Black Panther (comics)

Black Panther (comics)

Infobox comics character

caption=Black Panther.
Art by John Romita, Jr. and Klaus Janson.
character_name=Black Panther
publisher=Marvel Comics
debut="Fantastic Four" #52 (July 1966)
creators=Stan Lee
Jack Kirby
alter_ego =
species =
homeworld =
alliances = Fantastic Four
Secret Avengers
Fantastic Force
spouse = Storm
aliases = Luke Charles, Black Leopard (alternate translation of his Wakandan title), His Majesty The King of Wakanda
powers =Superhumanly acute senses
The peak of human physical capabilities
Genius level intellect
Skilled combatant/acrobat/gymnast and hunter/tracker
Vibranium uniform, boots and equipment
Retractable anti-metal claws
Ebony Blade
subcat=Marvel Comics
sortkey=Black Panther (comics)

The Black Panther (T'Challa) is a fictional character in the Marvel Comics universe who is the first modern Black superhero. Created by writer-editor Stan Lee and penciller-co-plotter Jack Kirby, he first appeared in "Fantastic Four" #52 (July 1966). Although there have been numerous men who have used the Black Panther identity during the history of the Marvel Universe, this article refers solely to the modern-day Black Panther, also known by his birth name, T'Challa.

The Black Panther, whose name predates the use of the October 1966 founding of the Black Panther Party but not the segregated World War II Black Panthers Tank Battalion, is not the first Black hero in mainstream comic books. That distinction is split between Waku, Prince of the Bantu, who starred in his own feature in the multiple-character omnibus series "Jungle Tales", from Marvel's 1950s predecessor, Atlas Comics; and the Dell Comics Western character Lobo, the first African American to star in his own comic book. Previous non-caricatured Black supporting characters in comics include "Daily Bugle" managing editor Joe Robertson in "The Amazing Spider-Man", and U.S. Army infantry private Gabriel Jones of "Sgt. Fury and his Howling Commandos".

Publication history

Following his debut in "Fantastic Four" #52-53 (July-Aug. 1966) and subsequent guest appearance in "Fantastic Four Annual" #5 (1967) and with Captain America in "Tales of Suspense" #97-99 (Jan.-March 1968), the Black Panther sojourned from the fictional African nation of Wakanda to New York City, New York to join the titular American superhero team in "The Avengers" #52 (May 1968), appearing in that comics for the next few years. During his time with the Avengers, he made solo guest-appearances in three issues of "Daredevil", and fought Doctor Doom in "Astonishing Tales" #6-7 (June & Aug. 1971), in that supervillain's short-lived starring feature. He later returned in a guest-appearance capacity in "Fantastic Four" #119 (Feb. 1972) during which he briefly tried the name Black Leopard to avoid connotations invoking the Black-militant political party the Black Panthers.

The Black Panther's first starring series was in "Jungle Action" vol. 2, #6-24 (Sept. 1973 - Nov. 1976), written by Don McGregor with art by pencillers Rich Buckler, Gil Kane, and Billy Graham. One now-common innovation it pioneered was that of the self-contained, multi-issue story arc.

McGregor's first arc, "Panther's Rage", ran from "Jungle Action" vol. 2, #6 (Sept. 1973) through #18 (Nov. 1975). A second arc, "Panther vs. the Klan", was truncated when the series was canceled with issue #24. "Jungle Action" #5 and #23 reprinted, respectively, "The Avengers" #62 (March 1969), which featured the Black Panther, and "Daredevil" #69 (Oct. 1970), in which the Panther guest-starred.

Immediately following the initial series was "Black Panther", written and illustrated by Jack Kirby for 12 of its 15 issues (Jan. 1977 - March 1979), with a corresponding shift in tone from McGregor's lyrical naturalism to Kirby's trademark high adventure. A four-issue miniseries, also titled "Black Panther", appeared in 1988, written by Peter B. Gillis and penciled by Denys Cowan.

