- Rabun County, Georgia
Infobox U.S. County
county = Rabun County
state = Georgia
map size = 250
founded = 1819
seat = Clayton | area_total_sq_mi = 377
area_total_km2 = 976
area_land_sq_mi = 371
area_land_km2 = 961
area_water_sq_mi = 6
area_water_km2 = 15
area percentage = 1.58%
census yr = 2000
pop = 15050
web = www.rabuncountygov.com/
Rabun County is a
countylocated in the U.S. stateof Georgia. As of the 2000 census, the populationis 15,050. The 2007 Census Estimate shows a population of 16,519 [http://www.census.gov/popest/counties/tables/CO-EST2007-01-13.xls] . The county seatis Clayton, Georgia.GR|6
With an average annual rainfall of over convert|70|in|mm, Rabun County has the title of the rainiest county in Georgia and one of the rainiest counties east of the
Mississippi River. [ [http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/img/documentlibrary/clim81supp3/precipnormal_hires.jpgNOAA Mean Annual Precipitation 1961-1990] ]
As early as 1760, explorers came to the area now known as Rabun County. In the 1700s, the population of Cherokee in the area was so heavy in the area that this portion of the
Appalachian Mountainswere sometimes called the "Cherokee Mountains." The early explorers and settlersdivided the Cherokee people into three divisions depending on location and dialect, the Lower, Middle, and Over-the-Hill. There were at least four Cherokee settlements in what would later become Rabun County. A Middle settlement called Stikayi ("Stiyaki, Sticoa, Stekoa") was located on Stekoa Creek, probably southeast of the present-day Clayton. An Over-the-Hill settlement called Tallulah was located on the upper portion of the Tallulah River. There were also two Cherokee settlements of unknown division, Chicherohe (Chechero), which was destroyed during the American Revolutionary War, located along Warwoman Creek, east of Clayton, and Eastertoy ("Eastatowth, Estatowee") which was located near the present-day Dillard.
Despite the prominence of the Cherokee, there is evidence that other Native Americans were in the region before them. A mound similar to others across North Georgia (including the famous
Etowah Indian Mounds) is located about one mile (1.6 km) east of Dillard, Georgia and is likely a remnant of an earlier mound-building Native American culture known as the Mississippian culture. [ [http://roadsidegeorgia.com/county/rabun.html Roadside Georgia's Archives of Rabun County] ] The mound location is listed on the National Register of Historical Placesas the Hoojah Branch Site.
Explorer and naturalist
William Bartramwas one of the early visitors to Rabun County. According to his journal entries for May, 1775, Bartram crossed the Chattooga Riverinto Georgia near its confluencewith Warwoman Creek. He later went through a junction of Cherokee trails called Dividings (which would later become Clayton), and then traveled north to an area called Passover (which would later became Mountain City). During his visit to the area, he also climbed Rabun Bald. His travels in Rabun County are memorialized today by the Georgia portion of the hiking trail known as the Bartram Trail. John Dillardand his family were among the first documented settlersin the area in 1794 as a result of a land grant for his service in the American Revolution. The settlers were initially tolerated, but tensions increased as displaced Cherokees moved in from other areas. Eventually, the white settlers were viewed as invaders who did not respect nature and killed the game and, as a result, raids between the clashing cultures became commonplace. For the most part, the hostilities ended a few years before the Cherokee ceded the land to Georgia in 1817.
Georgia General Assemblypassed an act to create the county in December 21, 1819becoming Georgia’s forty-seventh county. The northern border of the county was established as latitude35°N, which is the boundary between Georgia and North Carolina. The county is named for William Rabun, who served as the 11th Governorof Georgia from his election in 1817 until his death in 1819. In 1828, the Georgia General Assembly transferred a portion of Habersham County to Rabun County. In 1838, the legislature redefined the Rabun-Habersham county line. In 1856, the legislature used portions of Rabun and Union Counties to create Towns County. [ [http://www.cviog.uga.edu/Projects/gainfo/countypop/rabunpop.htm Rabun County Historical Population Profile] ]
During the Civil War, Rabun County was one of only five Georgia counties that did not
secedefrom the Union. [ [http://www.gmrdc.org/docs/planning/rabun_county_plan/Chapter%207%20-%20Historic%20Cultural.pdf Rabun County Comprehensive Plan - Chapter 7 - Historical Cultural] ] Although the county was largely untouched by the Civil War, the area did border on anarchy during that time. Despite its failure to secede from the Union, Rabun County did field two regiments for the Confederate cause: Rabun 24th Regiment, Georgia Infantry, Company E, Rabun Gap Riflemen; and Rabun 52nd Regiment, Georgia Infantry, Company F, Beauregard Braves.
