and spoonbills. They have long, broad wings with 11 primary and about 20 secondary feathers. They are strong fliers and despite their size and weight, very capable soarers. There are 36 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Plumbeous Ibis "Theristicus caerulescens"
*Buff-necked Ibis "Theristicus caudatus"
*Green Ibis "Mesembrinibis cayennensis"
*Bare-faced Ibis "Phimosus infuscatus"
*White-faced Ibis "Plegadis chihi"
*Roseate Spoonbill "Platalea ajaja"

Flamingos

Order: PhoenicopteriformesFamily: Phoenicopteridae

Flamingos are gregarious wading birds, usually 3 to 5 feet high, found in both the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. They are more numerous in the latter. Flamingos filter-feed on shellfish and algae. Their oddly-shaped beaks are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they consume, and are uniquely used upside-down. There are 6 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Paraguay.

*Chilean Flamingo "Phoenicopterus chilensis"

creamers

Order: AnseriformesFamily: Anhimidae

The screamers are a small family of birds related to the ducks. They are large, bulky birds, with a small downy head, long legs and large feet which are only partially webbed. They have large spurs on their wings which are used in fights over mates and territorial disputes. There are 3 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Horned Screamer "Anhima cornuta" (A)
*Southern Screamer "Chauna torquata"

Ducks, Geese and Swans

Order: AnseriformesFamily: Anatidae

The family Anatidae includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swans. These are birds that are modified for an aquatic existence with webbed feet, flattened bills and feathers that are excellent at shedding water due to an oily coating. There are 131 species worldwide and 18 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Fulvous Whistling-Duck "Dendrocygna bicolor"
*White-faced Whistling-Duck "Dendrocygna viduata"
*Black-bellied Whistling-Duck "Dendrocygna autumnalis"
*Coscoroba Swan "Coscoroba coscoroba"
*Orinoco Goose "Neochen jubata"
*Muscovy Duck "Cairina moschata"
*Comb Duck "Sarkidiornis melanotos"
*Ringed Teal "Callonetta leucophrys"
*Brazilian Teal "Amazonetta brasiliensis"
*White-cheeked Pintail "Anas bahamensis"
*Silver Teal "Anas versicolor"
*Cinnamon Teal "Anas cyanoptera"
*Red Shoveler "Anas platalea"
*Rosy-billed Pochard "Netta peposaca"
*Brazilian Merganser "Mergus octosetaceus"
*Black-headed Duck "Heteronetta atricapilla"
*Masked Duck "Nomonyx dominica"
*Lake Duck "Oxyura vittata"

New World vultures

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Cathartidae

The New World vultures are not closely related to Old World vultures, but superficially resemble them because of convergent evolution. Like the Old World vultures, they are scavengers. However, unlike Old World vultures, which find carcasses by sight, New World vultures have a good sense of smell with which they locate carrion. There are 7 species worldwide, all of which are found only in the Americas, and 5 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Black Vulture "Coragyps atratus"
*Turkey Vulture "Cathartes aura"
*Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture "Cathartes burrovianus"
*Andean Condor "Vultur gryphus"
*King Vulture "Sarcoramphus papa"

Osprey

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Pandionidae

The Pandionidae family contains only one species, the Osprey. The Osprey is a medium large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution.

*Osprey "Pandion haliaetus"

Hawks, Kites and Eagles

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Accipitridae

Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey and include hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. These birds have powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons, and keen eyesight. There are 233 species worldwide and 35 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Gray-headed Kite "Leptodon cayanensis"
*Hook-billed Kite "Chondrohierax uncinatus"
*Swallow-tailed Kite "Elanoides forficatus"
*Pearl Kite "Gampsonyx swainsonii"
*White-tailed Kite "Elanus leucurus"
*Snail Kite "Rostrhamus sociabilis"
*Rufous-thighed Kite "Harpagus diodon"
*Mississippi Kite "Ictinia mississippiensis"
*Plumbeous Kite "Ictinia plumbea"
*Long-winged Harrier "Circus buffoni"
*Cinereous Harrier "Circus cinereus"
*Gray-bellied Goshawk "Accipiter poliogaster"
*Tiny Hawk "Accipiter superciliosus"
*Rufous-thighed Hawk "Accipiter erythronemius"
*Bicolored Hawk "Accipiter bicolor"
*Crane Hawk "Geranospiza caerulescens"
*Mantled Hawk "Leucopternis polionotus"
*Great Black-Hawk "Buteogallus urubitinga"
*Savanna Hawk "Buteogallus meridionalis"
*Harris's Hawk "Parabuteo unicinctus"
*Black-collared Hawk "Busarellus nigricollis"
*Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle "Geranoaetus melanoleucus"
*Crowned Eagle "Harpyhaliaetus coronatus"
*Gray Hawk "Asturina nitida"
*Roadside Hawk "Buteo magnirostris"
*White-rumped Hawk "Buteo leucorrhous"
*Short-tailed Hawk "Buteo brachyurus"
*Swainson's Hawk "Buteo swainsoni"
*White-tailed Hawk "Buteo albicaudatus"
*Zone-tailed Hawk "Buteo albonotatus"
*Crested Eagle "Morphnus guianensis"
*Harpy Eagle "Harpia harpyja"
*Black-and-white Hawk-Eagle "Spizastur melanoleucus"
*Black Hawk-Eagle "Spizaetus tyrannus"
*Ornate Hawk-Eagle "Spizaetus ornatus"

Caracaras and Falcons

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Falconidae

Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey. They differ from hawks, eagles, and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their feet. There are 62 species worldwide and 12 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Southern Caracara "Caracara plancus"
*Yellow-headed Caracara "Milvago chimachima"
*Chimango Caracara "Milvago chimango"
*Laughing Falcon "Herpetotheres cachinnans"
*Barred Forest-Falcon "Micrastur ruficollis"
*Collared Forest-Falcon "Micrastur semitorquatus"
*Spot-winged Falconet "Spiziapteryx circumcinctus"
*American Kestrel "Falco sparverius"
*Aplomado Falcon "Falco femoralis"
*Bat Falcon "Falco rufigularis"
*Orange-breasted Falcon "Falco deiroleucus"
*Peregrine Falcon "Falco peregrinus"

Guans, Chachalacas and allies

Order: GalliformesFamily: Cracidae

The Cracidae are large birds, similar in general appearance to turkeys. The guans and curassows live in trees, but the smaller chachalacas are found in more open scrubby habitats. They are generally dull-plumaged, but the curassows and some guans have colourful facial ornaments. There are 50 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Chaco Chachalaca "Ortalis canicollis"
*Rusty-margined Guan "Penelope superciliaris"
*Dusky-legged Guan "Penelope obscura"
*Blue-throated Piping-Guan "Pipile cumanensis"
*Black-fronted Piping-Guan "Pipile jacutinga"
*Bare-faced Curassow "Crax fasciolata"

New World quails

Order: GalliformesFamily: Odontophoridae

The New World quails are small, plump terrestrial birds only distantly related to the quails of the Old World, but named for their similar appearance and habits. There are 32 species worldwide, all found only in the Americas, and 2 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Marbled Wood-Quail "Odontophorus gujanensis"
*Spot-winged Wood-Quail "Odontophorus capueira"

Limpkins

Order: GruiformesFamily: Aramidae

The Limpkin resembles a large rail. It has drab brown plumage and a greyer head and neck.

