- Rugby union positions
In the game rugby union, there are fifteen players on each team, comprising eight forwards (numbered 1 to 8) and seven backs (numbered 9 to 15). Depending upon the competition, there may be up to eight replacement players. Early games consisted primarily of forwards that attacked plus a handful of "tends" that played back in defence. As the game became more sophisticated, different positions developed and jersey numbers were instituted to differentiate them. Players are not restricted to any single position on the field, although they generally specialise in just one or two that suit their skills and body types. The scrum (a huddle used to restart play), however must consist of eight players (providing a team still has fifteen on the field); three in the front row, two in the second, and another three loosely at the edges of the formation.
The positions as named by the International Rugby Board are fullback, wing (left and right), centre (inside and outside), fly-half, scrum-half, number eight, flanker (openside and blindside), lock, hooker and prop (loosehead and tighthead). The names have changed over time and with geography. Early names such as "three quarters" and "out-halves" are still used by some people, while in New Zealand the fly-half and inside centre are called "first-five eighth" and "second-five eighth" respectively, while the scrum-half is known as the half-back. The "tight five" consists of the props, locks and hooker; the "loosies" are the number eight and flankers; the "inside backs" are the scrum-half, fly-half and inside centre; and the "out-side backs" are the outside centre, wings and fullback.
The backs play behind the forwards and are usually smaller and faster. Successful backs are skillful at passing and kicking. Fullbacks need to be good defenders and have safe hands to field kicks. The wingers are usually the fastest players in a team and score many of the team's tries. The main attacking role of the centres is to commit defenders, so providing space for the wingers to run. The fly-half is a good kicker and generally directs the backline. The scrum-half retrieves the ball from the forwards and needs a quick and accurate pass to get the ball to the backs. Forwards compete for the ball in scrums and lineouts and are generally bigger and stronger than the backs. Props push in the scrums, while the hooker tries to "hook" the ball. Locks are tall and jump for the ball at the lineout after the hooker has thrown it in. The flankers and number eight should be the first forwards to a tackle and play an important role in securing possession of the ball for their team.
- 1 Overview
- 2 History
- 3 Names of positions
- 4 Backs
- 5 Forwards
- 6 Utility players
- 7 Rugby Sevens
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Bibliography
- 11 External links
There are up to fifteen players from each team on a rugby field at one time. The players position at the start of the game is indicated by the number on the back of their shirts, one to fifteen. In international matches there are seven substitutes that can replace an on field team member. The substitutes, numbered sixteen to twenty-two, can either take up the position of the player they replace or the on-field players can be shuffled to make room for this player in another position. There are no personal squad numbers as a versatile player's position and number can be changed from one game to the next. Players can also change positions with players on the field during the match, and as long as the laws are followed any player can change positions with another player during the match. Common examples are the fly half playing the fullback's position in defence or a prop taking the hooker's position at lineouts. The positions are divided into two main categories; forwards (numbered one to eight) and backs (numbered nine to fifteen).
Different positions on the field suit certain skill sets and body types, generally leading to players specialising in one or two positions. Each position has certain roles to play on the field, although most have been established through convention rather than law. During general play, as long as they are not offside, the players can be positioned anywhere on the field. It is during the set pieces, scrum and lineout, when the positions are enforced. At lineouts there must be at least two players from each team lined up five metres from where the ball crossed the side line. They form two straight lines next to each other and a player from the team awarded the lineout throws the ball between them. A player from each team stands two metres from the lineout and the opposing team must also have someone standing two metres from the player throwing the ball in. The remainder of the team must be positioned at least ten metres back from the lineout. While anyone on the field can be part of a lineout, it is generally composed of forwards. The usual situation involves the hooker throwing the ball in, aiming for the locks that are lifted into the air by the props. The scrum-halves are usually positioned near the lineout ready to receive the ball once the forwards have gained possession.