In 1898, the
Tallulah Falls Railwayon a north/south track through the county. One of the most popular stops along the railway was Tallulah Gorge. The Railway was in operation for more than 60 years and was featured in the Disney movie, "The Great Locomotive Chase.
Starting in the 1920s, many of the improvements in the county can be attributed to the establishment, growth and expansion of the
Chattahoochee National Forestin the county. One of the key figures in the establishment and growth of the Chattahoochee National Forest was "Ranger Nick" Nicholson, Georgia's first forest ranger. Among other things, Ranger Nick was responsible for arranging for telephone lines to be run from Clayton, Georgia to the Pine Mountain community in the eastern part of the county.
Law and government
The county is governed by a five member Board of Commissioners.
According to the
U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 377 square miles (976 km²). 371 square miles (961 km²) of it is land and 6 square miles (15 km²) of it (1.58%) is water. Approximately, 60% of the land is in National Forests and State Parks, approximately 20% is held by Georgia Powerand the rest is in private hands. With 148,684 acres (601.7 km²) of the Chattahoochee National Forest, a national protected area, located within its boundaries, Rabun County hosts the largest portion of the Chattahoochee National Forest of any of the 18 counties with land included in the Forest.
The county's three major lakes were created in the early 20th century by
Georgia Powerfor hydroelectric power generation. The three lakes today provide recreation as well as power generation: Lake Burton covers 11.23 km² (2775 acres or 4.33 sq mi) and has 100 km (62 mi) of shoreline, Lake Rabuncovers 3.38 km² (835 acres) and has 40 km (25 mi) of shoreline, and Lake Seedcovers 0.97 km² (240 acres) and has 21 km (13 mi) of shoreline. [cite web | title=The Northeast Georgia Lakes | work=North Georgia Internet Magazine | url=http://georgiamagazine.com/outdoors/lakes/ng-lakes/lakes.htm | accessmonthday=February 4 | accessyear=2006] The county also boasts a large number of trout streams, including the Tallulah Riverand its tributaries, the Coleman Riverand Charlies Creek.
Eastern Continental Divideruns through the county, roughly from southwest to northeast also representing a portion of the Tennessee Valley Divide. The county's eastern border with South Carolinais formed by the Chattooga River, the largest tributaryof the Tugaloo Riverand then Savannah River(which forms the rest of the border of the two states). The other half is in the watershed of the Little Tennessee River, which flows northward from Clayton. The high elevationalong the divide gives Rabun County the most snowof any in county in Georgia. This also gives it mild weather throughout the warmer months of the year, leading to the county's slogan, "Where Spring Spends the Summer".
Mountains dominate the topography of Rabun County. The
Eastern Continental Divideprovides Rabun County with the second and third highest peaks in Georgia: Rabun Baldat convert|4696|ft|m and Dick's Knobat convert|4620|ft|m. The county has eight peaks that are higher than convert|4000|ft|m and over 60 peaks that are between 3,000 and convert|4000|ft|m.:"*For more information, see: List of Summits and Ridges in Rabun County, Georgia"
Rabun County has a number of picturesque waterfalls, many of which are easily reached by relatively short trails. Among the favorites of visitors to the county are
Dick's Creek Falls, Holcomb Creek Fallsand Minnehaha Falls.
The county has numerous hiking trails. Most notably, a portion of the
Appalachian Trailwinds through the county and the county is home to a convert|37|mi|km|sing=on portion of the Bartram Trail.
U.S. 23and U.S. 441run together, following a north-south route through the county, and U.S. 76runs east-west. Georgia 246 begins at Dillard and connects to Sky Valley. Georgia 28 runs for an extremely short distance in the northeastern tip, between the Carolinas.
North Carolina- north
North Carolina- northeast
South Carolina- east
*Habersham County, Georgia - south
*Towns County, Georgia - west
North Carolina- northwest
Endangered and Threatened Species
Rabun County is home to several endangered and
threatened speciesas reported by the US Fish & Wildlife Service [ [http://www.fws.gov/athens/endangered/counties/rabun_county.html US Fish & Wildlife Service Listed Species in Rabun County as of May, 2004] ] and the Georgia Department of Natural Resources. [ [http://georgiawildlife.dnr.state.ga.us/content/specieslocationbycounty.asp?lstCounty=Rabun Georgia Department of Natural Resources List of Georgia Rare Species in Rabun County] ]
:"*See also: List of Species of Special Concern in Rabun County, Georgia"
Bald Eagle("Haliaeetus leucocephalus") is a threatened species in the US, but is considered to be an endangered species in Georgia.