McGregor revisited his Panther saga with Gene Colan in "Panther's Quest", published as 25 eight-page installments within the bi-weekly anthology series "Marvel Comics Presents" (issues #13-37, Feb.-Dec. 1989). He later teamed with artist Dwayne Turner in the square-bound miniseries "Panther's Prey" (Sept. 1990 - March 1991).

Writer Christopher Priest's and penciller Mark Texeira's 1998 series "The Black Panther" vol. 3 utilized Erik Killmonger, Venomm, and other characters introduced in "Panther's Rage", together with new characters such as State Department attorney Everett Ross, the Black Panther's adopted brother, Hunter, and Panther's protégé, Queen Divine Justice. The Priest-Texeira series, which was under the Marvel Knights imprint in its first year, earned critical plaudits,Fact|date=August 2008 but sales of the comic were never high.Fact|date=August 2008 Priest said the creation of character Ross contributed heavily to his decision to write the series. "I realized I could use Ross to bridge the gap between the African culture that the Black Panther mythos is steeped in and the predominantly white readership that Marvel sells to," adding that in his opinion, the Black Panther had been misused in the years after his creation. [cite news | author=Ethan Sacks| url= | title=The unsung heroes: Blade & Co. help to close racial divide| publisher=Daily News (New York)| date=2002-03-19 | accessdate=2008-06-12 ]

The last 13 issues (#50-62) saw the main character replaced by an African American New York City police officer named Kasper Cole, with T'Challa relegated to a supporting character. This Black Panther, who became the White Tiger, was placed in the series "The Crew", running concurrently with the final few "Black Panther" issues. "The Crew" was canceled with issue #7.

In February 2005, Marvel began publishing the ongoing series "Black Panther" vol. 4, written by filmmaker Reginald Hudlin and penciled by John Romita, Jr.. Hudlin said he wanted to add "street cred" to the title, although he noted that the book is not necessarily or primarily geared toward an African American readership.cite news | author=Misha Davenport| url= | title=A superhero reinvented for hip-hop generation| publisher=Chicago Sun-Times| date=2005-02-02 | accessdate=2008-06-12 ] As influences for his characterization of the character, Hudlin has cited comic character Batman, film director Spike Lee, and music artist Sean Combs.

Fictional character biography

Early life and background

The Black Panther is the ceremonial title given to the chief of the Panther Tribe of the African nation of Wakanda. In addition to ruling the country, he is also chief of its various tribes (collectively referred to as the Wakandas). The Panther uniform is a symbol of office and is used even during diplomatic missions.

The Black Panther is entitled to the use of a heart-shaped herb that grants the person who consumes it enhanced strength, agility, and perception. The present-day bearer of the Black Panther mantle is T'Challa, who has had a lengthy career as a superhero, including a longstanding membership in The Avengers. For a brief time upon joining the superhero team the Avengers, ["Avengers" #52-55, May-Aug. 1968)] the Black Panther wore a cowled half-mask, similar to that of Batman. In stories published in the 2000s, it came to light that the Panther originally joined the Avengers with the intention of spying on them. This drove a temporary wedge between T'Challa and his teammates.

T'Challa is the son of T'Chaka, who was the Black Panther before him. In the distant past, a massive meteorite comprised of the sound-absorbing mineral vibranium crashed in Wakanda, and was unearthed a generation before the events of the present day. Knowing that others would attempt to manipulate and dominate Wakanda for this rare and valuable resource, T'Chaka concealed his country from the outside world. He would sell off minute amounts of the valuable vibranium while surreptitiously sending the country's best scholars to study abroad, consequently turning Wakanda into one of the world's most technologically advanced nations. Eventually, however, the explorer Ulysses Klaw found his way to Wakanda to covertly create a vibranium-powered, sound-based weapon. When exposed, Klaw killed T'Chaka and other Wakandans, only to see his "sound blaster" turned on him by a grieving T'Challa, then barely a teenager. Klaw's right hand was destroyed, and he and his men fled.

During his youth, T'Challa also met and fell in love with apparent orphaned child Ororo Munroe, who would grow up to become the X-Men member Storm; the two broke up over T'Challa's need to avenge his father's death.