Each team must have eight players in the scrum, unless for some reason (i.e. a send off or injury) they cannot field fifteen players. The props (1 and 3) bind on either side of the hooker (2) to form the front row of the scrum. The two locks (4 and 5) bind together and push on the props and the hooker. The flankers (6 and 7) bind to the side of the scrum and the number eight (8) pushes on the locks or a lock and a flanker. Once each team has formed its half of the scrum the two front rows are brought together under the command of the referee. The scrum-half puts the ball into the middle of the scrum and then retrieves it from under the number eight's feet if it is successfully won. The remainder of the team must be positioned at least five meters back from the scrum. If a team cannot field eight in the scrum it can drop the flankers or the number eight, but must keep the props, hooker and lock positions.
During early rugby union games there were only really two positions; most players were in the forwards, who formed part of the scrimmage (which later was called "scrummage" and then "scrum"), and a few defensive "tends" (from "goaltenders"). Eventually, the attacking possibilities of playing close behind the scrimmage were recognised. The players who stationed themselves between the forwards and tends became known as "half-tends". Later it was observed that the players outside scrimmage were not limited to a defensive role, so the tends and half-tends were renamed "backs" and "half backs". As the game became more sophisticated the backs positioned at different depths behind the forwards. They were further differentiated into half backs, three quarters (the fraction 3/4) back, and full back. Specialised roles for the scrum also evolved with "wing- forward" (modern day flankers) being employed to protect the half back. The first international between England and Scotland was played in 1871 and consisted of twenty players on each side: thirteen forwards, three half backs, one three quarter and three fullbacks. The player numbers were reduced to fifteen in 1877. Numbers were added to the backs of players jerseys in the 1920s, initially as a way for coaches and selectors to rate individual players.
Names of positions
The various positions have changed names over time and many are known by different names in other countries. Players in the flanker positions were originally known as "wing forwards", while in the backs,"centre three-quarter" and "wing three-quarter" were used to describe the outside centre and wing respectively (although the terms are still sometimes used in the Northern Hemisphere) The International Rugby Board standard names tend to reflect Northern Hemisphere usage although fly-half is still often known as "outside half" or "stand-off half" in Britain, and "outhalf" in Ireland. In New Zealand the scrum-half is still referred to as the "half-back", the fly-half is referred to as the "first five-eighth", the inside centre is called the "second five-eighth" and the outside centre is simply known as "centre". In America and Canada the number 8 is known as "8 man".
Collective terms are also used to describe similar positions, with the props and hookers combining to form the "front row", the locks the "second row" and the flankers and number 8 the "loose forwards" or the "loosies". The front row and second row combined are collectively termed the "tight five". In the backs "half backs" can be used to describe the scrum half and fly-half, the "inside backs" to describe the scrum half, fly-half and inside center, "midfield" for the fly half and both centres and "outside backs" for the outside centre, wings and fullback. The two props are distinguished by being either a "tighthead" (their head is positioned between the opposition prop and hooker) or "loosehead" (their head is positioned on the outside of the scrum). The "blindside flanker" binds to the scrum on the side closest to the side line, while the "openside flanker" binds on the side with the most space between the scrum and the sideline. Wingers usually stick to one side of the field and are termed "left wing" or "right wing".
Fullbacks normally position themselves several metres behind the back line. They field any opposition kicks and are often the last line of defence should an opponent break through the back line. On attack they can enter the back line, usually near the centres or wings, with the aim of providing an extra person and overlapping the defending players. Two of the most important attributes of a good fullback are a safe pair of hands and a good kicking game. The fullback is the player most likely to field the high ball or "up and unders" kicked by the opposition. Good hands are needed to ensure the ball is caught cleanly to deny the opposition the chance to regain possession. As the fullback will inevitably catch the ball deep in their own territory with little support from their own players the best option will be to kick the ball downfield. A long and accurate kick will gain more ground and reduce the pressure on the team. As they are the last line of defence a solid tackle is also important.
