List of rump states

List of rump states

A rump state is the remnant of a once-larger government, left with limited powers or authority after a disaster, invasion or military occupation.

For example, the Seleucid Empire, which once controlled most of the Middle-East, was reduced drastically in size by the rise of the Parthian Empire in its eastern provinces because of a regional rebellion. What was left of the once large empire was a rump state composed of little more than Antioch, Damascus, and an area roughly equal in size to modern Syria.

Some other states labeled as rump states, or that today would be considered rump states, at one point or another are listed below.


*Sumer during the late 3rd millennium BC until its liquidation by Elam and Babylon.
*Kush from circa 2500 BC until 780 BC.
*Ancient Egypt during the Hyksos period (circa 1674-1548 BC.) []
*Mitanni during the Egyptian invasions and loss of land in Syria of the mid-15th century BC, and from the Hittite invasions of the mid-14th century BC to its liquidation by Assyria circa 1250 BC.
*Ancient Egypt from the late 13th century BC, because of invasions of Libyans and Sea Peoples and the loss of its Asiatic lands.
*The Hittite Empire from circa 1275 BC to its liquidation circa 1180 BC.
*Philistia from its expulsion from Israel circa 1105 BC to its conquest by Assyria in 732 BC. [

] See also Samson.
*Ancient Egypt after the loss of the Nile Delta to the Meshwesh and the secession of Kush in the early 11th century BC. []
*Aram during the reign of Solomon of Israel.
*Edom during most of the 10th century BC.
*The Kingdom of Judah as successor to the United Monarchy after the Kingdom of Israel seceded circa 930 BC [;&version=31;] [] , particularly during Egyptian and Kushite aggression from then until circa 901 BC [] .
*Phoenicia during the Assyrian and Babylonian Empires.
*The Zhou Dynasty of China from early 8th century BC to its end in the 3rd century BC. []
*Urartu from the late 8th century BC to its Iranian conquest in 612 BC. [

*The Kingdom of Judah from the conquest of the Kingdom of Israel by the Assyrians in 722 BC to its conquest by Babylonia in 586 BC.
*Ancient Egypt from the late 8th century BC until its Babylonian conquest. [] See also Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt (the period of Kushite rule.)
*Athens from 490 to 479 BC during the Greco-Persian Wars [

] and after the Peloponnesian War [] until its Macedonian conquest (from 404 to 338 BC.)
*Attalid Pergamon as the successor to the Lysimachian Empire from the execution of Lysimachus by Seleucus I Nicator and the loss of most of its Asian lands to the Seleucid Empire and its European lands to the Antigonid Empire in 281 BC until its union with the Roman Empire according to the will of Attalus III in 133 BC. See also Diadochi Wars.
*The Seleucid Empire from the rise of Parthia in the late 3rd century BC [] to its final conquest by the Roman Empire in 60 BC.
*Illyria because of Roman aggression from 229 BC to its final conquest in 9 BC.
*Carthage after the Second Punic War and because of progressive territorial losses to Numidia until its destruction by Rome in the Third Punic War.
*Macedon in the 2nd century BC, after the Wars with Rome until its final conquest.
*Ptolemaic Egypt from the loss of its Asiatic lands to the Seleucid Empire in the 2nd century BC until its union with the Roman Empire in 30 BC. [] See also Syrian Wars.
*The Sunga Empire as successor to the Maurya Empire after the Greco-Bactrian invasions of its western lands in 180 BC. [
*The Greco-Bactrian Kingdom because of Yuezhi aggression from 162 BC to the conquest of Bactria proper in 120 BC [] , then the Indo-Greek Kingdom [
] as its successor until its Indo-Scythian conquest circa AD 10.
*Hasmonean Judaea from 140 BC to its conquest by the Roman Empire in 37 BC. []
*Nabataea during most of the 1st century BC, because of Roman aggression until its conquest.
*The Satavahana Empire from circa AD 35 to 78, during the Indo-Scythian invasions. See also Western Kshatrapas.
*Parthia after the loss of its western lands to the Roman Empire in the early AD 2nd century.