T'Challa earned the title and attributes of the Black Panther by defeating the various champions of the Wakandan tribes. One of his first acts was to disband and exile the Hatut Zeraze — the Wakandan secret police — and its leader, his adopted brother Hunter the White Wolf; later, to keep the peace, he picked "dora milaje" ("adored ones") from rival tribes to serve as his personal guard and ceremonial wives-in-training. He then studied abroad before returning to his kingship. T'Challa invited the American superhero team the Fantastic Four to Wakanda, then attacked and neutralized them individually in order to prove himself worthy as his people's defender and to test the team to see if it could be an effective ally against Klaw, who had become a being made of living sound. ["Fantastic Four" #52-53 (July-Aug. 1966)] The Fantastic Four befriended and helped T'Challa, and he in turn aided the heroes against the supervillain the Psycho-Man. ["Fantastic Four Annual" #5 (1967)]

T'Challa later joined the Avengers, ["The Avengers" #52 (May 1968)] beginning a long association with that superhero team. He first battled the Man-Ape while with the Avengers, ["Avengers" #62 (March 1969)] and then met the American singer Monica Lynne, ["The Avengers" #73 (Feb. 1970)] with whom he became romantically involved. He helped the Avengers defeat the second Sons of the Serpent, and then revealed his true identity on American television. ["The Avengers" #74 (March 1970)] He encountered Daredevil, and revealed to him that he had deduced Daredevil's secret identity. ["Daredevil" #69 (Oct. 1970)]

Return to Wakanda

The Panther eventually leaves his active Avengers membership to return to a Wakanda on the brink of civil war, bringing Lynne with him. After defeating would-be usurper Erik Killmonger and his minions, ["Jungle Action" #6-18 (Sept. 1973 - Nov. 1975)] the Panther ventures to the American South to battle the Ku Klux Klan. ["Jungle Action" #19-22 & 24 (Jan.-July & Nov. 1976)] He later gains possession of the mystical time-shifting artifacts known as King Solomon's Frogs. [Story arc beginning "Black Panther" #1 (Jan. 1977)] These produced an alternate version of T'Challa from a future 10 years hence, a merry, telepathic Panther with a terminal brain aneurysm, whom T'Challa placed in cryogenic stasis.

Later, while searching for and finding his mother, the Panther contends with South African authorities during Apartheid. [The omnibus series "Marvel Comics Presents" #13-37 (Late Feb. - 1December [week 2] 1989)] T'Challa eventually proposes and becomes engaged to Monica Lynne, ["Black Panther: Panther's Prey" #1-4 (May-Oct. 1991)] though the couple never married.

Years later, the Panther accepts a Washington, D.C. envoy, Everett K. Ross, and faces multiple threats to Wakanda's sovereignty. Ross assists him in many of these threats, often fighting side by side (or attempting to). In gratitude, the Panther often risks much for Ross in return. The first main threat to Wakandan soveriengty he and Ross encounter is 'Xcon' — an alliance of rogue intelligence agents — backs a coup led by the sorcerer Reverend Achebe. Afterward, Killmonger resurfaces with a plot to destroy Wakanda's economy. This forces T'Challa to nationalize foreign companies. Killmonger then defeats him in ritual combat, thus inheriting the role of Black Panther, but falls into a coma upon eating the heart-shaped herb — poisonous to anyone outside the royal bloodline, which had a hereditary immunity to its toxic effects. T'Challa preserves his rival's life rather than allowing him to die.

Later, T'Challa finds he has a brain aneurysm like his alternate future self, and succumbs to instability and hallucinations. After his mental state almost causes tribal warfare, the Panther hands power to his council and hides in New York City. There he mentors police officer Kasper Cole (who had adopted an abandoned Panther costume), an experience that gives T'Challa the strength to face his illness, reclaim his position, and return to active membership in the Avengers, whom he helps secure special United Nations status.

Marriage and superhero Civil War

T'Challa then helps Ororo Munroe, with whom he had a brief romance during his teens, reunite with her surviving family members in Africa and the U.S. He shortly afterward proposes, and the two are married in a large Wakandan ceremony attended by many superheroes.

