- Regia Marina
Otheruses4|the Royal Navy of Italy|other Royal Navies|Royal Navy (disambiguation)Infobox Military Unit
unit_name=Regia Marina (RM)
caption=Regia Marina Ensign. The Merchant Navy ships had a similar ensign, without the crown
country= Kingdom of Italy
allegiance= Kingdom of Italy
Third Italian War of Independence Seven Weeks War Italo-Turkish War World War I Spanish Civil War Italian invasion of Albania World War II
Luigi Amedeo Paolo Thaon di Revel Inigo Campioni Arturo Riccardi
anniversaries=The Regia Marina (Italian Royal Navy) dates from the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861 after
Italian unification. In 1946, with the birth of the Italian Republic, the Royal Navy changed its name as it was now the Navy of the Italian Republic (" Marina Militare").
The Regia Marina was born on
17 March 1861following the proclamation of the formation of the Kingdom of Italy. Just as the Kingdom was a unification of various states in the Italian peninsula, so the Regia Marina was formed from the navies of those states, though the main constituents were the navies of the former kingdoms of Sardiniaand Naples. The Regia Marina inherited a substantial number of ships, both sail- and steam-powered, and the long naval traditions of its constituents, especially those of Sardinia and Naples, but also suffered from some major handicaps.
Firstly, it suffered from a lack of uniformity and cohesion; the Regia Marina was a heterogeneous mix of equipment, standards and practice, and even saw hostility between the officers from the various navies. These problems were compounded by the continuation of separate officer schools at
Genoaand Naples, and not fully addressed until the opening of a unified Naval Academy at Livornoin 1881.Secondly, unification occurred during a period of rapid advances in naval technology and tactics, as typified by the launch of " La Gloire" by France in 1858, and later by the appearance of, and battle between, the USS "Monitor" and CSS "Virginia" in 1862. These innovations quickly made older warships obsolete. Italy did not possess the shipyards or infrastructure to build the modern ships required, but the then Minister for the Navy, Admiral Carlo di Persano, launched a substantial programme to purchase warships from foreign yards.
Battle of Lissa
The new navy's baptism of fire came on
July 20, 1866at the Battle of Lissa during the Seven Weeks War(also known as the Third Italian War of Independence). The battle was fought against the Austrian Empireand occurred near the island of Vis in the Adriatic sea. This was one of the few fleet actions of the nineteenth century, and as a major sea battle that involved ramming, it had a profound, though with hindsight a detrimental, effect on warship design and tactics.The Italian fleet, commanded by Admiral Persano mustered 12 ironcladand 17 wooden-walled ships, though only one, the " Affondatore", was of the most modern turret shipdesign. Despite a marked disadvantage in numbers and equipment, superior handling by the Austrians under Admiral Wilhelm von Tegetthoffresulted in a severe defeat for the Italians who lost 2 armoured ships and 640 men.
Before World War I
Following the defeat at Lissa the "Regia Marina" made significant advances towards recovery.
*1881, 1882 battleships "Duilio" and "Dandolo" commissioned, in their time the most powerful warships in the world
*1896 Circumnavigation of the globe by the corvette "Magenta"
*1897 Experiments with
Guglielmo Marconiin the use of radio communications
*1909 First use of aircraft with the fleet
In 1911 and 1912, the "Regia Marina" was involved in the
Italo-Turkish Waragainst forces of the Ottoman Empire.