Late Antiquity

*The Kushan Empire from circa AD 250 to its liquidation circa 450 by the Hephthalites. []
*The Eastern Jin Dynasty of China as successor to the Western Jin Dynasty after the loss of its northern lands to the Altaic Wu Hu peoples in AD 317 [
] until 420, and then the Southern dynasties as its successors until the reconquest of the north by the Sui Dynasty in 589.
*The Western Roman Empire and its various territories after the barbarian invasions (AD 5th century).
*Baekje in Korea from the AD 5th century until its liquidation by Silla and China in 660. [

*The Gupta Empire from the late AD 5th century until its dissolution circa 550.
*Visigothic Iberia from AD 526 until its Islamic conquest in 718. [] See also Umayyad conquest of Hispania.
*The Ostrogothic Kingdom from AD 535 until its conquest by the Eastern Roman Empire in 540.
*The Eastern Roman Empire from the Slavic, Avar, and Bulgar invasions of the Balkan Peninsula and the Persian invasions of eastern Asia Minor of the AD mid-6th century, particularly after its progressive loss of Italy to the Lombards starting in 565 [] and during the height of the Sassanid Empire in the early 7th century, when it lost most of its Asiatic lands and Egypt.
*Goguryeo in Korea from AD 598 until its liquidation by Silla and China in 668. See also Goguryeo-Sui Wars.
*The Sassanid Empire from AD 622 until the Arab conquest of Persia in 651. [

*The Kingdom of Aksum in Ethiopia after the rise in Arab power in the 7th century.
*Tibet during the loss of its northern and western lands to Tang Dynasty China from circa 750 to 763. []
*The Emirate of Córdoba as the restored successor to the Umayyad Caliphate after the loss of its Asian and most of its African lands to the Abbasids from 756 until 929 [] , and then the Caliphate of Córdoba as its successor until its dissolution in 1031 [] . See also Battle of the Zab.
*The Duchy of Benevento as successor to the Lombard Kingdom of Italy after the loss of its northern lands to the Franks in 774 until its division into the kingdoms of Capua and Salerno in 849. []

Early Middle Ages

*The Kingdom of Asturias after the secession of the Kingdom of Navarre in the mid-9th century until its conquest by Navarre in the early 10th century. []
*Tibet from the mid-9th century, after it lost the majority of its land area (to the north and west as well as Myanmar) in the aftermath of a civil war. []
*Wessex and Mercia from 871, because of the Danish invasion and creation of the Danelaw [

] , until Edward the Elder of Wessex took control of most of England in 918.
*The Khazar Empire from the late 9th century until its liquidation by Kievan Rus' and the Pechenegs in 969. [] See also Caspian expeditions of the Rus.
*Scotland, because of Norse raids from the late 9th century until the Treaty of Perth in 1266 [] [
] [] , particularly during its tributary period and loss of its southern lands to the Angevin Empire under the Treaty of Falaise from 1174 to 1189.
*The Rashtrakuta Empire of India from circa 895 to 914.
*The Abbasid Caliphate from the 11th century until its destruction by Hulagu Khan in 1258.
*Balkan Bulgaria in the 11th and 12th centuries [] , and in the 14th century until its Ottoman conquest [] .
*Volga Bulgaria from the 11th century until its Mongol conquest in 1241. [


High Middle Ages

*Srivijaya from the Chola invasion of 1025 to its conquest by the Majapahit Empire in 1365.
*The Ghaznavid Empire from its loss of Khorasan to the Seljuq Empire in 1040 until its liquidation by the Ghurids in 1187. See also Battle of Dandanaqan.
*Denmark after the death of King Harthacanute and the resulting dissolution of the union between itself and England in 1042, until the reign of Valdemar the Great in the mid-12th century. []
*The Zirid and Hammadid Empires of North Africa from the Bedouin invasion circa 1049 to their liquidation by the Almohad Empire in 1152. []
*The Ghana Empire from 1062 to its conquest by the Almoravids in 1076.
*The Deccan empire of the Western Chalukyas because of Chola aggression from 1064 to 1115 and from 1126 to its dissolution in 1180.
*The Fatimid Caliphate from 1070 until its conquest by Saladin in 1169. []
*The Kingdom of Navarre from the late 11th century to its liquidation by Aragon in 1516. []
*The Pagan Kingdom of Myanmar from the late 11th century until its Mongol conquest in 1289. [

*The Chola Empire of southern India from 1118 to its liquidation by the Pandyan Kingdom in 1279. [

*China because of the progressive loss of its northern lands to the Jurchen Manchus from 1126 until the Mongol conquest of the following century. [] []
*The Kingdom of León from the secession of Portugal in 1143 to its union with the Kingdom of Castile in 1230. []
*France during the loss of the majority of its territory to the Angevin Empire from circa 1154 to 1214. [