*Limpkin "Aramus guarauna"

Rails, Crakes, Gallinules, and Coots

Order: GruiformesFamily: Rallidae

Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots, and gallinules. Typically they inhabit dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps, or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs, and have long toes which are well adapted to soft, uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and be weak fliers. There are 143 species worldwide and 22 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Speckled Rail "Coturnicops notatus"
*Ocellated Crake "Micropygia schomburgkii"
*Russet-crowned Crake "Anurolimnas viridis"
*Rufous-sided Crake "Laterallus melanophaius"
*Gray-breasted Crake "Laterallus exilis"
*Red-and-white Crake "Laterallus leucopyrrhus"
*Rufous-faced Crake "Laterallus xenopterus" (A)
*Gray-necked Wood-Rail "Aramides cajanea"
*Giant Wood-Rail "Aramides ypecaha"
*Slaty-breasted Wood-Rail "Aramides saracura"
*Ash-throated Crake "Porzana albicollis"
*Yellow-breasted Crake "Porzana flaviventer"
*Paint-billed Crake "Neocrex erythrops"
*Spotted Rail "Pardirallus maculatus"
*Blackish Rail "Pardirallus nigricans"
*Plumbeous Rail "Pardirallus sanguinolentus"
*Purple Gallinule "Porphyrio martinica"
*Azure Gallinule "Porphyrio flavirostris"
*Common Moorhen "Gallinula chloropus"
*Spot-flanked Gallinule "Gallinula melanops"
*White-winged Coot "Fulica leucoptera"
*Red-fronted Coot "Fulica rufifrons"

ungrebe and Finfoots

Order: GruiformesFamily: Heliornithidae

The Heliornithidae are small family of tropical birds with webbed lobes on their feet similar to those of grebes and coots. There are 3 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Paraguay.

*Sungrebe "Heliornis fulica"

eriemas

Order: GruiformesFamily: Cariamidae

The seriemas are terrestrial birds which run rather than fly (though they are able to fly for short distances.) They have long legs, necks, and tails, but only short wings, reflecting their way of life. They are brownish birds with short bills and erectile crests, found on fairly dry open grasslands. There are 2 species and 2 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Red-legged Seriema "Cariama cristata"
*Black-legged Seriema "Chunga burmeisteri"

Jacanas

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Jacanidae

The jacanas are a group of tropical waders in the family Jacanidae. They are found worldwide in the Tropics. They are identifiable by their huge feet and claws which enable them to walk on floating vegetation in the shallow lakes that are their preferred habitat. There 8 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Paraguay.

*Wattled Jacana "Jacana jacana"

Painted snipe

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Rostratulidae

Painted snipe are short-legged, long-billed birds similar in shape to the true snipes, but more brightly coloured. There are 2 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Paraguay.

*American Painted-snipe "Rostratula semicollaris"

Avocets and Stilts

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Recurvirostridae

Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and the stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills. There are 9 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Paraguay.

*White-backed Stilt "Himantopus melanurus"

Plovers and Lapwings

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Charadriidae

The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels, and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water, although there are some exceptions. There are 66 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Pied Lapwing "Vanellus cayanus"
*Southern Lapwing "Vanellus chilensis"
*American Golden-Plover "Pluvialis dominica"
*Black-bellied Plover "Pluvialis squatarola"
*Collared Plover "Charadrius collaris"

andpipers and allies

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Scolopacidae

The Scolopacidae are a large diverse family of small to medium sized shorebirds including the sandpipers, curlews, godwits, shanks, tattlers, woodcocks, snipes, dowitchers and phalaropes. The majority of species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Variation in length of legs and bills enable different species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food. There are 89 species worldwide and 22 species which occur in Paraguay.

*South American Snipe "Gallinago paraguaiae"
*Giant Snipe "Gallinago undulata"
*Hudsonian Godwit "Limosa haemastica"
*Eskimo Curlew "Numenius borealis" (A)
*Upland Sandpiper "Bartramia longicauda"
*Greater Yellowlegs "Tringa melanoleuca"
*Lesser Yellowlegs "Tringa flavipes"
*Solitary Sandpiper "Tringa solitaria"
*Spotted Sandpiper "Actitis macularia"
*Ruddy Turnstone "Arenaria interpres"
*Red Knot "Calidris canutus"
*Sanderling "Calidris alba"
*Semipalmated Sandpiper "Calidris pusilla" (A)
*Least Sandpiper "Calidris minutilla"
*White-rumped Sandpiper "Calidris fuscicollis"
*Baird's Sandpiper "Calidris bairdii"
*Pectoral Sandpiper "Calidris melanotos"
*Dunlin "Calidris alpina" (A)
*Stilt Sandpiper "Calidris himantopus"
*Buff-breasted Sandpiper "Tryngites subruficollis"
*Wilson's Phalarope "Phalaropus tricolor"
*Red Phalarope "Phalaropus fulicarius"

Gulls

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Laridae

Laridae is a family of medium to large birds seabirds and includes gulls and kittiwakes. They are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet. There are 55 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Gray-headed Gull "Larus cirrocephalus"
*Brown-hooded Gull "Larus maculipennis"

Terns

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Sternidae

Terns are a group of generally general medium to large sea-birds typically with grey or white plumage, often with black markings on the head. Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects off the surface of fresh water. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with several species now known to live in excess of 25 to 30 years. There are 44 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Arctic Tern "Sterna paradisaea"
*Yellow-billed Tern "Sterna superciliaris"
*Large-billed Tern "Phaetusa simplex"

kimmers

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Rynchopidae

Skimmers are a small family of tropical tern-like birds. They have an elongated lower mandible which they use to feed by flying low over the water surface and skimming the water for small fish. There are 3 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Paraguay.