World War I
Italy built and maintained six Dreadnought battleships ("Dante Alighieri" as a prototype, "Giulio Cesare", "Conte di Cavour" and "Leonardo da Vinci" of "Cavour" class, "Andrea Doria" and "Caio Duilio" of "Doria" Class), but they did not participate in major naval actions in
World War I. For most of the war the Italian and Austro-Hungarian navies each kept a relatively passive watch over their counterparts. The Italian fleet lost the pre-dreadnought battleship "Benedetto Brin" at Brindisi( 27 September 1915) and the dreadnought "Leonardo da Vinci" at Taranto( 2 August 1916) due to magazine explosion (although there were rumours of Austrian sabotage). The Italian Royal Navy ("Regia Marina Italia") attacked with insidious weapons: "MAS 21" and "MAS 15" sank the Austro-Hungarian battleship SMS "Szent István" in the Adriatic Seaon 10 June 1918; an early type of human torpedo("Mignatta") entered the harbour of Pulaand sank the Austro-Hungarian flagship"Viribus Unitis" on 1 November 1918. The battleship "Teggetthoff" (sister of the former two) was handed over to Italy as war prize in 1919.
interwar period, the Italian government decided to enhance its Royal Navy ("Regia Marina") with a view to challenging the British Royal Navy's Mediterranean Fleet. In order to minimize contact with the more experienced British vessels, the Regia Marina based its strategy on fast ships with long-range artillery. Accordingly it had new guns developed which had smaller calibers but longer ranges than their British counterparts; furthermore, in order to allow higher speeds, new Italian ships had designs with thinner armour (see, for example, "Giovanni dalle Bande Nere").
panish Civil War
Outside of assisting with deployments and patrols in support of the Italian Corps of Volunteer Troops ("
Corpo Truppe Volontarie"), approximately fifty-eight Italian Navy submarines took part in hunting operations against Republican naval forces off of Spain. These submarines were organized as the Submarine Legion (" Sottomarini Legionari") and complimented German U-boatoperations as part of Operation Ursula.
World War II
When Italy entered
World War IIon 10 June 1940, the Italian Royal Navy ("Regia Marina") was the fourth largest navy in the world. The Italian Navy had a mix of modernized and new battleships. The Italian Navy challenged the Allies, mostly the British Royal Navy, for supremacy of the Mediterranean Sea. The Italian Navy's objectives were to:
* Protect sea routes between Italy and Libya, assure uninterrupted movement of convoys between Italy and Tripoli and Benghazi; protect sea routes between Italy and Albania.
* Provide coastal protection.
* Anti-convoy action against the Allies.
Air support was provided by the Italian Air Force Auxiliary to the Navy ("
Aviazione Ausiliara per la Marina"), the naval air service during wartime. The Air Force Auxiliary was in charge of all land-based aircraft, shore-based hydroplanes amongst of vessel-based aircraft, and hydroplanes of Italian Navy.
Italian warships had a general reputation as well-designed and good-looking. But some Italian cruiser classes were rather deficient in armour. All Italian warships lacked
radar, although the lack of radar was partly offset by the fact that Italian warships were equipped with good rangefinderand fire-control systems. In addition, whereas Allied commanders at sea had discretion on how to act, Italian commanders were closely and precisely governed by Italian Naval Headquarters ("Supermarina"). This could lead to action being avoided when the Italians had a clear advantage (e.g., During "Operation Hats" [http://www.regiamarina.net/operations/hats/hats_us.htm] . Italian Naval Headquarters was conscious that the British could replace ships lost in the Mediterranean, whereas Italian Navy resources were limited).
In November 1940, the British attacked the Italian naval base at
Taranto. The Battle of Tarantoproved to be a very successful attack by carrier-borne aircraft carrying torpedoes against Italian battleships in harbor. This success provided one of the inspirations for the Japanese attack on the American fleet at Pearl Harborin December 1941.
The Allies gained the upper hand after several actions. A major defeat was inflicted on the Italian Royal Navy at Cape Matapan, where the British Royal Navy and the
Royal Australian Navyintercepted and destroyed three heavy cruisers ("Zara", "Pola" and "Fiume"; all of the same class) and two "Poeti" class destroyers in a night ambush, with the loss of over 2300 seamen. The Allies had Ultraintercepts, which predicted the Italian movements, and radar, which enabled them to locate the ships and range their weapons at distance and at night. The better air reconnaissance skills of the British Royal Navy's Fleet Air Armand their close collaboration with surface units were other major causes of the Italian debacle.
