Mixed reality

Mixed reality

Mixed reality (MR) (encompassing both augmented reality and augmented virtuality) refers to the merging of real and virtual worlds to produce new environments and visualisations where physical and digital objects co-exist and interact in real time. A mix of reality, augmented reality, augmented virtuality and virtual reality.

An Example Mixed Reality: Virtual characters mixed into a live video stream of the real world.[1]



Paul Milgram and Fumio Kishino: Virtuality Continuum

In 1994 Paul Milgram and Fumio Kishino defined a mixed reality as "...anywhere between the extrema of the virtuality continuum."[2] (VC), where the Virtuality Continuum extends from the completely real through to the completely virtual environment with augmented reality and augmented virtuality ranging between.

Reality-Virtuality Continuum

"The conventionally held view of a Virtual Reality (VR) environment is one in which the participant-observer is totally immersed in, and able to interact with, a completely synthetic world. Such a world may mimic the properties of some real-world environments, either existing or fictional; however, it can also exceed the bounds of physical reality by creating a world in which the physical laws ordinarily governing space, time, mechanics, material properties, etc. no longer hold. What may be overlooked in this view, however, is that the VR label is also frequently used in association with a variety of other environments, to which total immersion and complete synthesis do not necessarily pertain, but which fall somewhere along a virtuality continuum. In this paper we focus on a particular subclass of VR related technologies that involve the merging of real and virtual worlds, which we refer to generically as Mixed Reality (MR)."

Interreality Physics

In a physics context, the term "interreality system"[3] refers to a virtual reality system coupled to its real-world counterpart. A paper in the May 2007 issue of Physical Review E[4] describes an interreality system comprising a real physical pendulum coupled to a pendulum that only exists in virtual reality. This system apparently has two stable states of motion: a "Dual Reality" state in which the motion of the two pendula are uncorrelated and a "Mixed Reality" state in which the pendula exhibit stable phase-locked motion which is highly correlated. The use of the terms "mixed reality" and "interreality" in the context of physics is clearly defined but may be slightly different than in other fields.


A topic of much research, MR has found its way into a number of applications, evident in the arts and entertainment industries. However, MR is also branching out into the business and education worlds with systems such as these:

  • IPCM – Interactive Product Content Management

Moving from static product catalogs to interactive 3D smart digital replicas. Solution consists of application software products with scalable license model.

  • SBL – Simulation Based Learning

Moving from e-learning to s-learning — state of the art in knowledge transfer for education. Simulation/VR based training, interactive experiential learning. Software and display solutions with scalable licensed curriculum development model.

Display Technologies

Here are some more commonly used MR display technologies:


See also


  1. ^ R. Freeman, A. Steed and B. Zhou, Rapid Scene Modelling, Registration and Specification for Mixed Reality Systems Proceedings of ACM Virtual Reality Software and Technology, pp. 147-150, Monterey, California, November 2005.
  2. ^ P. Milgram and A. F. Kishino, Taxonomy of Mixed Reality Visual Displays IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems, E77-D(12), pp. 1321-1329, 1994.
  3. ^ J. van Kokswijk, Hum@n, Telecoms & Internet as Interface to Interreality (Bergboek, The Netherlands, 2003).
  4. ^ V. Gintautas and A. W. Hubler, Experimental evidence for mixed reality states in an interreality system Phys. Rev. E 75, 057201 (2007).

External links

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