Bog Turtle("Clemmys muhlenbergii") is considered to be a threatened species in both the US and Georgia.
*Three fish found in the County still have their status pending on the US endangered species list, but are protected in Georgia: the Fatlips minnow (endangered in Georgia), the Highscale shiner (threatened in Georgia) and the Olive darter (threatened in Georgia).
There are 15 plants that are protected in Rabun County, including two that are on the Federal endangered species list:
Persistent Trillium("Trillium persistens"), Rock gnome lichen("Gymnoderma lineare") and Swamp pink("Helonias bullata").
As of early 2006, the county's two largest employers are textile manufacturers: Rabun Apparel, with over 900 jobs, and National Textiles, with 410. [cite web | title = Rabun County Major Employers | work = Rabun County, Georgia Chamber of Commerce | url = http://www.gamountains.com/content/majoremployers.htm | accessmonthday = March 26 | accessyear = 2006] In March 2006, Fruit of the Loom announced it would close the Rabun Apparel plant and lay off all 930 employees. National Textiles has also announced layoffs, but so far, those have only targeted plants in North Carolina and Tennessee. [cite news | first = Donald | last = Fraser | title = Fruit closing, 930 jobs lost | publisher = Clayton Tribune | date = March 23, 2006 | url = http://www.theclaytontribune.com/articles/2006/03/26/news/news01.txt | accessdate = 2006-03-26]
As of the
censusGR|2 of 2000, there were 15,050 people, 6,279 households, and 4,351 families residing in the county. The population densitywas 41 people per square mile (16/km²). There were 10,210 housing units at an average density of 28 per square mile (11/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 94.88% White, 0.79% Black or African American, 0.43% Native American, 0.38% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 2.63% from other races, and 0.86% from two or more races. 4.54% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 6,279 households out of which 26.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.40% were married couples living together, 8.10% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.70% were non-families. 26.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.70% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.82.
In the county the population was spread out with 21.80% under the age of 18, 7.00% from 18 to 24, 25.30% from 25 to 44, 27.70% from 45 to 64, and 18.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 97.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.50 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $33,899, and the median income for a family was $39,992. Males had a median income of $28,105 versus $21,164 for females. The
per capita incomefor the county was $20,608. About 8.10% of families and 11.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.00% of those under age 18 and 13.00% of those age 65 or over.
Cities and towns
December 13, 1823; Population 2,019; Total Area: convert|3.09|sqmi|km2.
*Dillard. Incorporated 1906; Population: 198; Total Area convert|1.55|sqmi|km2.
*Mountain City: Incorporated: 1907; Population: 829; Total Area: convert|1.8|sqmi|km2.
*Sky Valley. Incorporated: 1978; Population: 221; Total Area: convert|3.03|sqmi|km2.
*Tallulah Falls. Incorporated: unknown; Population: 164; Total Area: convert|8.56|sqmi|km2.
*Tiger. Incorporated: 1904; Population: 316; Total Area: .5 square miles.
*Pine Mountain. Unincorporated.
Rabun Gap-Nacoochee School
* [http://www.claytoncityhall.com/history.htm History on claytoncityhall.com]
* [http://roadsidegeorgia.com/county/rabun.html Archives of Rabun County on Roadside Georgia]
* [http://www.kenkrakow.com/gpn/georgia_place-names.htm Georgia Place Names by Kenneth K. Krakow]
* [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tennessee/cherokeeindianhist.htm Cherokee Indian Tribe on Access Genealogy – Indian Tribal Records]
* [http://ngeorgia.com/naturally/cnf.html History of Chattahoohee National Forest]
* [http://www.visitrabun.org Lakemont Publishing]
* [http://rabuncounty.georgia.gov/03/home/0,2230,8674588,00.html Rabun County Profile on Georgia.gov]
* [http://www.gamountains.com/content/ Rabun County Convention & Visitors Bureau]
* [http://www.gamountains.com/content/ Rabun County Chamber of Commerce]
* [http://www.visitrabun.org Lakemont Publishing]
* [http://georgiawildlife.dnr.state.ga.us/assets/documents/rabun.pdf Rabun County Trout Streams]
* [http://www.mountaintravelguide.com/Waterfalls/georgia/rabun/Rabun%20County%20Waterfalls.htm Waterfalls of Rabun County]
* [http://www.mindat.org/rloc.php?loc=Rabun+Co.%2C+Georgia%2C+USA Mindat.org Report on Rabun County]
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