*Black Skimmer "Rynchops niger"

Pigeons and Doves

Order: ColumbiformesFamily: Columbidae

Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills with a fleshy cere. There are 308 species worldwide and 16 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Rock Pigeon "Columba livia" (I)
*Scaled Pigeon "Patagioenas speciosa"
*Picazuro Pigeon "Patagioenas picazuro"
*Spot-winged Pigeon "Patagioenas maculosa"
*Pale-vented Pigeon "Patagioenas cayennensis"
*Eared Dove "Zenaida auriculata"
*Plain-breasted Ground-Dove "Columbina minuta"
*Ruddy Ground-Dove "Columbina talpacoti"
*Picui Ground-Dove "Columbina picui"
*Scaled Dove "Columbina squammata"
*Blue Ground-Dove "Claravis pretiosa"
*Purple-winged Ground-Dove "Claravis godefrida"
*White-tipped Dove "Leptotila verreauxi"
*Gray-fronted Dove "Leptotila rufaxilla"
*Violaceous Quail-Dove "Geotrygon violacea"
*Ruddy Quail-Dove "Geotrygon montana"

Parrots, Macaws and allies

Order: PsittaciformesFamily: Psittacidae

Parrots are small to large birds with a characteristic curved beak shape. Their upper mandibles have slight mobility in the joint with the skull and the have a generally erect stance. All parrots are zygodactyl, having the four toes on each foot placed two at the front and two back. There are 335 species worldwide and 20 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Hyacinth Macaw "Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus"
*Blue-and-yellow Macaw "Ara ararauna"
*Red-and-green Macaw "Ara chloroptera"
*Blue-winged Macaw "Primolius maracana"
*Golden-collared Macaw "Primolius auricollis"
*Blue-crowned Parakeet "Aratinga acuticaudata"
*White-eyed Parakeet "Aratinga leucophthalmus"
*Peach-fronted Parakeet "Aratinga aurea"
*Nanday Parakeet "Nandayus nenday"
*Blaze-winged Parakeet "Pyrrhura devillei"
*Maroon-bellied Parakeet "Pyrrhura frontalis"
*Green-cheeked Parakeet "Pyrrhura molinae"
*Monk Parakeet "Myiopsitta monachus"
*Blue-winged Parrotlet "Forpus xanthopterygius"
*Yellow-chevroned Parakeet "Brotogeris chiriri"
*Pileated Parrot "Pionopsitta pileata"
*Scaly-headed Parrot "Pionus maximiliani"
*Red-spectacled Parrot "Amazona pretrei"
*Blue-fronted Parrot "Amazona aestiva"
*Vinaceous Parrot "Amazona vinacea"

Cuckoos and Anis

Order: CuculiformesFamily: Cuculidae

The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos, roadrunners and anis. These birds are of variable size with slender bodies, long tails and strong legs. Unlike the cuckoo species of the Old World, North American cuckoos are not brood parasites. There are 138 species worldwide and 12 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Ash-colored Cuckoo "Coccyzus cinereus"
*Black-billed Cuckoo "Coccyzus erythropthalmus"
*Yellow-billed Cuckoo "Coccyzus americanus"
*Pearly-breasted Cuckoo "Coccyzus euleri"
*Dark-billed Cuckoo "Coccyzus melacoryphus"
*Squirrel Cuckoo "Piaya cayana"
*Greater Ani "Crotophaga major"
*Smooth-billed Ani "Crotophaga ani"
*Guira Cuckoo "Guira guira"
*Striped Cuckoo "Tapera naevia"
*Pheasant Cuckoo "Dromococcyx phasianellus"
*Pavonine Cuckoo "Dromococcyx pavoninus"

Barn owls

Order: StrigiformesFamily: Tytonidae

Barn owls are medium to large sized owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons. There are 16 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Paraguay.

*Barn Owl "Tyto alba"

Typical owls

Order: StrigiformesFamily: Strigidae

Typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak, and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk. There are 195 species worldwide and 17 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Tropical Screech-Owl "Megascops choliba"
*Variable Screech-Owl "Megascops atricapillus"
*Long-tufted Screech-Owl "Megascops sanctaecatarinae"
*Great Horned Owl "Bubo virginianus"
*Rusty-barred Owl "Strix hylophila"
*Chaco Owl "Strix chacoensis"
*Mottled Owl "Ciccaba virgata"
*Black-banded Owl "Ciccaba huhula"
*Spectacled Owl "Pulsatrix perspicillata"
*Tawny-browed Owl "Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana"
*Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl "Glaucidium brasilianum"
*Tucuman Pygmy-Owl "Glaucidium tucumanum"
*Burrowing Owl "Athene cunicularia"
*Buff-fronted Owl "Aegolius harrisii"
*Striped Owl "Pseudoscops clamator"
*Stygian Owl "Asio stygius"
*Short-eared Owl "Asio flammeus"

Potoos

Order: CaprimulgiformesFamily: Nyctibiidae

The potoos (sometimes called Poor-Me-Ones) are large near passerine birds related to the nightjars and frogmouths. They are nocturnal insectivores which lack the bristles around the mouth found in the true nightjars. There are 5 species, all of which are from the South American tropical region, and 3 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Great Potoo "Nyctibius grandis"
*Long-tailed Potoo "Nyctibius aethereus"
*Common Potoo "Nyctibius griseus"

Nightjars

Order: CaprimulgiformesFamily: Caprimulgidae

Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds with long wings, short legs and very short bills that usually nest on the ground. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is camouflaged to resemble bark or leaves. There are 86 species worldwide and 16 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Short-tailed Nighthawk "Lurocalis semitorquatus"
*Common Nighthawk "Chordeiles minor"
*Nacunda Nighthawk "Podager nacunda"
*Band-tailed Nighthawk "Nyctiprogne leucopyga"
*Pauraque "Nyctidromus albicollis"
*Ocellated Poorwill "Nyctiphrynus ocellatus"
*Rufous Nightjar "Caprimulgus rufus"
*Silky-tailed Nightjar "Caprimulgus sericocaudatus"
*Band-winged Nightjar "Caprimulgus longirostris"
*White-winged Nightjar "Caprimulgus candicans"
*Little Nightjar "Caprimulgus parvulus"
*Spot-tailed Nightjar "Caprimulgus maculicaudus"
*White-tailed Nightjar "Caprimulgus cayennensis"
*Scissor-tailed Nightjar "Hydropsalis torquata"
*Long-trained Nightjar "Macropsalis forcipata"
*Sickle-winged Nightjar "Eleothreptus anomalus"

wifts

Order: ApodiformesFamily: Apodidae

Swifts are small aerial birds, spending the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings that resemble a crescent or a boomerang. There are 98 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Sooty Swift "Cypseloides fumigatus"
*Great Dusky Swift "Cypseloides senex"
*White-collared Swift "Streptoprocne zonaris"
*Biscutate Swift "Streptoprocne biscutata"
*Gray-rumped Swift "Chaetura cinereiventris"
*Ashy-tailed Swift "Chaetura andrei"