To provide effective cover behind the defensive line good fullbacks are careful not to get caught out of position and must anticipate the opposition's play. Their position behind the back line allows them to see any holes in the defensive line and they either communicate with the backs to close the gaps up or cover the gaps themselves. The fullback has the most potential for attacking the opposition, especially from a misdirected kick. If a kick is fielded and there is enough space and support the fullback may decide to counterattack by running the ball back towards the opposition. Due to their kicking skills, in some teams the fullback is also responsible for taking the goal kicks.
Notable fullbacks include Serge Blanco who scored 38 tries in 93 tests for France and was known for his counterattacking ability. In 1997 Serge Blanco was among the inaugural set of rugby players inducted into the International Rugby Hall of Fame and in 2011 he was also inducted into the IRB Hall of Fame. Four fullbacks who played for the British and Irish Lions are in the International Rugby Hall of Fame; Gavin Hastings and Andy Irvine from Scotland, Tom Kiernan from Ireland and JPR Williams from Wales. Hastings and Irvine were accurate goal kickers and Kiernan is credited with being the first attacking full back in Irish rugby. Williams was chosen as the greatest lions fullback at the inaugural Lions Legends Dinner at Lord's in 2008 and is praised for his safety under the high ball, tackling and calm decision making. The other fullbacks in the International Rugby Hall of Fame are Don Clarke and George Nepia from New Zealand. Clarke, nicknamed "the boot", was an accurate goal kicker and Nepia was noted for his tackling and kicking ability.
The wings are generally positioned on the outside of the backline with the number 11 on the left and the number 14 on the right. Their primary function is to finish off moves and score tries. Wingers are usually the fastest players in the team and are either elusive runners, or more recently big, strong and able to break tackles. The skills needed for the left wing and right wing are similar, although left-footed players are usually played on the left wing as they can step and kick better off their left foot. The winger on the blindside often "comes off the wing" to provide an extra man in the midfield, in the same vein as a fullback. One or both wingers will usually drop back on opposition kicks to give the fullback extra options for counterattacking.
Notable wings over the years are David Campese who played 101 times for Australia and held the world record for most tries in test matches, and was famous for his goose step and reverse pass. Welsh international Gerald Davies was influential in helping the British Lions become the only Lions touring party to win a Test series in New Zealand. Ieuan Evans played 72 games for Wales and scored 33 tries - at that time a record for Wales. In 1994 International Rugby Hall of Famer John Kirwan retired as the (then) most capped player and highest try scorer in All Black history, while Jonah Lomu, who would enter the International Hall in 2007 and the IRB Hall of Fame in 2011, debuted as the youngest ever All Black. Tony O'Reilly, also a successful businessman, played wing for Ireland between 1955 and 1970 and scored a record 38 tries on two lions tours. André Boniface is a French international that is a member of both the International Rugby Hall of Fame and the IRB Hall of Fame. Also in the IRB Hall of Fame is Bill Maclagan, a 19th-century player for Scotland and the Lions who played at three-quarters, which eventually evolved into the modern position of wing. Another 2011 inductee in the IRB Hall is Brian Lima of Samoa, who played most of his career on the wing but ended it as a centre. He participated in five World Cups for Manu Samoa and became known as "The Chiropractor" for his ferocious tackling.
There are two centres in a game of rugby, inside centre (number 12) and outside centre (number 13). The inside centre usually stands close to the fly half or at first receiver on the other side of the scrum or breakdown. Like the fly half they generally possess a good kicking game and are good at reading the play and directing the attack. The outside centre is positioned outside the inside centre and is generally the faster of the two. The centres main role is to provide space for the men outside them. They need to run good lines, have good passing skills and should be able to offload in a tackle. When the ball is moved along the opposition backline the centres are the first players to make the tackle. They need to be solid tacklers and good at organising the defensive lines. Outside centres generally have more room to move than inside centres. Centres also provide support at the breakdowns and can run as decoys to confuse the defence.
