Greek mythology, the Cabeiri, ("Cabiri", "Kabeiroi", ["Kabeiroi" is the transliteration used in John Raffan's translation of Walter Burkert, "Greek Religion" (Harvard Univerity Press) 1985, and in most academic discourse.] Greek: Κάβειροι) were a group of enigmatic chthonicdeities. They were worshiped in a mystery cultclosely associated with that of Hephaestus, centered in the north Aegean islands of Lemnosand possibly Samothrace—at the Samothrace temple complex— and at Thebes. In their distant origins the Cabeiri and the Samothracian gods may include Hittite, Thracian, proto-Etruscan, or Phrygian elementsFact|date=October 2007. The Lemnian cult was always local to Lemnos, but the Samothracian mystery cult spread rapidly throughout the Greek world during the Hellenistic period, eventually initiating Romans.
The ancient sources disagree about whether the deities of Samothrace were Cabeiri or not; and the accounts of the two cults differ in detail. But the two islands are close to each other, at the northern end of the Aegean, and the cults are at least similar, and neither fits easily into the Hellenic pantheonFact|date=October 2007. The accounts of the Samothracian gods, whose names were secret, vary in the number and sexes of the gods, usually between two and four, some of either sex. The number of Cabiri also varied, with some accounts citing four (often a pair of males and a pair of females) of them, and some even more, such as a tribe or whole race of Cabiri, often presented as all male. [Burkert, pp 281-84]
The Cabeiri were also worshipped at other sites in the vicinity, including
Seuthopolisin Thraceand various sites in Asia Minor.
Origin of the Cabeiri
The Cabeiri were possibly originally
Phrygian [According to scholiaon Apollonius' " Argonautica" I. "The Phrygian origin of the Kabeiric cult asserted by Stesimbrotos of Thasosand recently defended by O. Kern cannot, therefore, be rejected "a priori", wrote Giuliano Bonfante, "A Note on the Samothracian Language" "Hesperia" 24.2 (April 1955, pp. 101-109) p. 108; Bonfante agrees with Jacob Wackernagelthat Κάβειροι cannot be Greek; Wackernagel suggested Thracian or Phrygian, two closely related peoples.] deities and protectors of sailors, who were imported into Greek ritual. ["The secret of the mysteries is rendered more enigmatic by the addition of a non-Greek, pre-Greek element" (Burkert 1985:281). Burkert does not intend to suggest that the pre-Greek component was "added".]
Depiction in literary sources
They were most commonly depicted as two people: an old man, Axiocersus, and his son, Cadmilus. Due to the cult's secrecy, however, their exact nature and relationship with other ancient Greek and Thracian religious figures remained mysterious. As a result, the membership and roles of the Cabeiri changed significantly over time, with common variants including a female pair (Axierus and Axiocersa) and twin youths who were frequently confused with
Castor and Pollux, who were also worshiped as protectors of sailors. The number of Cabiri also varied, with some accounts citing four (often a pair of males and a pair of females) of them, and some even more, such as a tribe or whole race of Cabiri.
The Lemnians were originally non-Greek; they were Hellenized after
Miltiadesconquered the island for Athens in the sixth century BCE. In Lemnosthe cult of the Cabeiri survived, according to achaeological evidence, through the conquest: an ancient sanctuary dedicated to the Cabeiri is identifiable by traces of inscriptions, and seems to have survived the program of Hellenization.
Straboreported that in Lemnos, the mother (there was no father) of the Cabeiri was Kabeiro (Greek: Καβειρω) herself, a daughter of Proteus(one of the "old men of the sea") and a goddess whom the Greeks might have called Rhea.
In general Greek myth identifies the Cabeiri as divine craftsmen, sons or grandsons of
Hephaestus, who was also chiefly worshipped on Lemnos. Aeschyluswrote a play called the "Cabeiri", and the fragments that survive have them as a chorus greeting the Argonautsat Lemnos. showed them as prodigious wine-drinkers, and wine jars are "the only characteristic group of finds" from the Cabeirium of Lemnos. Walter Burkertsuggests a raucous, burlesque character to the mysteries of the Cabeiri and notes an inscription at Lemnos indicates "parapaizonti", the one who "jests along the way". First-fruits were offered to Zeus, Apollo, and the Cabeiri; Burkert also sees the offerings to Zeus and Apollo, father and son, as indicating an initiatory ceremony [Burkert, "Greek Religion", p. 281; .]
The Samothracians were also originally non-Greek, and are associated with the
Trojansand the Pelasgians; they used a foreign language in the temple through Julius Caesar's time. [Burkert, "Greek Religion" 282, citing Diodorus, 5.47.3, which says that their own language is still used in religion.]
Samothrace offered an initiatory mystery, which promised safety and prosperity to seamen. The secret of these mysteries has largely been kept; but we know three things about the ritual: the aspirants were asked the worst action they had ever committed;
The archaic sanctuary of Samothrace was rebuilt in Greek fashion; by classical times, the Samothrace mysteries of the Cabeiri were known at Athens, where
Herodotushad been initiated. But at the entry to the sanctuary, which has been thoroughly excavated, the Roman antiquary Varro learned that there had been twin pillars of brass. He describes them as Heaven and Earth, denying the vulgar error that they are Castorand Pollux.
The mysteries of Samothrace did not publish the names of their gods; and the offerings at the shrine are all inscribed "to the gods" or "to the great gods" rather than with their names. But ancient sources tell us that there were two goddesses and a god: "Axieros", "Axiocersa", and "Axiocersus", and their servant "Cadmilus" or "Casmilus".