The most successful attack performed by the Italian Navy involved
Raid on Alexandria (1941)in
divers planting mines on British battleships
Alexandriaharbour. On 19 December 1941, HMS "Queen Elizabeth" and "Valiant" were sunk in shallow water by mines planted by Italian divers. It took almost two years before both vessels could be raised and returned to active service.
On the night of
19 December, " Force K", comprising three cruisers and four destroyers based at Malta, became stranded in an Italian minefield off Tripoli. "Force K" had accounted for the destruction of some 60,000 tons of Axis shipping in 1941. The CruiserHMS "Neptune" and the DestroyerHMS "Kandahar" were lost. In addition, three other ships were seriously damaged and more than nine-hundred men died. " Force K" was put out of action and Malta's offensive capabilities were reduced to a minimum.
This sudden series of Allied disasters allowed the Italian Royal Navy to achieve naval supremacy in the central Mediterranean. The Axis supply routes from southern
Europeto North Africawere almost untouched by the British Royal Navyor its allies for several months. The Italian fleet took advantage of the situation and went on the offensive. The fleet blocked or decimated at least three large Allied convoys bound for Malta. This led to a number of naval engagements, such as the Second Battle of Sirte, the Battle of Mid-June, Operation "Harpoon", Operation Vigorous, and Operation Pedestal. All of thee engagements were favourable to the Axis. Despite this activity, the only real success of the Italian Fleet was the aerial and surface attacks on the "Harpoon" convoy. These attacks sank several Allied warships and damaged others. Only two transports of the original six in the convoy reached Malta. This was the only undisputed "squadron-sized" victory for Italian surface forces in World War II.
However, this was only a brief happy time for the Axis. The oil and supplies brought to Malta, despite heavy losses, by
Operation Pedestalin August and the Allied landings in North Africa, Operation Torch, in November, turned the fortunes of war against Italy. After years of stalemate, the Axis forces were ejected from Libya and Tunisia in just six months, their supply lines harassed day after day by the overwhelming aerial and naval supremacy of the Allies.
The Italian Royal Navy performed well and bravely [Blitzer, Wolf; Garibaldi, Luciano. "Century of War". pag 151. Friedman/Fairfax Publishers. New York, 2001. ISBN 1-58663-342-2] in its North African convoy duties, but remained at a technical disadvantage. The Italian ships relied on a speed advantage, but could easily be damaged by shell or torpedo, due to their relatively thin armour. The fatal and final blow to the Italian Navy was a shortage of fuel, which forced her main units to remain at anchor for most of the last year of the Italian alliance with Germany.
10 June 1940, submarines of the Italian Navy took part in the Battle of the Atlantic alongside the U-Boatsof the German Navy (" Kriegsmarine"). The Italian submarines were based in Bordeaux, France. While more suited for the Mediterranean Seathan the Atlantic Ocean, the thirty-two Italian submarines that operated in the Atlantic sank one-hundred-and-nine Alliedships for a total of 593,864 tons.
Later, the Regia Marina even planned an attack to New York harbour for
December1942, but this plan was delayed for many reasons and was never carried out. [http://www.regiamarina.net/xa_mas/ny/ny_us.htm]
10 June 1940, the Italian Navy's Red Sea Flotilla, based in Massawa, Eritria, posed a potential threat to Allied shipping between the Indian Oceanand the Mediterranean Seaduring the East African Campaign. The threat was increased after the Italian conquest of British Somalilandin August1940 allowed the Italians the use of the port of Berberain British Somaliland. The threat disappeared when Italian East Africafell in 1941.