One of the couple's first tasks is to embark on a diplomatic tour, in which they visit the Inhumans, Doctor Doom, the President of the United States, and Namor, with only that last ending well. After the death of Bill Foster, the Black Panther and Storm side with Captain America's anti-registration forces. During the end battle between both sides, the Wakandan embassy in Manhattan is heavily damaged, though no actual Wakandans were hurt. After the confrontation, the Panther and Storm briefly fill in for vacationing Fantastic Four members Reed and Sue Richards before returning to Wakanda.

Powers and abilities

The title "Black Panther" is a rank of office, chieftain of the Wakandan Panther Clan. As chieftain, the Panther is entitled to eat a special heart-shaped herb, as well as his mystical connection with the Wakandan Panther God, that grants him superhumanly acute senses (especially eyesight, night vision, and sense of smell) and increases his strength, speed, stamina, and agility to the peak of human development. T'Challa is a rigorously trained gymnast and acrobat, proficient in various African martial arts as well as contemporary ones and fighting styles that belong to no known disciplines. He is a skilled hunter, tracker, strategist, and scientist — he has a Ph.D. degree in physics from Oxford University. He is a genius in physics and advanced technology, and is a brilliant inventor. His senses are so powerful that he can pick up a prey's scent and memorize tens of thousands of individual ones.

As king of Wakanda, the Panther has access to a vast collection of magical artifacts, advanced Wakandan technological and military hardware, as well as the support of his nation's wide array of scientists, warriors, and mystics. The Wakandan military has been described as one of the most powerful on Earth. His attire is the sacred vibranium costume of the Wakandan Panther Cult.

In Volume 3, writer Christopher Priest expanded the Panther's day-to-day arsenal to include equipment such as an "ebony dagger", a vibranium-weave suit, and a portable supercomputer, the "Kimoyo card." In Volume 4, writer Reginald Hudlin introduced such specialized equipment as "thrice-blessed armor" and "light armor" for specific tasks, and also outfitted him with the Ebony Blade.

upporting cast




Volume 3

Journalist Joe Gross praised Christopher Priest for his characterization of the Black Panther, stating, that the writer "turned an underused icon into the locus of a complicated high adventure by taking the Black Panther to his logical conclusion. T'Challa (the title character) is the enigmatic ruler of a technologically advanced, slightly xenophobic African nation, so he acts like it". Gross applauded the title's "endless wit, sharp characterization, narrative sophistication and explosive splash panels". [cite news | author=Joe Gross and Jeff Salamon | url= | title=Five comic books you (or your kids)* should be reading | publisher=Austin American-Statesman | date=2002-05-30 | accessdate=2008-06-12 ]

Comics reviewer and journalist Mike Sangiacomo, however, criticized the narrative structure. "Christopher Priest's fractured writing is getting on my nerves. Like the "Spider-Man" comics, I want to like "Black Panther", but Priest's deliberately jumbled approach to writing is simply silly. I know it's a style, but does he have to do it every issue?" [cite news | author=Mike Sangiacomo | url= | title=Tips on what to buy, avoid with budget in mind | publisher=The Plain Dealer | date=2000-04-01 | accessdate=2008-06-12 ]

Reporter Bill Radford cited similar concerns when the title had just launched. "I appreciate the notion of seeing the Black Panther through the eyes of an Everyman, but the Panther is almost relegated to secondary status in his own book. And Ross' narration jumps around in time so much that I feel like his boss, who, in trying to get Ross to tell her what has happened, complains: 'This is like watching 'Pulp Fiction' in rewind. My head is exploding.'" [cite news | author=Bill Radford| url= | title=Marvel Knights books put new spin on classic heroes| publisher=The Gazette (Colorado Springs) | date=1998-11-05 | accessdate=2008-06-12 ]