] []
*Albania from the late 12th century to its Ottoman conquest in 1385. []
*The Seljuq Empire after its loss of Syria to Saladin in 1174 and the secession of Georgia and Armenia.
*The Kingdom of Jerusalem after the Third Crusade, from 1192 to its liquidation in 1244. []
*The Sultanate of Rum as the successor to the Seljuq Empire after the loss of its eastern lands to the Khwarezmid Empire in 1194. [

*The Kingdom of Castile from its defeat by the Almohad Empire at the Battle of Alarcos in 1195 until its defeat of the Almohads in the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212. []
*The Byzantine Empire after the Fourth Crusade as the Empire of Nicaea (also Empire of Trebizond and Despotate of Epirus). [

] [
*The Angevin Empire as the dual monarchy of England and Aquitaine from the revolt of the Lusignans and its loss of NW France in 1202 to its dissolution in 1214.
*Wales because of English aggression from 1211 to 1218 and 1241 to its final conquest in 1535 [] . See also Statute of Rhuddlan and Laws in Wales Acts 1535-1542.
*The Latin Empire from circa 1215 because of successive losses of territory to the Despotate of Epirus [

] , Bulgaria [] , and the Empire of Nicaea [

] until its Nicaean conquest in 1261. See also Peter of Courtenay.
*The Despotate of Epirus from 1230 because of successive losses of territory to Bulgaria [] , the Empire of Nicaea [

] , and the Serbian Empire [

] until its Serbian conquest in 1358.
*The Kingdom of Georgia from the Mongol invasion of 1236 until its liquidation by Russia in 1804. [
*Poland [] , Lithuania, Hungary [] , and the Sultanate of Rum during the Mongol aggression of the mid-13th century.
*The Ayyubid Caliphate because of Mamluk aggression, from its loss of Egypt in 1250 to its conquest in 1334.
*The Duchy of Pisa from its loss of Corsica and Sardinia to Genoa in 1284 until its conquest by Florence in 1406. [] See also Battle of Meloria.

Late Middle Ages

*The Tu'i Tonga Empire from the secession of Samoa circa 1300 to its dissolution circa 1800.
*Cambodia as the successor to the Khmer Empire from the early 14th century. []
*The Nasrid Kingdom of Granada in the 14th and 15th centuries until the capture of Granada by the Kingdom of Spain in 1492. [
*The Hoysala Empire from the invasions of the Sultanate of Delhi circa 1318 until its dissolution circa 1346, and then the Vijayanagara Empire as its successor until its consolidation of power in southern India in the late 14th century.
*France during the Hundred Years' War against the English, Flemish, Basque, Portuguese, and Burgundian, from 1337 to 1453. [] [] [] [
] [
*The Serbian Empire from 1356 after the death of Stefan Dusan until its conquest by the Ottoman Empire in 1459. [] []
*Mongolia as the successor to the Yuan Empire, after China regained its independence in 1368 under the Ming Dynasty. [] []
*The Khanate of the Golden Horde and its successor khanates from the late 14th century until their conquest by Russia and the Ottoman Empire in the late 16th century. []
*The Mali Empire from the mid 15th century to its liquidation by the Bambara and Fulbe in 1670. []
*The Sultanate of Delhi from the invasions of Timur in 1398 until its liquidation by Mughal forces in 1526. []
*The Ottoman Empire during the occupation of its eastern lands by the Timurids from 1400 to circa 1414 [] . See also Ottoman Interregnum.
*The Byzantine Empire in the 15th century, from the Ottoman invasions until its conquest in 1453. [
*Albania during the revolt of Skanderbeg from 1443 to 1478. []
*The Vijayanagara Empire during renewed Islamic invasions from circa 1446 to 1486.
*The Kingdom of Burgundy from 1453 to the conquest of Burgundy proper by France in 1477 [] , then the Burgundian Netherlands as its successor [

] until its incorporation in the Habsburg Empire after the death of Queen Mary of Burgundy in 1482.
*The Duchy of Prussia as the successor to the Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights, from the Second Peace of Thorn (1466) with Poland-Lithuania in 1525 until its 1618 union with Brandenburg. [] See also Thirteen Years' War.