Danie Gerber played centre for South Africa during the apartheid era and even though he was only able to play 24 tests over 12 years, he scored 19 tries. Mike Gibson played for Ireland and the Lions and his record of 69 caps for Ireland lasted for 26 years. Tim Horan won two World Cups for Australia, being named the Player of the Tournament in 1999. As a player Ian McGeechan won 32 caps for Scotland and went on two Lions tours, while as a coach he led the Lions a record four times. Welsh centre Gwyn Nicholls played from 1896 to 1906 and was known as the "Prince of Threequarters". Other centres in the International Rugby Hall of Fame are Jo Maso and Philippe Sella from France, known for their flamboyant attacking play. Gibson and Sella are also in the IRB Hall of Fame. Two centres are in the IRB Hall but not the International Hall—Frank Hancock, a 19th-century Welsh player whose skills led to the creation of the modern two-centre formation, and Guy Boniface, French international and younger brother of André.
A fly-half is crucial to a team's game plan. They are usually the first to receive the ball from the scrum-half following a breakdown, lineout or scrum and need to be decisive with what actions to take and be effective at communicating with the outside backs. Good fly-halfs are calm, clear thinking and have the vision to direct effective attacking plays. Fly-halfs need good passing and kicking skills. Often the fly-half is the best kicker in the team and needs to be able to execute attacking kicks such as up-and-unders, grubbers and chip kicks as well as being able to kick for territory. Many fly-halfs are also the team's goal kickers.
Fly-halves in the International Rugby Hall of Fame include Welshman Phil Bennett who unleashed two great sidesteps to set up what some have described as "the greatest try of all time". South African Naas Botha scored 312 points (including a record 17 drop goals) despite playing most of his career when the Springboks were boycotted. Australia's Mark Ella wasn't a great kicker, but had great vision, passing skills and orchestrated a new flat-back attacking style. Grant Fox was one of the most respected goal-kickers who scored more than 1000 points in all matches for New Zealand. Barry John was known simply as "the king" to Welsh rugby fans and was rated the third in the 1971 BBC Sports Personality of the Year Award. Jack Kyle is widely considered Ireland's greatest player. Michael Lynagh took over Fly-half from Ella and in his first test in that position scored an Australian record of 23 points against Canada. While Cliff Morgan captained Wales and played for the Lions, he is also known as great rugby personality and an accomplished rugby broadcasters. Bennie Osler played for South Africa from 1924 until 1933, during which he played a South African record 17 consecutive games and scored a then world record 14 points in one game against New Zealand. Hugo Porta is regarded as one of the finest players that Argentina has produced and has been a member of the Laureus World Sports Academy since 2000.
Of the players mentioned above, Kyle, Morgan, Osler and Porta are members of the IRB Hall of Fame. One fly-half is in the IRB Hall but not the International Hall—Gareth Rees of Canada, who played in all of the first four Rugby World Cups, and remains the country's all-time leading Test points scorer.
The scrum-half is the link between the forwards and the backs. They receive the ball from the lineout and remove the ball from the back of the scrum, usually passing it to the fly-half. They also feed the scrum and sometimes have to act as a fourth loose forward. Along with the fly-half they make many of the tactical decisions on the field. During general play the scrum-half is generally the player who receives the ball from the forwards and passes it to the backs. They are good communicators, especially at directing the forwards around, and their aim is to provide the backs with clean ball. Good scrum-halves have an excellent pass, a good tactical kick and are deceptive runners. At defensive scrums they put pressure on the opposition scrum-half or defend the blindside. On defence in open play they generally cover for deep kicks after the ball has been passed wide. Traditionally scrum-halves have been the smallest players on the team, but many modern scrum-halves are a similar size to the other players in the team.