Volume 4

"Publishers Weekly" gave a negative review to the first arc, "Who Is The Black Panther?", a modern retelling of the character's origin, saying, "Hudlin's take is caught between a rock and a hard place. His over-the-top narrative is not likely to appeal to fans of the most recent version of the character, but it's too mired in obscure Marvel continuity to attract the more general reader. The plot manages to be convoluted without ever becoming absorbing". [cite news | author= | url= | title=Black Panther: Who Is the Black Panther?| publisher=Publishers Weekly| date=2005-10-17 | accessdate=2008-06-12 ]

Journalist Shawn Jeffords, citing the lack of appearances of the title character in the first issue, called the new series a "fairly unimpressive launch". Jeffords also said general-audience unfamiliarity was a hindrance. "He's never been a marquee character and to make him one will be tough". [cite news | author=Shawn Jeffords | url= | title=Is the Black Panther back?| publisher=Sarnia Observer| date=2005-02-03 | accessdate=2008-06-12 ]

Other versions


T'Challa is Chieftain Justice ["Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe A-Z" vol. #2 (May 2008)] a Captain Britain Corps member who featured in "Excalibur" vol. 1 #44 (1991).

Earth X

In the alternate universe of "Earth X", T'Challa has been affected by the mutative event that drives the plot. Like most of humanity, he is mutated; in this case to become a humanoid black panther. He is entrusted with the Cosmic Cube by Captain America, who knows that T'Challa would be the only one to resist using it and to never give it back if asked. In fact, Captain America does ask for it back and T'Challa is forced to refuse.

Fox Kids

The Black Panther appears in issues #1 and #6-7 of Marvel Comics/Fox Kids comic-book series based on the TV show "".

Marvel Knights 2099

A Black Panther was featured in the Marvel Knights 2099 one shots. A new Black Panther rose to fight and thwart the mounting invasions by the successor of Doom. While the victory over the new Doom appeared triumphant, the new Wakandan king was ultimately revealed to be a puppet of Doom. ["Marvel Knights 2099: Black Panther" #1 (2005) ]

Marvel Zombies

Black Panther is one of the few uninfected superheroes in the alternate-universe series "Marvel Zombies", where he is kept as a food supply for the Zombie Giant-Man. Despite having lost half of his right arm and his left foot, the Panther escapes and joins forces with the mutant group the Acolytes. Decades later, T'Challa, having married one of the few human female survivors, is killed in his sleep by an agent of an Acolyte splinter group, and the zombified superheroine Wasp — an ally after having lost her ravenous zombie hunger — zombifies the Panther in order to grant him continued existence. With the Wasp's help, he survives to the post-hunger stage himself and continues to lead his people, despite his status.


T'Challa appears in the Marvel Mangaverse as a man with a pet panther. When summoning the spirits, T'Challa and his panther combine to become the Black Panther. He also became The Falcon. This Black Panther was romantically attracted to Tigra.

Ultimate Black Panther

The Black Panther appears briefly in the premiere issue of the alternate-universe Ultimate Marvel series "Ultimates 3", where little is revealed of him other than that Captain America vouched for his inclusion in the team. The Panther appears in issue #3, aboard the Helicarrier headquarters of the espionage agency S.H.I.E.L.D.. It is later revealed that Cap actually "is" Black Panther in this reality. Notably, this is the first recorded time that any Marvel character bearing the name 'Black Panther' was not an African or African-American character.issue

Other media


* The Black Panther appears in the "Prey Of The Black Panther" episode of the 1994 "Fantastic Four" animated TV series, voiced by Keith David. He lures them to Wakanda to see if they are worthy enough to help fight Klaw.
* The Black Panther cameos in the "Sanctuary" episode of the "X-Men" animated TV series.
* In "", a portrait of the Panther hangs in Avengers Mansion in Episode 1. While the Black Panther does not appear in the animated series, he does appear in issues #1 and #6-7 of the comic-book series based on the show.
* The U.S. cable television network BET announced in April 2008 that it planned to air a "Black Panther" primetime animated series during the 2008-2009 TV season. [ [ Dempsey, John. "BET cages 'Black Panther': Marvel Comic hero heads to TV"] "Variety", April 17, 2008.]