Most of the Red Sea Flotilla was destroyed during the first months of war or when the port of Massawa fell in
April1941. However, there were a few survivors. In February1941, prior to the fall of Massawa, the colonial ship "Eritrea" and the auxiliary cruisers "Ramb I" and "Ramb II" broke out and sailed to Kobe, Japan. While "Ramb I" was sunk by the New Zealandcruiser "Leander" off the Maldives, "Eritrea" and "Ramb II" made it to Kobe. As the port of Massawa was falling, four submarines—"Guglielmo", "Gauleo Ferraras", "Perla", and "Archimede"—sailed south from Massawa, rounded the Cape of Good Hopeand ultimately sailed to German occupied Bordeaux, France. One or two Italian merchant ships from the Red Sea Flotilla made it to Vichy French-controlled Madagascar.
At German request, in May 1942, the Italian Navy deployed four 24 ton anti-submarine motorboats ("Motoscafo Anti Sommergibile", MAS), six CD class submarines, five torpedo motorboats, and five explosive motorboats to the
Black Sea. The vessels were transported overland to the River Danube at Vienna, Austria, and then to Constanca, Romania. The flotilla had an active and successful campaign, based at Yaltaand Feodonia. Eventually, they were transferred to the German Navy (" Kriegsmarine") and ultimately captured by Soviet forces in Constanca in August 1944.
The Italian Navy operated four Motor Torpedo Boats (MTBs, or "Motoscafo Armato Silurante", or MAS) on
Lake Ladogaduring the Continuation War(1941-1944). As part of Naval Detachment K, German, Italian, and Finnish vessels operated against Soviet gunboats, escorts and supply vessels during the Siege of Leningradbetween June 21 and October 21, 1942. Ultimately the Italian vessels were turned over to the Finns.
The Italian Navy had a naval base in the concession territory of Tiensin in
China. The primary Italian vessels based in China were the mine-layer "Lepanto" and the gunboat "Carlotto". During World War II, Italian supply ships, auxiliary cruisers, and submarines operated throughout the waters of the Far East. The Italians also utilized Japanese-controlled port facilities like Shanghai, China, and Kobe, Japan.
The auxiliary cruisers were merchant ships equipped with guns that, while still disguised to look like merchant ships, could be used for military purposes like destroying enemy merchant ships.
The "Barbarigo", the "Cappellini", the "Giuliani", and the "Torelli" were converted by the Italians into "transport submarines" in order to exchange rare or irreplaceable trade goods with Japan. The name of the "Cappellini" was changed to "Aquilla III".
In 1943, Italian dictator
Benito Mussoliniwas deposed and the new Italian government agreed to an armistice with the Allies. Under the terms of this armistice, the Italian Royal Navy ("Regia Marina") had to sail its ships to an Alliedport. Most sailed to Malta, but a flotilla from La Speziaheaded towards Sardinia. They were intercepted and attacked by German aircraft and the "Roma" was sunk by two hits from Fritz Xguided glide-bombs. Among the 1600 sailors killed onboard the "Roma" was the Italian Naval Commander-in-Chief, Admiral("Ammiraglio") Carlo Bergamini. [http://www.regiamarina.net/people/admirals/bergamini_us.htm]
As vessels became available to the new Italian government, the
Italian Co-Belligerent Navywas formed to fight on the side of the Allies. Other ships were captured in port by the Germans or scuttled by their crews. Few Italian Royal Navy crews chose to fight for Mussolini's new fascist regime in northern Italy, the Italian Social Republic("Repubblica Sociale Italiana", RSI). Mussolini's pro-German National Republican Navy ("Marina Nazionale Repubblicana") hardly reached a twentieth the size attained by the co-belligerent Italian fleet. [Page 100, "The Armed Forces of World War II", Andrew Mollo, ISBN 0-517-54478-4] In the Far East, the Japanese occupied the Italian concession territory of Tiensin.
There was little use for the surrendered Italian battleships and there was doubt about the loyalties of the crews. So these ships were interned in
Egypt. In June 1944, the less powerful battleships ("Andrea Doria", "Caio Duilio" and "Giulio Cesare") were allowed to return to Augusta harbour in Sicilyfor training. The others ("Vittorio Veneto" and "Italia"—ex "Littorio"), remained at Ismaïliain the Suez Canaluntil 1947. After the war, the "Giulio Cesare" was passed to the Soviet Union.