Ken Catchpole is an Australian scrum half who was made captain on his debut at 21 in 1961. Danie Craven from South Africa was one of the greatest scrum halves in the 1930s and a respected administrator of the South African Rugby Board. Gareth Edwards, a member of both the International Rugby and IRB Halls of Fame, played for Wales and the British and Irish Lions during the 1970s and is regarded by many as one of the greatest Welsh players. Nick Farr-Jones captained Australia through their 1991 Rugby World Cup winning campaign; he was enshrined in the International Hall in 1999 and the IRB Hall in 2011. When Joost van der Westhuizen retired in 2003 he had 89 caps, at the time the most for any South African.
Two scrum-halves are in the IRB Hall but not the International Hall. New Zealander David Kirk, inducted in 2011, was captain of the All Blacks team that won the inaugural 1987 Rugby World Cup. Fellow 2011 inductee Agustín Pichot, who played in three World Cups for Argentina, is perhaps best known as the Pumas' captain during their surprise run to third place in the 2007 World Cup, which eventually led to their 2012 entry into The Rugby Championship, previously the Tri Nations.
Number eight is the only position that does not have a specific name in English and is simply referred to as "number eight" or "eighthman". They bind between the locks at the back of the scrum, providing extra weight at the push. Number eights interact with the scrum-half at the back of the scrum to control and provide clean ball for the backs. They can also pick the ball from the back of the scrum and run with it or flick it to the scrum half. At lineouts they can be either another jumper or a lifter. Around the field they have a similar set of responsibilities as the flankers at the breakdown. Number eights are often strong ball carriers and run off the backs in an attempt to break through or push past the opposition's defensive line.
Number eights in the International Rugby Hall of Fame include: Mervyn Davies (Wales and British and Irish Lions), Morne du Plessis (South Africa), Brian Lochore (New Zealand) and Hennie Muller (South Africa). Lochore is also in the IRB Hall of Fame, but primarily as a coach.
The flanker's role is to tackle the opposition and try to steal the ball. The openside flanker binds to the side of the scrum that covers the greatest area, while the blindside covers the side nearest the side-line. They bind loosely to the side of the scrum, but still play an important role in keeping the props tight by pushing at an angle. They should be the first forward to a breakdown from a scrum or lineout and are expected to link with the backline or secure the ball at the tackle. Both positions have a high workrate, meaning the players need to be fit as well as good at reading the oppositions attacking plays. During open play if they have not made the tackle they usually stand in the loose next to the ruck or maul. This allows them to arrive quickly at the next tackle. The blindside is generally the larger of the two and usually acts as a third jumping option at the lineout. The openside flanker is usually faster than the blindside with good opensides excellent at turning over the ball at the tackle. Teams often use their openside Flankers to 'charge' the opposition Fly Half, putting pressure on him and forcing him to rush his decision making, kicking or passing.. Blindside flankers also have the task of stopping any attempt by the opposition eighth-man to run with the ball around the blindside of a scrum.
Flankers in the International Rugby Hall of Fame include: Dave Gallaher (New Zealand), Michael Jones (New Zealand), Ian Kirkpatrick (New Zealand), Graham Mourie (New Zealand), Francois Pienaar (South Africa), Jean Prat (France), Jean-Pierre Rives (France), Fergus Slattery (Ireland and Lions), and Wavell Wakefield (England). Pienaar and Prat are also members of the IRB Hall of Fame.
The locks form the second row and push against the front row during the scrum providing much of the power. They are almost always the tallest players on the team and are the primary targets when the ball is thrown in at line-outs. Locks must also have good catching ability. At the lineout the locks are supported by team mates allowing them to compete for the ball, either passing or tapping it to the scrumhalf or setting up a drive. In scrums the two locks bind tightly together and slide their heads between a prop and the hooker. Locks tend to compete for the kick offs and are involved in securing the ball in rucks and mauls.