Karl Kerényiconjectured that Axieros was male, and the three gods were the sons of Axiocersa (Cadmillus, the youngest, was also the father of the three); Burkert disagrees. [Kerényi, "Gods of Greece", 86-7; Burkert "Greek religion" 283 and notes.]
In Classical Greek culture the mysteries of the Cabeiri at Samothrace remained popular, though little was entrusted to writing beyond a few names and bare genealogical connections. Seamen among the Greeks might invoke the Cabeiri as "great gods" in times of danger and stress. The archaic sanctuary of Samothrace was rebuilt in Greek fashion; by classical times, the Samothrace mysteries of the Cabeiri were known at Athens.
Herodotushad been initiated. But at the entry to the sanctuary, which has been thoroughly excavated, the Roman antiquary Varro learned that there had been twin pillars of brass, phallic hermae, and that in the sanctuary it was understood that the child of the Goddess, Cadmilus, was in some mystic sense also her consort.
Thebes in Boetia
At Thebes in
Boetiathere are more varied finds than on Lemnos; they include many little bronze votive bulls and which carry on into Roman times, when the traveller Pausanias, always alert to the history of cults, learned that it was Demeter"Kabeiriia" who instigated the initiation cult there in the name of Prometheusand his son Aitnaios. Walter Burkert(1985) writes, "This points to guilds of smiths analogous to the Lemnian Hephaistos." The votive dedications at Thebes are to a "Kabeiros" (Greek: Κάβειρος) in the singular, and childish toys like votive spinning tops for "Pais" suggest a manhood initiation. Copious wine was drunk, out of characteristic cups that were ritually smashed. Fat, primitive dwarves (similar to the followers of Silenus) with prominent genitalia were painted on the cups.
Thebes is connected to Samothrace in myth, primarily the wedding of
Cadmusand Harmonia, which took place there.
The Semitic word "kabir" ("great") has been compared to Κάβειροι since at least
Joseph Justus Scaligerin the sixteenth century, but nothing else seemed to point to a Semitic origin, until the idea of "great" gods expressed by the Semitic root "kbr" was definitiely attested for North Syria in the thirteenth century BCE, in texts from Emarpublished by D. Arnaud in 1985/87 (see Emar). TJ. Wackernagel had produced an Indian etymology in 1907; [Noted by Walter Burkert, "The Orientalizing revolution: Near Eastern Influence on Greek Culture in the Early Archaic Age" (1992, p 2 note 3).] in 1925 A. H. Saycehad suggested a connection to Hittite "habiri" ("looters", "outlaws"), but subsequent discoveries have made this implausible on phonological grounds. Dossein compares Κάβειροι to the Sumerian word "kabar", copper. [Buckert, "Greek Religion" (1985), p. 282 and notes (on page 457.]
The name of the "Cabeiri" recalls
Mount Kabeiros, a mountain in the region of Berekyntiain Asia Minor, closely associated with the Phrygian Mother Goddess. The name of Kadmilus (or "Kasmilos"), one of the Cabeiri who was usually depicted as a young boy, was linked even in antiquity to "camillus", an old Latinword for a boy-attendant in a cult, which is probably a loan from the Etruscan languageFact|date=October 2007, which may be related to Lemnian. [The Aegean relations of the Etruscan language are denied at some length by Massimo Pallottino, in "The Etruscans" (tr. 1975) and elsewhere.] .
In myth, the Cabeiri bear many similarities to other fabulous races, such as the
Telchinesof Rhodes, the Cyclopes, the Dactyls, the Korybantes, and the Kuretes. These different groups were often confused or identified with one another since many of them, like the Cyclopes and Telchines, were also associated with metallurgy. Diodorus Siculussaid of the Cabeiri that they were "Idaioi dactyloi" ("Idaian Dactyls"). The Idaian Dactyls were a race of divine beings associated with the Mother Goddess and with Mount Ida, a mountain in Phrygiasacred to the goddess. Hesychius of Alexandriawrote that the Cabeiri were "karkinoi" (" crabs"). The Cabeiri as Karkinoi were apparently thought of as amphibious beings (again recalling the Telchines). They had pincers instead of hands, which they used as tongs (Greek: "karkina") in metalworking.
It has been suggested that the Orphic mysteries may have had their origins with the Cabeiri.
*Burkert, Walter (1985). "Greek Religion", Sect. VI.1.3 "The Kabeiroi and Samothrace",Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-36281-0.
*Ferguson, John (1970). "The Religions of the Roman Empire" (pp. 122–123). London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-8014-9311-0.
* Hammond, N.G.L. & Scullard, H.H. (Eds.) (1970). "The Oxford Classical Dictionary" (p. 186). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-869117-3.
*Kerenyi, Karl (1951). "Gods of the Greeks". Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-27048-1.
Bernard Evslin. "Gods, Demigods and Demons: A Handbook of Greek Mythology". ISBN 978-1-84511-321-6.
*Michael B. Cosmopoulos. "Greek Mysteries: The Archaeology and Ritual of Ancient Greek Secret Cults". ISBN 0-415-24873-6.
*cite web|first=Harry Thurston|last=Peck|title=Cabeiria|work=Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities|year=1898|url=http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3atext%3a1999.04.0062&query=id%3dcabeiria#id,cabeiria|publisher=Tufts University: Perseus Project|accessdate=2008-01-21
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