Early Modern

*Royal Hungary as the successor of the Kingdom of Hungary under Austrian suzerainty from 1541 until circa 1700 [] .
*The Jaffna Kingdom of Sri Lanka because of Portuguese aggression from 1505 until its conquest in 1621.
*The Munhumutapa Empire of present-day Zimbabwe and Mozambique because of Portuguese aggression from 1505 until its conquest in 1629.
*Oman during the occupation of Muscat by the Portuguese from 1508 to 1650.
*The Sultanate of Malacca from the Portuguese capture of Malacca in 1511, and the Sultanate of Johor as its successor from 1528 until the complete Dutch conquest in 1641.
*Denmark-Norway after Sweden broke away from the Kalmar Union in 1523. [] See also Stockholm Bloodbath of 1520 and Swedish War of Liberation.
*The Inca state of Tawantinsuyu which survived the initial Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire in the Vilcabamba area from 1532 until the final Spanish conquest in 1572.
*Poland-Lithuania [] , Russia, and Austria [] at times during the height of Ottoman and Crimean Tatar [] advances. See also Russo-Crimean Wars, Siege of Vienna, and Battle of Vienna.
*The Livonian Confederation during the Livonian War, from the Russian invasion of 1558 to its liquidation by Poland-Lithuania and Sweden in 1561 [] , and then the Duchy of Courland as its successor under Polish suzerainty until its Russian conquest in 1795 [
] .
*The Vijayanagara Empire from its 1565 defeat by the Deccan Sultanates in the Battle of Talikota until its liquidation circa 1646.
*The Netherlands during its struggle against Spanish rule in the Eighty Years' War (1566–1648.) []
*Mongolia from the rise of the Qing Manchus in the early 17th century until its conquest in 1634.
*Denmark-Norway during the occupation of Jutland by Austria and its Catholic League allies in the Thirty Years War from 1627 to 1629, as well as by Sweden in the Hannibal War of 1644.
*China because of Manchu aggression from 1630 until its conquest and resultant formation of the Qing Dynasty in 1644.
*Poland-Lithuania from 1648 to 1662, during its struggle for survival in the war of The Deluge against Ukrainian Cossack insurgents and Russian, Swedish, Turkic, Transylvanian [] , and German invaders. [

] []
*Denmark-Norway during the occupation of the Trøndelag region from 1658 to 1660 by the Swedish Empire during the Northern Wars [
] . See also Treaty of Roskilde.
*Oman during the occupation of its coasts by the Ottoman Empire from 1659 to 1741 and by the Afsharid Empire from 1743 to 1746.
*Poland-Lithuania from 1701 to 1711 and Russia in 1708 and 1709, during the Swedish occupation of large areas in the Great Northern War. []
*The Mughal Empire in the 18th century, after the death of Aurangzeb in 1707. []
*Sweden after its defeat and loss of Baltic hegemony in the Great Northern War in 1721 [] , and more so after the Russian seizure of Finland in the Finnish War of 1809.
*Safavid Persia from 1722 to 1738 because of Afghan and Ottoman aggression.
*The Sultanate of Mataram in Java from 1749 to its Dutch conquest in 1816. [

*Prussia from 1758 to 1762 during the Seven Years' War.
*Siam because of Burmese aggression from 1766 to 1802.
*Poland-Lithuania, progressively after the first two Partitions of Poland in 1772 and 1793 until its liquidation in 1795. [

*Durrani Afghanistan after its loss of the Punjab following the death of Ahmed Shah Abdali in 1773.
*The Maratha Empire because of British aggression from 1775 to its conquest in 1818. [] []
*The Iroquois Confederacy from the Sullivan Expedition of 1779 to its annexation by the United States in the 1794 Treaty of Canandaigua.
*The Republic of Venice after its partition between France, Austria, and the Ottoman Empire in 1797, and the inclusion of Venice proper into the Austrian-ruled Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia [] by the Congress of Vienna until 1866. See also Cisalpine Republic.

19th Century

*Serbia from its initial autonomy from the Ottoman Empire in 1804 until the creation of Yugoslavia after World War I. [] []
*Austria, The Netherlands, and Prussia under Napoleonic occupation. []
*The Duchy of Warsaw [
] and Congress Poland [
] , from 1807 to 1831 under French and Russian hegemony, respectively.
*Portugal during its Napoleonic partition under the Treaty of Fontainebleau from November 1807 to August 1808 and with renewed French aggression from March to June 1809 and during much of 1810.
*Denmark after its granting of independence to Norway in January 1814, which Sweden took control of in August 1814 [] . See also Norway in 1814.
*The Kingdom of Saxony after its loss of 40% of its area to Prussia in the Congress of Vienna [] , until its 1871 incorporation into the German Empire.
*Muscat and Oman from the early 1820s, because of the progressive loss of possessions in the Persian Gulf, Zanzibar, the Indian Ocean coast of Africa, and Baluchistan to the British as well as Germany, Portugal, France, and Italy, until the formation of the British protectorate of 1891.
*Myanmar because of British aggression from 1824 until its conquest in 1886 [] . See also First Anglo-Burmese War, Second Anglo-Burmese War, and Third Anglo-Burmese War.
*Morocco because of French aggression from 1830 until its conquest in 1912. []
*The Netherlands from 1831, after Belgium won its independence in the Belgian Revolution. []
*Colombia after Venezuela and Ecuador seceded from Greater Colombia in 1831, and more so after Panama seceded in 1904. [