Hummingbirds

Order: TrochiliformesFamily: Trochilidae

Hummingbirds are small birds capable of hovering in mid-air due to the rapid flapping of their wings. They are the only birds that can fly backwards. There are 337 species worldwide and 17 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Scale-throated Hermit "Phaethornis eurynome"
*Planalto Hermit "Phaethornis pretrei"
*Swallow-tailed Hummingbird "Eupetomena macrourus"
*Black Jacobin "Florisuga fuscus"
*White-vented Violet-ear "Colibri serrirostris"
*Black-throated Mango "Anthracothorax nigricollis"
*Plovercrest "Stephanoxis lalandi"
*Glittering-bellied Emerald "Chlorostilbon aureoventris"
*Fork-tailed Woodnymph "Thalurania furcata"
*Violet-capped Woodnymph "Thalurania glaucopis"
*Rufous-throated Sapphire "Hylocharis sapphirina"
*Gilded Sapphire "Hylocharis chrysura"
*White-throated Hummingbird "Leucochloris albicollis"
*White-tailed Goldenthroat "Polytmus guainumbi"
*Versicolored Emerald "Agyrtria versicolor"
*Blue-tufted Starthroat "Heliomaster furcifer"
*Amethyst Woodstar "Calliphlox amethystina"

Trogons and Quetzals

Order: TrogoniformesFamily: Trogonidae

The family Trogonidae includes trogons and quetzals. Found in tropical woodlands worldwide, they feed on insects and fruit, and their broad bills and weak legs reflect their diet and arboreal habits. Although their flight is fast, they are reluctant to fly any distance. Trogons have soft, often colourful, feathers with distinctive male and female plumage. There are 33 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Black-throated Trogon "Trogon rufus"
*Surucua Trogon "Trogon surrucura"
*Blue-crowned Trogon "Trogon curucui"

Kingfishers

Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Alcedinidae

Kingfishers are medium-sized birds with large heads, long pointed bills, short legs, and stubby tails. There are 93 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Ringed Kingfisher "Ceryle torquatus"
*Amazon Kingfisher "Chloroceryle amazona"
*Green Kingfisher "Chloroceryle americana"
*Green-and-rufous Kingfisher "Chloroceryle inda"
*American Pygmy Kingfisher "Chloroceryle aenea"

Motmots

Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Momotidae

The motmots have colorful plumage and long, graduated tails, which they display by waggling back and forth. In most of the species, the barbs near the ends of the two longest (central) tail feathers are weak and fall off, leaving a length of bare shaft, and creating a racket-shaped tail. There are 10 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Blue-crowned Motmot "Momotus momota"
*Rufous-capped Motmot "Baryphthengus ruficapillus"

Puffbirds

Order: PiciformesFamily: Bucconidae

The puffbirds are related to the jacamars, and have the same range, but lack the iridescent colours of that family. They are mainly brown, rufous or grey, with large heads and flattened bills with a hooked tip. The loose abundant plumage and short tails makes them look stout and puffy, giving rise to the English common name of the family. There are 34 species and 5 species which occur in Paraguay.

*White-necked Puffbird "Notharchus macrorhynchos"
*Buff-bellied Puffbird "Notharchus swainsoni"
*White-eared Puffbird "Nystalus chacuru"
*Spot-backed Puffbird "Nystalus maculatus"
*Rusty-breasted Nunlet "Nonnula rubecula"

Toucans

Order: PiciformesFamily: Ramphastidae

Toucans are near passerine birds from the neotropics. They are brightly marked and have enormous, colourful bills which in some species may amount to half their body length. There are 40 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Chestnut-eared Aracari "Pteroglossus castanotis"
*Saffron Toucanet "Baillonius bailloni"
*Spot-billed Toucanet "Selenidera maculirostris"
*Red-breasted Toucan "Ramphastos dicolorus"
*Toco Toucan "Ramphastos toco"

Woodpeckers and allies

Order: PiciformesFamily: Picidae

Woodpeckers are small to medium sized birds with chisel like beaks, short legs, stiff tails and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward, and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks. There are 218 species worldwide and 21 species which occur in Paraguay.

*White-barred Piculet "Picumnus cirratus"
*Ochre-collared Piculet "Picumnus temminckii"
*White-wedged Piculet "Picumnus albosquamatus"
*White Woodpecker "Melanerpes candidus"
*Yellow-fronted Woodpecker "Melanerpes flavifrons"
*White-fronted Woodpecker "Melanerpes cactorum"
*Checkered Woodpecker "Picoides mixtus"
*Little Woodpecker "Veniliornis passerinus"
*White-spotted Woodpecker "Veniliornis spilogaster"
*Golden-green Woodpecker "Piculus chrysochloros"
*Yellow-browed Woodpecker "Piculus aurulentus"
*Green-barred Woodpecker "Colaptes melanochloros"
*Campo Flicker "Colaptes campestris"
*Pale-crested Woodpecker "Celeus lugubris"
*Blond-crested Woodpecker "Celeus flavescens"
*Helmeted Woodpecker "Dryocopus galeatus"
*Lineated Woodpecker "Dryocopus lineatus"
*Black-bodied Woodpecker "Dryocopus schulzi"
*Robust Woodpecker "Campephilus robustus"
*Crimson-crested Woodpecker "Campephilus melanoleucos"
*Cream-backed Woodpecker "Campephilus leucopogon"

Ovenbirds

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Furnariidae

Ovenbirds comprise a large family of small sub-oscine passerine bird species found in Central and South America. They are a diverse group of insectivores which gets its name from the elaborate "oven-like" clay nests built by some species, although others build stick nests or nest in tunnels or clefts in rock. There are 243 species worldwide and 45 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Campo Miner "Geobates poecilopterus" (A)
*Chaco Earthcreeper "Ochetorhynchus certhioides"
*Bar-winged Cinclodes "Cinclodes fuscus"
*Pale-legged Hornero "Furnarius leucopus"
*Rufous Hornero "Furnarius rufus"
*Crested Hornero "Furnarius cristatus"
*Tufted Tit-Spinetail "Leptasthenura platensis"
*Wren-like Rushbird "Phleocryptes melanops"
*Chotoy Spinetail "Schoeniophylax phryganophila"
*Ochre-cheeked Spinetail "Synallaxis scutata"
*Sooty-fronted Spinetail "Synallaxis frontalis"
*Cinereous-breasted Spinetail "Synallaxis hypospodia"
*Pale-breasted Spinetail "Synallaxis albescens"
*Chicli Spinetail "Synallaxis spixi"
*Rufous-capped Spinetail "Synallaxis ruficapilla"
*Plain-crowned Spinetail "Synallaxis gujanensis"
*White-lored Spinetail "Synallaxis albilora"
*Gray-bellied Spinetail "Synallaxis cinerascens"
*Olive Spinetail "Cranioleuca obsoleta"
*Stripe-crowned Spinetail "Cranioleuca pyrrhophia"
*Parker's Spinetail "Cranioleuca vulpecula"
*Yellow-chinned Spinetail "Certhiaxis cinnamomea"
*Lesser Canastero "Asthenes pyrrholeuca"
*Short-billed Canastero "Asthenes baeri"
*Common Thornbird "Phacellodomus rufifrons"
*Little Thornbird "Phacellodomus sibilatrix"
*Greater Thornbird "Phacellodomus ruber"
*Canebrake Groundcreeper "Clibanornis dendrocolaptoides"
*Firewood-gatherer "Anumbius annumbi"
*Lark-like Brushrunner "Coryphistera alaudina"
*Gray-crested Cacholote "Pseudoseisura unirufa"
*Brown Cacholote "Pseudoseisura lophotes"
*Plain Xenops "Xenops minutus"
*Streaked Xenops "Xenops rutilans"
*Sharp-billed Treehunter "Heliobletus contaminatus"
*White-browed Foliage-gleaner "Anabacerthia amaurotis"
*Buff-browed Foliage-gleaner "Syndactyla rufosuperciliata"
*Buff-fronted Foliage-gleaner "Philydor rufus"
*Ochre-breasted Foliage-gleaner "Philydor lichtensteini"
*Russet-mantled Foliage-gleaner "Philydor dimidiatus"
*Black-capped Foliage-gleaner "Philydor atricapillus"
*White-eyed Foliage-gleaner "Automolus leucophthalmus"
*Chestnut-capped Foliage-gleaner "Hylocryptus rectirostris"
*Rufous-breasted Leaftosser "Sclerurus scansor"
*Sharp-tailed Streamcreeper "Lochmias nematura"