In the Co-belligerency period, until "VE" (Victory in Europe) Day, Italian light cruisers participated in the naval war in the
Atlantic Oceanwith patrols against German raiders. Smaller naval units (mainly submarines and torpedo boats) served in the Mediterranean Sea. In the last days of war, the issue of whether Italian battleships and cruisers should participate in the Pacific Oceanwar was debated by the Allied leaders.
Far East after the armistice
There were Italian Navy units in the Far East in 1943 when the new Italian government agreed to an armistice with the Allies. The reactions of their crews varied greatly. In general, surface units, mainly supply ships and auxiliary cruisers, either surrendered at Allied ports ("Eritrea" at
Colombo, Ceylon) or, if in Japanese controlled ports, they were scuttled by their own crew ("Conte Verde", "Lepanto", and "Carlotto" at Shanghai). "Ramb II" was taken over by the Japanese in Kobeand re-named "Calitea II".
Four Italian submarines were in the Far East at the time of the armistice: "Cagni", "Cappellini" ("Aquilla III "), "Giuliani", and "Torelli". The crew of the "Cagni" heard of the armistice and surrendered at
Durban, South Africa. The "Cappellini", "Giuliani", and "Torelli" and their crews were temporarily interned by the Japanese. The boats passed to German U-boatcommand and, with mixed German and Italian crews, they continued to fight against the Allies. The German Navy (" Kriegsmarine") assigned new officers to the three submarines. The three were re-named U.IT.23, U.IT.24 and U.IT.25 and took part in German war operations in the Pacific. The "Giuliani" was sunk by the British submarine "Tallyho" in February1944. In May1945, the other two vessels were taken over by the Japanese Imperial Navywhen Germany surrendered. About twenty Italian sailors continued to fight with the Japanese. The "Torelli" remained active until 30 August 1945, when, in Japanese waters, this last Fascist Italian submarine shot down a B-25 Mitchellbomber of the United States Army Air Force.fact|date=August 2008
Pre-World War I
World War I
* "Duilio" class: "Dandolo"
* Re Umberto class: "Sardegna"
* "Saint Bon" class: "Ammiraglio di Saint Bon", "Emanuele Filiberto"
* "Regina Margherita" class: "Regina Margherita", "Benedetto Brin"
* "Regina Elena" class: "Regina Elena", "Vittorio Emanuele", "Napoli", "Roma"
* "Dante Alighieri" class: "Dante Alighieri"
* "Cavour" class: "Conte di Cavour", "Giulio Cesare", "Leonardo Da Vinci"
* "Andrea Doria" class: "Andrea Doria", "Caio Duilio"
* "Garibaldi" class: "Giuseppe Garibaldi", "Varese", "Francesco Ferruccio"
* "Vittor Pisani" class: "Vittor Pisani", "Carlo Alberto"
* "Pisa" class: "Pisa", "Amalfi"
* "Marco Polo" class: "Marco Polo"
* "San Giorgio" class: "San Giorgio", "San Marco"
* "Piemonte" class: "Piemonte"
* "Lombardia" class: "Lombardia", "Liguria", "Elba", "Puglia", "Etruria"
* "Libia" class: "Libia"
* "Calabria" class: "Calabria"
* "Campania" class: "Campania", "Basilicata"
* "Lampo" class: "Ostro", "Lampo", "Euro", "Strale", "Dardo"
* "Nembo" class: "Nembo", "Turbine", "Espero", "Borea", "Aquilone", "Zeffiro"
* "Soldati Artigliere" class: "Granatiere", "Bersagliere", "Garibaldino", "Corazziere", "Lanciere", "Artigliere"