Locks in the International Rugby Hall of Fame include: Bill Beaumont (England and Lions), Gordon Brown (Scotland and Lions), Frik du Preez (South Africa), John Eales (Australia), Martin Johnson (England and Lions), Brian Lochore (New Zealand), Willie John McBride (Ireland and Lions), and Colin Meads (New Zealand). Du Preez, Eales, Johnson and McBride are also members of the IRB Hall of Fame as players; Lochore was inducted into the IRB Hall primarily as a coach. Two locks are members of the IRB Hall of Fame but not the International Hall—Fairy Heatlie, a South African great of the era around 1900 who was also one of the first Argentina internationals, and French international Lucien Mias.
The hooker is positioned between the two props in the scrum and generally throws the ball into the lineout. After the scrumhalf has put the ball into the scrum they use their feet to "hook" the ball back and win possession for their team. Hookers can be any shape or size, but generally they have a short back and long arms to aid in binding to props. When the opposition is putting the ball into the scrum the hooker will either attempt to win the ball or try and disrupt the scrum. Hookers are usually more mobile than the props and are often used to carry the ball up during open play. Only specialist front row players can play hooker, and if a team can not field one for any reason the scrums will become uncontested.
Hookers in the International Rugby Hall of Fame include: Sean Fitzpatrick (New Zealand) and Keith Wood (Ireland and Lions). The first hooker to be inducted into the IRB Hall of Fame is John Smit of South Africa, captain of the World Cup-winning Springboks in 2007 and also the most-capped Springbok in history.
The props "prop up" the hooker in the scrum. They form part of the front row of the scrum and push against the oppositions props. The loosehead prop is positioned to the left of the hooker and their head will be on the outside of the scrum when it engages. The tighthead is to the right of the hooker with their head positioned between the hooker and the opposition loosehead. The prop's main role is to provide stability at the scrum and support the hooker in quickly winning the ball. At the lineout the prop's role is to support the jumper as they compete for the ball. They are usually positioned at the front of the lineout with a jumper in between them. They are also often involved in lifting jumpers when receiving kick-offs. While scrummaging is still seen as their main responsibility, modern props are also expected to contribute in attack and defence.
Props have to take in pressure from the locks and loose forwards pushing from behind and the opposition pushing against them, so they are often among the strongest players in a team. Some of the more successful props have short necks and broad shoulders to absorb this force as well as powerful legs to drive the scrum forward. Since the game has become professional non-specialist props or hookers cannot play in the front row. If, through send offs or injuries, a team does not have enough specialist front row players the scrums become uncontested (i.e. no pushing is allowed and the team putting the ball into the scrum wins it). On their own scrum the loosehead's role is to provide the hooker with a clear view to strike the ball while the tighthead tries to keep the scrum stable. When the opposition is putting the ball in the tighthead attempts to disrupt the opposing hooker or loosehead, making it difficult for them to win the ball. The loosehead is generally the stronger of the two props.
Props in the International Rugby Hall of Fame include: Jason Leonard (England and Lions), Syd Millar (Ireland and Lions) and Wilson Whineray (New Zealand). Millar and Whineray are also members of the IRB Hall of Fame.
Players that have the ability to play a number of positions in a team are called utility players. Utility players can be seen as "Jack of all trades" and they generally occupy the reserve position in a team. For this reason many try to avoid being labeled as utilities. Players in the forward positions are generally more specialised than those that play in the backs. However flankers can usually play number eight and sometimes the blindside may be used as a lock. The front row positions are usually very specialised, although some props can play both sides or even hooker. South African captain John Smit being one player who has played test matches in every front row position. Utility backs tend to cover a greater number of position; with players commonly switching between scrum-half and fly-half, fly-half and centre or wing and fullback.
No true utility backs are in either the International Rugby or IRB Halls of Fame, although Mike Gibson has 28 caps at fly half, 48 at centre and 4 on the wing while Tim Horan played 62 tests at centre, 2 on the wing and 9 at fullback. Players that have played multiple positions within the backline include Austin Healy (who has started at scrum-half, fly-half, fullback, and wing for England throughout his career), Mike Catt (started multiple tests at fullback, fly-half and centre, and one on the wing) and François Steyn (who has Test caps at every back position except scrum-half). International Rugby Hall of Fame player Danie Craven mostly played at half-back, but has also started a Test in the forwards at number 8.