Woodcreepers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Dendrocolaptidae

The Dendrocolaptidae are brownish birds and maintain an upright vertical posture, supported by their stiff tail vanes. They feed mainly on insects taken from tree trunks. There are 57 species worldwide and 14 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Thrush-like Woodcreeper "Dendrocincla turdina"
*White-chinned Woodcreeper "Dendrocincla merula"
*Olivaceous Woodcreeper "Sittasomus griseicapillus"
*Scimitar-billed Woodcreeper "Drymornis bridgesii"
*White-throated Woodcreeper "Xiphocolaptes albicollis"
*Great Rufous Woodcreeper "Xiphocolaptes major"
*Black-banded Woodcreeper "Dendrocolaptes picumnus"
*Planalto Woodcreeper "Dendrocolaptes platyrostris"
*Lesser Woodcreeper "Xiphorhynchus fuscus"
*Narrow-billed Woodcreeper "Lepidocolaptes angustirostris"
*Scalloped Woodcreeper "Lepidocolaptes falcinellus"
*Red-billed Scythebill "Campylorhamphus trochilirostris"
*Black-billed Scythebill "Campylorhamphus falcularius"
*Curve-billed Scythebill "Campylorhamphus procurvoides"

Typical antbirds

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Thamnophilidae

The antbirds are a large family of small passerine birds of subtropical and tropical Central and South America. They are forest birds, and tend to feed on insects at or near the ground. A sizable minority of them specialize in following columns of army ants to eat the small invertebrates that leave hiding to flee the ants.Many species lack bright colour; brown, black and white being the dominant tones. There are about 212 species worldwide and 24 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Spot-backed Antshrike "Hypoedaleus guttatus"
*Giant Antshrike "Batara cinerea"
*Tufted Antshrike "Mackenziaena severa"
*Large-tailed Antshrike "Mackenziaena leachii"
*Great Antshrike "Taraba major"
*Barred Antshrike "Thamnophilus doliatus"
*Bolivian Slaty-Antshrike "Thamnophilus sticturus"
*Variable Antshrike "Thamnophilus caerulescens"
*Rufous-winged Antshrike "Thamnophilus torquatus"
*Rufous-capped Antshrike "Thamnophilus ruficapillus"
*Plain Antvireo "Dysithamnus mentalis"
*Star-throated Antwren "Myrmotherula gularis"
*Stripe-backed Antbird "Myrmorchilus strigilatus"
*Black-capped Antwren "Herpsilochmus atricapillus"
*Rufous-winged Antwren "Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus"
*Black-bellied Antwren "Formicivora melanogaster"
*Rusty-backed Antwren "Formicivora rufa"
*Bertoni's Antbird "Drymophila rubricollis"
*Dusky-tailed Antbird "Drymophila malura"
*Streak-capped Antwren "Terenura maculata"
*Mato Grosso Antbird "Cercomacra melanaria"
*White-backed Fire-eye "Pyriglena leuconota"
*White-shouldered Fire-eye "Pyriglena leucoptera"
*Band-tailed Antbird "Hypocnemoides maculicauda"

Antthrushes and Antpittas

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Formicariidae

The ground antbirds are a family comprising the antthrushes and antpittas. Antthrushes resemble small rails while antpittas resemble the true pittas with longish strong legs, very short tails and stout bills. There are about 63 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Short-tailed Antthrush "Chamaeza campanisona"
*Variegated Antpitta "Grallaria varia"
*Speckle-breasted Antpitta "Hylopezus nattereri"

Gnateaters

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Conopophagidae

The gnateaters are round, short-tailed, and long-legged birds, which are closely related to the antbirds. There are 8 species worldwide, all found in South America, and 1 species which occurs in Paraguay.

*Rufous Gnateater "Conopophaga lineata"

Tapaculos

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Rhinocryptidae

The tapaculos are a group of small suboscine passeriform birds with numerous species, found in South America. They are terrestrial species that fly only poorly on their short wings. They have strong legs, well-suited to their habitat of grassland or forest undergrowth. The tail is cocked and pointed towards the head. There are 56 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Crested Gallito "Rhinocrypta lanceolata"
*Collared Crescent-chest "Melanopareia torquata"
*Olive-crowned Crescent-chest "Melanopareia maximiliani"

Cotingas

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Cotingidae

The cotingas are birds of forests or forest edges of tropical South America. Comparatively little is known about this diverse group, although all have broad bills with hooked tips, rounded wings, and strong legs. The males of many of the species are brightly coloured, or decorated with plumes or wattles. There are 71 species worldwide and 5 species which occur in Paraguay

*Sharpbill "Oxyruncus cristatus"
*White-tipped Plantcutter "Phytotoma rutila"
*Swallow-tailed Cotinga "Phibalura flavirostris"
*Red-ruffed Fruitcrow "Pyroderus scutatus"
*Bare-throated Bellbird "Procnias nudicollis"

Manakins

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Pipridae

The manakins are a family bird species of subtropical and tropical mainland Central and South America, and Trinidad and Tobago. They are compact forest birds, the males typically being brightly coloured, although the females of most species are duller and usually green-plumaged. Manakins feed on small fruits, berries and insects. There are 57 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Paraguay.