* "Soldati Alpino" class: "Alpino", "Fuciliere", "Pontiere", "Ascaro"
* "Indomito" class: "Impetuoso", "Impavido", "Insidioso", "Irrequieto"
* "Ardito" class: "Ardito", "Ardente"
* "Audace" class: "Audace", "Animoso"
* Pilo class: "Francesco Nullo"
World War II
* "Aquila" (modification of the liner "Roma", built but never used)
* "Sparviero" (modification of the liner "Augustus", never completed)
*"Giuseppe Miraglia" (extensively converted merchant ship "Citta de Messina" for the seaplane carrier role, commissioned as a seaplane transport by 1940)
* "Cavour" class: "Conte di Cavour", "Giulio Cesare" (modernised WWI battleships)
* "Andrea Doria" class: "Andrea Doria", "Caio Duilio" (modernised WWI battleships)
* "Vittorio Veneto" class: "Littorio"/"Italia", "Vittorio Veneto", "Roma", "Impero" (not completed)
* "Trento" class: "Trento", "Trieste", "Bolzano"
* "Zara" class: "Zara", "Fiume", "Pola", "Gorizia"
* "San Giorgio" class: "San Giorgio"
* Condottieri classes
** "Di Giussano" class: "Alberto di Giussano", "Alberico da Barbiano", "Bartolomeo Colleoni", "Giovanni dalle Bande Nere"
** "Cadorna" class: "Luigi Cadorna", "Armando Diaz"
** "Duca d'Aosta" class: "Emanuele Filiberto Duca d'Aosta", "Eugenio di Savoia"
** "Duca degli Abruzzi" class: "Luigi Savoia Duca degli Abruzzi", "Giuseppe Garibaldi"
** "Montecuccoli" class: "Raimondo Montecuccoli", "Muzio Attendolo"
* Capitani Romani class: "Attilio Regolo", "Giulio Germanico", "Pompeo Magno", "Scipione Africano", "Ulpio Traiano"
* "Taranto" class: "Taranto", "Bari"
Aviation & Transport Cruisers
* "Bolzano" class: "Bolzano" aviation & transport cruiser (as regular heavy cruiser, extensively damaged by submarine torpedoes and proposed for reconstruction to a hybrid carrier/transport design)
Leone class: 3 vessels - 2283 t, "Leone", "Pantera", "Tigre"
Navigatori class: 12 vessels - 2010 t, among which "Alvise da Mosto", "Antonio da Noli", "Antonio Pigafetta", "Antoniotto Usodimare", "Emmanuele Pesagno", "Giovanni da Verazzano", "Lanceloto Malocello", "Leone Pancaldo", "Luca Tarigo", "Nicoloso da Recco", "Nicolo Zeno", "Ugolino Vivaldi"
Oriani or Poeti class: 4 vessels - 1950 t, "Vittorio Alfieri", "Giosué Carducci", "Vincenco Gioberti", "Alfredo Oriani"
Soldati class: 12 vessels (divided into "First Soldati" or "Camicia Nera" and "Second soldati" class) - 1620 t, among which "Alpino", "Artigliere", "Ascari", "Aviere", "Bersagliere", "Carabiniere" "Corazziere", "Fuciliere", "Geniere", "Granatiere", and "Lanciere"
Maestrale class: 4 vessels - 1449 t, "Grecale", "Libeccio", "Maestrale", and "Scirocco"
Dardo class: 4 vessels - 1450 t, "Dardo", "Fraccia", "Saetta", "Strale"
Mirabello class: 2 vessels - 1383 t, "Carlo Mirabello", "Augusto Riboti"
Folgore class: 4 vessels - 1220 t, "Baleno", "Folgore", "Fulmine", "Lampo"
Borea (Turbine) class: 8 vessels - 1092 t, "Aquilone", "Borea", "Espero", "Euro", "Nembo", "Ostro", "Turbine", "Zeffiro"
Sauro class: 4 vessels - 1058 t, "Cesare Battisti", "Daniele Manin", "Francesco Nullo", "Nasario Sauro"
Sella class: 2 vessels - 935 t, "Quintino Sella", "Francesco Crispi"
* Spica class: 30 vessels
* R. Pilo class: 7 vessels