* The Black Panther appears in the direct-to-DVD animated feature "Ultimate Avengers 2" (2006) as a central character, voiced by Jeffrey D. Sams. features Azari as the son of Black Panther and Queen Storm.Fact|date=October 2008

* In June 1992, Wesley Snipes announced his intention to make a film about the Black Panther. [cite news | author=Jay Carr | url= | title=Can penguin cones be far behind? | publisher="The Boston Globe" | date=1992-06-21 | accessdate=2006-12-21 ] By August, Snipes had begun working on the film. [cite news | author=Jay Carr | url= | title=Tolkin to sit in director's chair | publisher="The Boston Globe" | date=1992-08-30 | accessdate=2006-12-21 ] In July 1993, Snipes announced plans to begin "The Black Panther" after starring in "Demolition Man". [cite news | author=Judy Gerstel | url= | title=Rising star on screen and off, the actor is his own man | publisher="Detroit Free Press" | date=1993-07-29 | accessdate=2006-12-21 ] Snipes said in August 1993, "We have a wide-open field for comic book characters on the big screen and we've yet to have a major black comic book hero on the screen. Especially the Black Panther, which is such a rich, interesting life. It's a dream come true to originate something that nobody's ever seen before." Snipes expressed interest in making sequels to "The Black Panther". [cite news | author=Steve Persall | url= | title=Future is bright for Snipes | publisher=St. Petersburg Times | date=1993-08-03 | accessdate=2006-12-21 ] In January 1994, Snipes entered talks with Columbia Pictures to portray the Black Panther in the film adaptation of the comic book superhero. [cite news | author=John Brodie | url= | title=Hollywood Pours Its Heroes Into Tights | publisher="Chicago Sun-Times" | date=1994-01-05 | accessdate=2006-12-21 ] The following March, Stan Lee joined the development process for a film about the Black Panther. [cite news | author=Leonard Pitts Jr. | url= | title=A comics milestone from the action-filled universe of superheroes come new characters, and a new diversity | date=1994-03-27 | accessdate=2006-12-21 ] By May, the film was in early development with Columbia Pictures. [cite news | author=Frank Lovece | url= | title=Off the drawing board | publisher="Newsday" | date=1994-05-15 | accessdate=2006-12-21 ] In January 1996, Stan Lee said that he had not been pleased with the scripts he had encountered for the "Black Panther". [cite news | author=Doug Nye | url= | title=Stan Lee hopes New World deal pumps life into his creations | publisher="The State" | date=1996-01-28 | accessdate=2006-12-21 ] In July 1997, the "Black Panther" was listed as part of Marvel Comics' film slate. [cite news | author=Amy Dawes | url= | title=Action! Movie studios lining up to turn comics into cinematic gold | publisher=Daily News of Los Angeles | date=1997-07-27 | accessdate=2006-12-21 ] In March 1998, Marvel hired Joe Quesada and Jimmy Palmiotti to work on the "Black Panther" film adaptation. [cite news | author=Andrew Smith | url= | title=So here's the wackiest gimmick of all - good writing for comics | publisher="The Commercial Appeal" | date=1998-03-22 | accessdate=2006-12-21 ] In August, corporate problems at Marvel had put the "Black Panther" project on hold. [cite news | author=Stephan Fortes | url= | title=Blade Runner | publisher="Newsday" | date=1998-08-23 | accessdate=2006-12-21 ] In August 1999, Snipes was set to produce, and possibly star, in the film featuring the Black Panther. [cite news | author=Bill Radford | url= | title=Superheroes at home on big screen | publisher="The Gazette" | date=1999-08-01 | accessdate=2006-12-21 ]