*White-bearded Manakin "Manacus manacus"
*Blue Manakin "Chiroxiphia caudata"
*Band-tailed Manakin "Pipra fasciicauda"
*Helmeted Manakin "Antilophia galeata"
*Wing-barred Piprites "Piprites chloris"
*Greenish Schiffornis "Schiffornis virescens"

Tyrant flycatchers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Tyrannidae

Tyrant flycatchers are passerine birds which occur throughout North and South America. They superficially resemble the Old World flycatchers, but are more robust with stronger bills. They do not have the sophisticated vocal capabilities of the songbirds. Most, but not all, have plain colouring. As the name implies, most are insectivorous. There are 429 species worldwide, all found only in the Americas and 105 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Southern Beardless-Tyrannulet "Camptostoma obsoletum"
*Mouse-colored Tyrannulet "Phaeomyias murina"
*Yellow Tyrannulet "Capsiempis flaveola"
*Gray Elaenia "Myiopagis caniceps"
*Greenish Elaenia "Myiopagis viridicata"
*Large Elaenia "Elaenia spectabilis"
*Yellow-bellied Elaenia "Elaenia flavogaster"
*White-crested Elaenia "Elaenia albiceps"
*Small-billed Elaenia "Elaenia parvirostris"
*Olivaceous Elaenia "Elaenia mesoleuca"
*Lesser Elaenia "Elaenia chiriquensis"
*Highland Elaenia "Elaenia obscura"
*Sooty Tyrannulet "Serpophaga nigricans"
*White-crested Tyrannulet "Serpophaga subcristata"
*White-bellied Tyrannulet "Serpophaga munda"
*Gray-hooded Flycatcher "Mionectes rufiventris"
*Sepia-capped Flycatcher "Leptopogon amaurocephalus"
*Southern Bristle-Tyrant "Pogonotriccus eximius"
*São Paulo Tyrannulet "Phylloscartes paulista"
*Mottle-cheeked Tyrannulet "Phylloscartes ventralis"
*Bay-ringed Tyrannulet "Phylloscartes sylviolus"
*Planalto Tyrannulet "Phyllomyias fasciatus"
*Rough-legged Tyrannulet "Phyllomyias burmeisteri"
*Greenish Tyrannulet "Phyllomyias virescens"
*Reiser's Tyrannulet "Phyllomyias reiseri"
*Southern Scrub-Flycatcher "Sublegatus modestus"
*Suiriri Flycatcher "Suiriri suiriri"
*Plain Tyrannulet "Inezia inornata"
*Greater Wagtail-Tyrant "Stigmatura budytoides"
*Many-colored Rush-Tyrant "Tachuris rubrigastra"
*Sharp-tailed Tyrant "Culicivora caudacuta"
*Bearded Tachuri "Polystictus pectoralis"
*Crested Doradito "Pseudocolopteryx sclateri"
*Dinelli's Doradito "Pseudocolopteryx dinellianus"
*Subtropical Doradito "Pseudocolopteryx acutipennis"
*Warbling Doradito "Pseudocolopteryx flaviventris"
*Tawny-crowned Pygmy-Tyrant "Euscarthmus meloryphus"
*Rufous-sided Pygmy-Tyrant "Euscarthmus rufomarginatus"
*Eared Pygmy-Tyrant "Myiornis auricularis"
*Ochre-faced Tody-Flycatcher "Poecilotriccus plumbeiceps"
*Rusty-fronted Tody-Flycatcher "Poecilotriccus latirostris"
*Drab-breasted Bamboo-Tyrant "Hemitriccus diops"
*Stripe-necked Tody-Tyrant "Hemitriccus striaticollis"
*Pearly-vented Tody-Tyrant "Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer"
*Common Tody-Flycatcher "Todirostrum cinereum"
*Southern Antpipit "Corythopis delalandi"
*Large-headed Flatbill "Ramphotrigon megacephala"
*Yellow-olive Flycatcher "Tolmomyias sulphurescens"
*White-throated Spadebill "Platyrinchus mystaceus"
*Russet-winged Spadebill "Platyrinchus leucoryphus"
*Bran-colored Flycatcher "Myiophobus fasciatus"
*Cliff Flycatcher "Hirundinea ferruginea"
*Fuscous Flycatcher "Cnemotriccus fuscatus"
*Euler's Flycatcher "Lathrotriccus euleri"
*Tropical Pewee "Contopus cinereus"
*Alder Flycatcher "Empidonax alnorum"
*Vermilion Flycatcher "Pyrocephalus rubinus"
*Gray Monjita "Xolmis cinerea"
*Black-crowned Monjita "Xolmis coronata"
*White-rumped Monjita "Xolmis velata"
*White Monjita "Xolmis irupero"
*Gray-bellied Shrike-Tyrant "Agriornis microptera"
*Lesser Shrike-Tyrant "Agriornis murina"
*Cinnamon-bellied Ground-Tyrant "Muscisaxicola capistratus" (A)
*Austral Negrito "Lessonia rufa"
*Cinereous Tyrant "Knipolegus striaticeps"
*Hudson's Black-Tyrant "Knipolegus hudsoni"
*Blue-billed Black-Tyrant "Knipolegus cyanirostris"
*White-winged Black-Tyrant "Knipolegus aterrimus"
*Crested Black-Tyrant "Knipolegus lophotes"
*Spectacled Tyrant "Hymenops perspicillatus"
*Black-backed Water-Tyrant "Fluvicola albiventer"
*White-headed Marsh-Tyrant "Arundinicola leucocephala"
*Cock-tailed Tyrant "Alectrurus tricolor"
*Strange-tailed Tyrant "Alectrurus risora"
*Streamer-tailed Tyrant "Gubernetes yetapa"
*Yellow-browed Tyrant "Satrapa icterophrys"
*Long-tailed Tyrant "Colonia colonus"
*Cattle Tyrant "Machetornis rixosus"
*Shear-tailed Gray Tyrant "Muscipipra vetula"
*Rufous-tailed Attila "Attila phoenicurus"
*Rufous Casiornis "Casiornis rufa"
*Sirystes "Sirystes sibilator"
*Swainson's Flycatcher "Myiarchus swainsoni"
*Short-crested Flycatcher "Myiarchus ferox"
*Brown-crested Flycatcher "Myiarchus tyrannulus"
*Great Kiskadee "Pitangus sulphuratus"
*Boat-billed Flycatcher "Megarynchus pitangua"
*Social Flycatcher "Myiozetetes similis"
*Three-striped Flycatcher "Conopias trivirgata"
*Streaked Flycatcher "Myiodynastes maculatus"
*Piratic Flycatcher "Legatus leucophaius"
*Variegated Flycatcher "Empidonomus varius"
*Crowned Slaty Flycatcher "Griseotyrannus aurantioatrocristatus"
*Tropical Kingbird "Tyrannus melancholicus"
*Eastern Kingbird "Tyrannus tyrannus"
*Fork-tailed Flycatcher "Tyrannus savana"
*White-naped Xenopsaris "Xenopsaris albinucha"
*Chestnut-crowned Becard "Pachyramphus castaneus"
*Green-backed Becard "Pachyramphus viridis"
*White-winged Becard "Pachyramphus polychopterus"
*Crested Becard "Pachyramphus validus"
*Black-tailed Tityra "Tityra cayana"
*Masked Tityra "Tityra semifasciata"
*Black-crowned Tityra "Tityra inquisitor"