* Audace class: 1 vessel
* G. Sirtori class: 4 vessels
* G. La Masa class: 7 vessels
* Palestro class: 4 vessels
* Generali class: 6 vessels
* Curtatone Class: 4 vessels
* Orsa class: 4 vessels
* Ciclone class 16 vessels
* Ariete class 16 vessels
* 'Gabbiano' class: ? vessels - 672 t, including "Chimera","Cicogna"Ces unités légères furent parmis les dernières mise en service par la Regia Marina. Elles étaient spécifiquement conçues pour l'escorte, afin de lutter contre la présence considérable de submersibles Britanniques en méditerranée. Leur modèle était les navires Anglais de la classe Flower. Le design initial prévoyait une construction rapide et peu coûteuse. De fait, 60 bâtiments ont étés programmés par l'amirauté, construits dans 5 chantiers différents. Ils furent lancés pour la plupart en 1942, mais certains en 1943, et d'autres ne furent jamais terminés. 47 entrèrent en service avant la capitulation Italienne, beaucoup servirent ensuite sous pavillon de la Kriegsmarine.
Ils étaient bien adaptés à leur terrain d'opération, avec 3000 nautiques, disposaient de moteurs auxiliaires électriques, favorisant l'écoute asdic, 10 à 16 mortiers ASM et des grenades ASM en râteliers de poupe. Leur DCA était efficace. 10 furent coulés durant les opérations, et les autres, terminés ou non, furent sabordés, sauf 17 navires qui survécurent au conflit et restèrent en service jusqu'en 1966-1972-75.
* 600-Serie "Acciaio" class: 13 vessels - 715 t, "Acciaio", "Alabastro", "Argento", "Asterio", "Avorio", "Bronzo", "Cobalto", "Giada", "Granito", "Nichelio", "Platino", "Porfide" and "Volframio" (ex-"Stronzio")
* 600-Serie "Adua" class: 17 vessels - 698 t, coastal submarines, among which "Alagi", "Ascianghi", "Axum", "Dagabur", "Dessiè", and "Sciré"
* 600-Serie "Argonauta" class: 7 vessels - 665 t: among which "Argonauta", "Salpa"
* 600-Serie "Perla" class: 10 vessels - 700 t, among which "Iride" and "Ambra"
* 600-Serie "Sirena" class: 12 vessels - 701 t:
* Archimede class: 2 vessels - 985 t, "Gallileo Ferraris", "Galileo Galilei"
* Argo class: 2 vessels - 794 t:"Argo", "Velella"
* Balilla class: 4 vessels - 1450 t, "Balilla", Dominico Millelire, Antonio Sciesa, "Enrico Toti"
* Bandiera class: 4 vessels - 941 t:Fratelli Bandiera", Luciano Manara", Ciro Menotti", Santore Santarossa",
* Bragadin class: 2 vessels - 981 t:"Marcantonio Bragadin", "Filippo Corridoni"
* Brin class: 5 vessels - 1016 t, "Brin", "Galvani", "Guglielmotti", "Archimede", and "Torricelli"
* Cagni class: 4 vessels - 1708 t, Ammiraglio Cagni, Ammiraglio Saint-Bon, Ammiraglio Caracciolo, Ammiraglio Millo
* Calvi class: 5 vessels - 1550 t, Pietro Calvi, Giuseppe Finci, Enrico Tazzoli
* Classe R class: 2 vessels - 2210 t
* Fieramosca class: 1 vessel - 1556 t "Ettore Fieramosca"
* Flutto - 1st series class: 8 vessels - 958 t
* Flutto - 2nd series class: 8 vessels - 958 t
* Foca class: 3 vessels - 1333 t, "Foca", "Zoea", "Atropo"
* Glauco class: 2 vessels - 1055 t, "Glauco" and "Otaria"
* Liuzzi class: 4 vessels - 1187 t, Reginaldo Guilliani, Console Generale Liuzzi, "Bagnolini","Tarantini"
* Mameli class: 3 vessels - 830 t: "Goffredo Mameli", "Pier Capponi", "Giovanni da Procida", "Tito Speri"