* In Marvel's June 2000 deal with Artisan Entertainment to develop film and television adaptations, the Black Panther was one of the four names (among Captain America, Thor, and Deadpool) that surfaced. [cite news | author=Jacob W. Michaels | url= | title=Comic Books | publisher="Centre Daily Times" | date=2000-06-02 | accessdate=2006-12-21 ] In March 2002, Snipes told "Cinescape" magazine that he planned to do "" or "Black Panther" in 2003. [cite news | author=Rene A. Guzman | url= | title=Snipes' Blade draws focus to black comic book heroes | publisher="San Antonio Express-News" | date=2002-03-24 | accessdate=2006-12-21 ] In August 2002, Snipes said he hoped to begin production on "Black Panther" by 2003. [cite news | author=Monroe Hutchen | url= | title=Undisputed | publisher="Latino Review" | date=2002-08-22 | accessdate=2006-12-21 ] In July 2004, "Blade 3" director David S. Goyer said that Wesley Snipes would not likely be Black Panther. "He's already so entrenched as Blade that another Marvel hero might be overkill," said Goyer. [cite news | author=Clint Morris | url= | title=Goyer talks Superman and Black Panther | | date=2004-07-16 | accessdate=2006-12-21 ] In September 2005, Marvel chairman and CEO Avi Arad announced "Black Panther" as one of the ten Marvel films that would be developed by Marvel Studios and distributed by Paramount Pictures. [cite news | url= | title=Marvel Making Movies | publisher=IGN | date=2005-09-06 | accessdate=2006-12-21 ] In June 2006, Snipes told "Men's Fitness" magazine that much work had been done toward a film adaptation of the Black Panther, and that he hoped to have a director soon. [cite news | author=Sam Malone | url= | title= Snipes on "Blade" and "Black Panther" | date=2006-06-01 | accessdate=2006-12-21 ] In February 2007, Kevin Feige, president of production for Marvel Studios, stated that "Black Panther" was on Marvel's development slate. [cite news | author = Bill Radford | title = Marvel stays true to superhero characters in transition to big screen | publisher = "The News Sentinel" | date = 2007-02-08 | url = | accessdate = 2007-02-11]

* In July 2007, director John Singleton said that he was approached to do "Black Panther". [cite news | author=Wilson Morales | url= | title= John Singleton News | | date=2007-07-27 | accessdate=2007-07-27 ]

Video games

* The Black Panther is a playable character in the video game "" voiced by Phil LaMarr. He has special dialogue with Nick Fury, Namor, Ghost Rider, Doctor Doom, and Deathbird. In his simulator disc, he has to battle Dark Captain America in Arcade's Murderworld.


*Dwayne McDuffie on the 1970s "Black Panther" series : "This overlooked and underrated classic is arguably the most tightly written multi-part superhero epic ever. If you can get your hands on it (and where's that trade paperback collection, Marvel?), sit down and read the whole thing. It's damn-near flawless, every issue, every scene, a functional, necessary part of the whole. Okay, now go back and read any individual issue. You'll find seamlessly integrated words and pictures; clearly introduced characters and situations; a concise (sometimes even transparent) recap; beautifully developed character relationships; at least one cool new villain; a stunning action set piece to test our hero's skills and resolve; and a story that is always moving forward towards a definite and satisfying conclusion. That's what we should all be delivering, every single month. Don McGregor and company did it in only 17 story pages per issue". [ [ Dwayne McDuffie official site: "To Be Continued" #3 (column; no date)] ]


* "Jungle Action" vol. 2, #5-24 (July 1973 - Nov. 1976)
* "The Black Panther" #1-15 (Jan. 1977 - May 1979)
* "Marvel Premiere" #51-53 (Dec. 1979 - April 1980)
* "Black Panther" vol. 2, #1-4 (miniseries; July-Oct. 1988)
* "Panther's Quest" Parts 1-25 in "Marvel Comics Presents" #13-37 (Feb.-Dec. 1989)
* "Black Panther: Panther's Prey" prestige-format miniseries #1-4 (May-Oct. 1991)
* "Black Panther" vol. 3, #1-62 (Nov. 1998 - Sept. 2003)
* "Black Panther" vol. 4, #1- (April 2005- )

ee also

*African characters in comics



*comicbookdb|type=character|id=391|title=Black Panther
* [ Black Panther] at the Marvel Directory

External links

* [ Black Panther] at the Marvel Universe
*imdb character|0036502|Black Panther

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