wallows and Martins

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Hirundinidae

The Hirundinidae family is a group of passerines characterized by their adaptation to aerial feeding. Their adaptations include a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and short bills with wide gape. The feet are designed for perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base. There are 75 species worldwide and 13 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Brown-chested Martin "Progne tapera"
*Purple Martin "Progne subis"
*Gray-breasted Martin "Progne chalybea"
*White-winged Swallow "Tachycineta albiventer"
*White-rumped Swallow "Tachycineta leucorrhoa"
*Chilean Swallow "Tachycineta meyeni"
*Blue-and-white Swallow "Notiochelidon cyanoleuca"
*Black-collared Swallow "Atticora melanoleuca"
*Tawny-headed Swallow "Alopochelidon fucata"
*Southern Rough-winged Swallow "Stelgidopteryx ruficollis"
*Bank Swallow "Riparia riparia"
*Cliff Swallow "Petrochelidon pyrrhonota"
*Barn Swallow "Hirundo rustica"

Wagtails and Pipits

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Motacillidae

The Motacillidae are a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender, ground feeding insectivores of open country. There are 54 species worldwide and 6 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Correndera Pipit "Anthus correndera"
*Short-billed Pipit "Anthus furcatus"
*Hellmayr's Pipit "Anthus hellmayri"
*Yellowish Pipit "Anthus lutescens"
*Chaco Pipit "Anthus chacoensis"
*Ochre-breasted Pipit "Anthus nattereri"

Wrens

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Troglodytidae

The wrens are mainly small and inconspicuous except for their loud songs. These birds have short wings and a thin down-turned bill. Several species often hold their tails upright. All are insectivorous. There are 80 species worldwide (of which all but one are New World species) and 6 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Black-capped Donacobius "Donacobius atricapilla"
*Thrush-like Wren "Campylorhynchus turdinus"
*Buff-breasted Wren "Thryothorus leucotis"
*Fawn-breasted Wren "Thryothorus guarayanus"
*House Wren "Troglodytes aedon"
*Sedge Wren "Cistothorus platensis"

Mockingbirds and Thrashers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Mimidae

The mimids are a family of passerine birds that includes thrashers, mockingbirds, tremblers, and the New World catbirds. These birds are notable for their vocalizations, especially their ability to mimic a wide variety of birds and other sounds heard outdoors. Their colouring tends towards dull greys and browns . There are 35 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Chalk-browed Mockingbird "Mimus saturninus"
*White-banded Mockingbird "Mimus triurus"

Thrushes and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Turdidae

The thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium-sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs. There are 335 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Veery "Catharus fuscescens" (A)
*Yellow-legged Thrush "Platycichla flavipes"
*Eastern Slaty-Thrush "Turdus subalaris" (A)
*Rufous-bellied Thrush "Turdus rufiventris"
*Pale-breasted Thrush "Turdus leucomelas"
*Creamy-bellied Thrush "Turdus amaurochalinus"
*White-necked Thrush "Turdus albicollis"

Gnatcatchers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Polioptilidae

These dainty birds resemble Old World warblers in their build and habits, moving restlessly through the foliage seeking insects. The gnatcatchers and gnatwrens are mainly soft bluish grey in colour, and have the typical insectivore's long sharp bill. They are birds of fairly open woodland or scrub, and nest in bushes or trees. There are 15 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Creamy-bellied Gnatcatcher "Polioptila lactea"
*Masked Gnatcatcher "Polioptila dumicola"

Crows, Jays, Ravens and Magpies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Corvidae

The Corvidae family includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers, and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size for the bird order Passeriformes. Some of the larger species show high levels of learning behavior. There are 120 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Purplish Jay "Cyanocorax cyanomelas"
*Curl-crested Jay "Cyanocorax cristatellus"
*Plush-crested Jay "Cyanocorax chrysops"

Vireos

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Vireonidae

The vireos are a group of small to medium sized passerine birds restricted to the New World. They are typically greenish in colour and resemble wood warblers apart from their heavier bills. There are 52 species worldwide and 3 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Red-eyed Vireo "Vireo olivaceus"
*Rufous-crowned Greenlet "Hylophilus poicilotis"
*Rufous-browed Peppershrike "Cyclarhis gujanensis"

New World warblers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Parulidae

The New World warblers are a group of small, often colourful, passerine birds restricted to the New World. Most are arboreal, but some are terrestrial. Most members of this family are insectivores. There are 119 species worldwide and 7 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Tropical Parula "Parula pitiayumi"
*Masked Yellowthroat "Geothlypis aequinoctialis"
*Golden-crowned Warbler "Basileuterus culicivorus"
*White-bellied Warbler "Basileuterus hypoleucus"
*White-rimmed Warbler "Basileuterus leucoblepharus"
*Flavescent Warbler "Basileuterus flaveolus"
*Neotropical River Warbler "Basileuterus rivularis"

Bananaquit

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Coerebidae

The Bananaquit is a small passerine bird. It has a slender, curved bill, adapted to taking nectar from flowers and is the only member of the genus "Coereba" (Vieillot, 1809) and is normally placed within the family Coerebidae, although there is uncertainty whether that placement is correct.

*Bananaquit "Coereba flaveola"

Tanagers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Thraupidae

The tanagers are a large group of small to medium-sized passerine birds restricted to the New World, mainly in the tropics. Many species are brightly coloured. They are seed eaters, but their preference tends towards fruit and nectar. Most have short, rounded wings. There are 256 species worldwide and 34 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Chestnut-vented Conebill "Conirostrum speciosum"
*Cinnamon Tanager "Schistochlamys ruficapillus"
*Black-faced Tanager "Schistochlamys melanopis"
*White-banded Tanager "Neothraupis fasciata"
*White-rumped Tanager "Cypsnagra hirundinacea"
*Magpie Tanager "Cissopis leveriana"
*Chestnut-headed Tanager "Pyrrhocoma ruficeps"
*Orange-headed Tanager "Thlypopsis sordida"
*Guira Tanager "Hemithraupis guira"
*Hooded Tanager "Nemosia pileata"
*Gray-headed Tanager "Eucometis penicillata"
*Ruby-crowned Tanager "Tachyphonus coronatus"
*White-lined Tanager "Tachyphonus rufus"
*Black-goggled Tanager "Trichothraupis melanops"
*Red-crowned Ant-Tanager "Habia rubica"
*Hepatic Tanager "Piranga flava"
*Silver-beaked Tanager "Ramphocelus carbo"
*Sayaca Tanager "Thraupis sayaca"
*Blue-and-yellow Tanager "Thraupis bonariensis"
*Palm Tanager "Thraupis palmarum"
*Diademed Tanager "Stephanophorus diadematus"
*Fawn-breasted Tanager "Pipraeidea melanonota"
*Purple-throated Euphonia "Euphonia chlorotica"
*Violaceous Euphonia "Euphonia violacea"
*Thick-billed Euphonia "Euphonia laniirostris"
*Green-chinned Euphonia "Euphonia chalybea"
*Golden-rumped Euphonia "Euphonia cyanocephala"
*Chestnut-bellied Euphonia "Euphonia pectoralis"
*Blue-naped Chlorophonia "Chlorophonia cyanea"
*Green-headed Tanager "Tangara seledon"
*Burnished-buff Tanager "Tangara cayana"
*Chestnut-backed Tanager "Tangara preciosa"
*Blue Dacnis "Dacnis cayana"
*Swallow-Tanager "Tersina viridis"