* "Marcello" class: 11 vessels - 1063 t, "Mocenigo", "Dandolo", "Veniero", "Provana", "Marcello", "Nani", "Barbarigo", "Emo", "Morosini", "Cappellini", "Faà di Bruno"
* "Marconi" class: 6 vessels - 1195 t, "Magiore Baracca", "Michele Bianci", "Alessandro Malaspina", "Guglielmo Marconi", "Leonardo da Vinci" and "Luigi Torelli"
* Micca class: 1 vessel - 1570 t "Pietro Micca"
* "Pisani" class: 4 vessels - 880 t, among which "Vettor Pisani"
* Settembrini class: 2 vessels - 953 t, among which "Luigi Settembrini", "Ruggiero Settimo"
* Squalo class: 4 vessels - 933 t
* "Ramb" class: 4 vessels (only 2 converted to
auxiliary cruisers) - 3,667 t, "Ramb I", "Ramb II"
Austro-Prussian War Battle of Lissa (1866)
World war I
World War II
* Battle of Punta Stilo (
9 July 1940), also known as the "Battle of Calabria".
Battle of Cape Spada( 19 July1940) - "Bartolomeo Colleoni" sunk by torpedoes.
* The "Night of Taranto" (
11 November1940), also known as "Operation Judgement": Three Italian battleships out of action for several months.
* Battle of Cape Teulada (
27 November1940), also known as "Battle of Cape Spartivento".
* Attack on the British base at
Suda Bay, Creteby destroyers Crispi and Sella, both transporting explosive motor boats: HMS "York" beached and abandoned and one oil tanker sunk ( 26 March 1941).
Battle of Cape Matapan, "Pola", "Zara", "Fiume", "Vittorio Alfieri" and "Giosué Carducci" sunk ( 27 March1941): 2300 Italian seamen killed in action.
First Battle of Sirte(1941): inconclusive; British warships ran on a minefield in the aftermath, losing a cruiser and a destroyer; more than 800 seamen died in the incident.
* Sinking of HMS "Queen Elizabeth" and HMS "Valiant" in
AlexandriaHarbor, by Italian frogmen( 19 December1941)
Second Battle of Sirte( 22 March 1942): escort battered by Italian battleship "Littorio"; all merchant ships destroyed by aircraft attack before they could unload their cargo at Malta.
Battle of Mid-June(1942), also known as "Operation Harpoon": destroyer HMS "Bedouin", tanker "Kentucky", steamer "Burdwan" and merchantman "Chant" sunk by combined air and surface action.
Battle of Mid-August(1942), also known as "Operation Pedestal": cruiser HMS "Manchester" and four merchantmen sunk by Italian MTBs. Two other cruisers and three steamers sunk by submarine and air strikes.
Italian Mare Nostrum
Aviazione Ausiliara per la MarinaWWII Italian Navy Air Service
Concessions in Tianjin
* [http://www.regiamarina.net/ Regia Marina Italiana] from www.regiamarina.net - the Regia Marina in World War II.
* " [http://www.marina.difesa.it/storia/Almanacco/Navi000.htm Almanacco Storico Navale] " official site of the Italian Navy on the "Regia Marina" ships it icon
* [http://digilander.libero.it/planciacomando/ Regia Marina Italiana - Plancia di Comando] La Regia Marina attraverso la storia it icon
* " [http://www.trentoincina.it Trento in Cina] - Database of Italian warships in World War II
* [http://www.battleships-cruisers.co.uk/italian.htm Italian Navy] from www.battleships-cruisers.co.uk - 10 pages of photos;
* [http://www.regiamarina.net/operations/hats/hats_us.htm Operation "Hats"]
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