*Mexico after the progressive loss of almost half of its area to United States interests from 1836 to 1848 [] [] and during the French invasion of the Pastry War in 1838 and early 1839. See also Texas Revolution, Mexican-American War, and the Gadsden Purchase of 1854.
*The Khanate of Khiva from the mid-19th century until its Russian conquest in 1873. []
*The Papal States [
] from 1860, and particularly Vatican City as their successor after the Unification of Italy in 1871.
*Denmark after its loss of Schleswig-Holstein to the Prussian (later German) Empire after the Second War of Schleswig in 1864. [] []
*Siam from 1867, because of progressive territorial losses in Cambodia and Laos to the French. [
*Honduras from the Guatemalan invasion and overthrow of José María Medina in 1876 until 1891.
*Iran from 1918 to 1946, because of British and Russian aggression. Map of the partition plan of the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907 used during World War I [
] See also Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran.
*Paraguay, after losing vital territory to Argentina and Brazil, as well as having lost the majority of its population, in the War of the Triple Alliance in 1870 until winning the Chaco War in 1935. []

World War I and aftermath

*Russia from 1917 to 1921, particularly under the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk [] and during the Western, Polish, Romanian, and Japanese intervention of the Russian Civil War (see also Allied Intervention in the Russian Civil War.)
*Ukraine from 1917 to 1921. []
*The Democratic Republic of Armenia (from 1917 to 1922), since Turkey remained in control of the majority of its pre-World War I homeland. [
*The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic from 1918 to 1920, since Iran remained in control of the majority of the Azeri historic homeland. [

*German Austria, from the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire by the Treaty of Saint-Germain until the Anschluss (its annexation by Nazi Germany) of 1938. []
*The Ottoman Empire as envisioned by the Treaty of Sevres [] , and then Turkey as recognized in the Treaty of Lausanne [

] after becoming a republic. See also Turkish War of Independence.
*Hungary after the Treaty of Trianon [] , particularly during intervention by Romania and Czechoslovakia against the short-lived Hungarian Soviet Republic in the summer of 1919 [] .
*Poland during the summer of 1920, while Soviet Russia occupied the majority of its area in the Polish-Soviet War. [] [


World War II

*Czechoslovakia from the German annexation of the Sudetenland in October 1938 [] and the loss of additional territory in southern Slovakia and Carpathian Ruthenia to Hungary in November [] to its liquidation the following March. See also Munich Agreement and First Vienna Award.
*China during the Japanese occupation of most of its eastern lands (including the majority of the 1939 population.) []
*The Slovak Republic, from 1939 until late 1944 (Hungary controlled one-third of Slovakia's area.) [
] []
*Vichy France after the French surrender in June 1940 during World War II. [
*Romania from July 1940 to June 1941, during the loss of part of Transylvania to Hungary and of Bessarabia and Bukovina to the USSR. [
] [] See also Second Vienna Award.
*Serbia after the temporary dissolution of Yugoslavia during World War II. []
*Greece under Axis occupation during World War II. []
*Hungary from late 1944, after the seizure of territory by the USSR and Romania [] , and Hitler's replacement and house arrest of Hungarian leader Miklós Horthy.

Since World War II

*The Republic of China after the Chinese Civil War in 1950. [

] See also Political status of Taiwan.
*South Korea from June to September 1950 [] and January to April 1951 [] , and North Korea from September to December 1950 [] , during the Korean War.
*Somalia from the secession and de facto independence of Somaliland in May 1991, with 22% of its area and 43% of its population. []
*The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia after the secession of Slovenia and Croatia in 1991, and then Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia in 1992. [
] [

*Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Bosnian War from 1992 to late 1995. [] []
*The Czech Republic and Slovak Republic as the successors of Czechoslovakia. [] See also Velvet Divorce.
*The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (in 2003-2006 State Union of Serbia and Montenegro, now Serbia) after the 1999 United Nations Mission in Kosovo took over administration over its southern autonomous province, Kosovo and Metohija.

ee also

*Napoleonic Wars
*Puppet state

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