Buntings, Sparrows, Seedeaters and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Emberizidae

The emberizids are a large family of passerine birds. They are seed-eating birds with a distinctively shaped bill. In Europe, most species are named as buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are known as Sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns. There are species 275 worldwide and 41 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Black-masked Finch "Coryphaspiza melanotis"
*Many-colored Chaco-Finch "Saltatricula multicolor"
*Red-crested Finch "Coryphospingus cucullatus"
*Black-crested Finch "Lophospingus pusillus"
*Long-tailed Reed-Finch "Donacospiza albifrons"
*Black-and-rufous Warbling-Finch "Poospiza nigrorufa"
*Red-rumped Warbling-Finch "Poospiza lateralis"
*Ringed Warbling-Finch "Poospiza torquata"
*Black-capped Warbling-Finch "Poospiza melanoleuca"
*Blue-black Grassquit "Volatinia jacarina"
*Buffy-fronted Seedeater "Sporophila frontalis"
*Temminck's Seedeater "Sporophila falcirostris"
*Plumbeous Seedeater "Sporophila plumbea"
*Rusty-collared Seedeater "Sporophila collaris"
*Lined Seedeater "Sporophila lineola"
*Yellow-bellied Seedeater "Sporophila nigricollis"
*Double-collared Seedeater "Sporophila caerulescens"
*White-bellied Seedeater "Sporophila leucoptera"
*Capped Seedeater "Sporophila bouvreuil"
*Tawny-bellied Seedeater "Sporophila hypoxantha"
*Dark-throated Seedeater "Sporophila ruficollis"
*Marsh Seedeater "Sporophila palustris"
*Gray-and-chestnut Seedeater "Sporophila hypochroma"
*Chestnut Seedeater "Sporophila cinnamomea"
*Narosky's Seedeater "Sporophila zelichi" (A)
*Chestnut-bellied Seed-Finch "Oryzoborus angolensis"
*Blackish-blue Seedeater "Amaurospiza moesta"
*Dull-colored Grassquit "Tiaris obscura"
*Sooty Grassquit "Tiaris fuliginosa"
*Uniform Finch "Haplospiza unicolor"
*Saffron Finch "Sicalis flaveola"
*Grassland Yellow-Finch "Sicalis luteola"
*Wedge-tailed Grass-Finch "Emberizoides herbicola"
*Lesser Grass-Finch "Emberizoides ypiranganus"
*Great Pampa-Finch "Embernagra platensis"
*Red-crested Cardinal "Paroaria coronata"
*Yellow-billed Cardinal "Paroaria capitata"
*Saffron-billed Sparrow "Arremon flavirostris"
*Stripe-capped Sparrow "Aimophila strigiceps"
*Grassland Sparrow "Ammodramus humeralis"
*Rufous-collared Sparrow "Zonotrichia capensis"

altators, Cardinals and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Cardinalidae

The cardinals are a family of passerine birds that are robust, seed-eating birds, with strong bills. They are typically associated with open woodland. The sexes usually have distinct plumages. There are 43 species worldwide and 8 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Grayish Saltator "Saltator coerulescens"
*Black-throated Grosbeak "Saltator fuliginosus"
*Green-winged Saltator "Saltator similis"
*Golden-billed Saltator "Saltator aurantiirostris"
*Black-throated Saltator "Saltator atricollis"
*Black-backed Grosbeak "Pheucticus aureoventris"
*Ultramarine Grosbeak "Cyanocompsa brissonii"
*Glaucous-blue Grosbeak "Cyanoloxia glaucocaerulea"

Troupials and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Icteridae

The icterids are a group of small to medium, often colourful, passerine birds restricted to the New World and include the grackles, New World blackbirds, and New World orioles. Most species have black as the predominant plumage colour, often enlivened by yellow, orange or red. There are 98 species worldwide and 21 species which occur in Paraguay.

*Bobolink "Dolichonyx oryzivorus"
*Saffron-cowled Blackbird "Xanthopsar flavus"
*Yellow-winged Blackbird "Agelasticus thilius"
*Unicolored Blackbird "Agelasticus cyanopus"
*Chestnut-capped Blackbird "Chrysomus ruficapillus"
*White-browed Blackbird "Sturnella superciliaris"
*Bay-winged Cowbird "Molothrus badius"
*Screaming Cowbird "Molothrus rufoaxillaris"
*Shiny Cowbird "Molothrus bonariensis"
*Giant Cowbird "Molothrus oryzivorus"
*Epaulet Oriole "Icterus cayanensis"
*Red-rumped Cacique "Cacicus haemorrhous"
*Golden-winged Cacique "Cacicus chrysopterus"
*Solitary Cacique "Cacicus solitarius"
*Crested Oropendola "Psarocolius decumanus"
*Yellow-rumped Marshbird "Pseudoleistes guirahuro"
*Brown-and-yellow Marshbird "Pseudoleistes virescens"
*Scarlet-headed Blackbird "Amblyramphus holosericeus"
*Chopi Blackbird "Gnorimopsar chopi"
*Campo Troupial "Icterus jamacaii"
*Orange-backed Troupial "Icterus croconotus"

iskins, Crossbills and allies

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Fringillidae

Finches are seed-eating passerine birds, that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have 12 tail feathers and 9 primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well. There are 137 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Paraguay.

*Hooded Siskin "Carduelis magellanica"

parrows

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Passeridae

Sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small, plump, brown or grey birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed-eaters, and they also consume small insects. There are 35 species worldwide and 1 species which occurs in Paraguay.

*House Sparrow "Passer domesticus" (I)

ee also

*List of birds
*Lists of birds by region

References

*cite web
last = Lepage
first = Denis
authorlink =
coauthors =
year =
url = http://www.bsc-eoc.org/avibase/avibase.jsp?region=py&pg=checklist&list=clements
title = Checklist of birds of Paraguay
format =
work = Bird Checklists of the World
publisher = Avibase
accessdate = 26 April
accessyear = 2007

*cite book
title=Birds of the World: a Checklist
first= James F.
last = Clements
publisher = Cornell University Press
date = 2000
id = ISBN 0934797161
pages = 880


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