Rugby seven teams only have seven players on the field and can nominate five substitutes, but only three may play in any one game. Scrums are formed with three players, who bind together the same as the front row. One player plays a similar position to the scrum-half, feeding the ball into the scrum. The other three players form the backline. Since play is a lot more open in sevens, with rucks and mauls generally kept to a minimum, most players are backs or loose forwards in fifteen-a-side teams.
- Rugby union numbering schemes
- List of rugby union players by country
- International Rugby Hall of Fame
- IRB Hall of Fame
- Rugby league positions
- ^ Players nominated as substitutes - IRB Laws of Rugby Union 2011
- ^ Ben Horne (26 February 2011). "Cooper can run but not hide from NSW". Stuff.co.nz. http://www.stuff.co.nz/sport/rugby/super-rugby/4708504/NSW-will-hunt-down-Cooper. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- ^ British & Irish Lions Tour to South Africa in 2009 - Lions-Tour.com
- ^ Layout 1
- ^ #24451 - IRB Laws 2009 Cover:EN
- ^ #24451 - IRB Laws 2009 Cover:EN
- ^ Collins 2009, p. 138.
- ^ rugby.com.au | History Of The Game
- ^ Collins 2009, p. 144.
- ^ Papers Past — New Zealand Free Lance — 24 August 1901 — The New South Wales Match
- ^ The Sydney Morning Herald - Google News Archive Search
- ^ Outdated and exposed - Rugby, Sport - Independent.ie
- ^ Allan Massie on rugby: Joint captaincy makes perfect sense for Scots - Scotsman.com Sport
- ^ Evans, Ieuan (4 February 2007). "Perfect script unfolds for comeback king". The Daily Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/rugbyunion/international/england/2307217/Perfect-script-unfolds-for-comeback-king.html.
- ^ Turnbull, Simon (10 November 2000). "Rejuvenated Townsend relishes pivotal position". The Independent (London). http://www.independent.co.uk/sport/rugby/rugby-union/rejuvenated-townsend-relishes-pivotal-position-624080.html.
- ^ Outhalf rises to occasion in gritty triumph - Autumn Internationals, Rugby - Independent.ie
- ^ Chris Rattue (1 November 2008). "Rugby: Donald measures up Carter's crown". The New Zealand Herald. http://www.nzherald.co.nz/hong-kong/news/article.cfm?l_id=456&objectid=10540495. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- ^ Veterans to lead Canada into Rugby World Cup
- ^ Rogers muscling Loyola toward 4th straight rugby title - Baltimore Sun
- ^ Scotland look to restore pride after drubbing - Sport - Mail & Guardian Online
- ^ WP count on tight five - Rugby - IOL | Breaking News | South Africa News | World News | Sport | Business | Entertainment | IOL.co.za
- ^ Barnes, Stuart (2 May 2010). "Munster can do it by halves". The Times (London). http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/sport/rugby_union/article7113970.ece.
- ^ Kirk, David (22 June 2008). "New Zealand side built around a twin axis". The Daily Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/rugbyunion/international/england/2303810/New-Zealand-side-built-around-a-twin-axis.html.
- ^ Canterbury tighthead signs for Munster - The Irish Times - Thu, Jun 10, 2010
- ^ "Rugby: Highlanders reshuffle loosies for Lions clash". The New Zealand Herald. 24 March 2010. http://www.nzherald.co.nz/sport/news/article.cfm?c_id=4&objectid=10634047. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- ^ Why was Kirchner left out? - IOL Rugby | IOL.co.za
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Brown, Guthrie & Growden 2010.
- ^ a b MacDonald, H. F. (1938). Rugger Practice and Tactics - A Manual of Rugby Football Technique. p. 97.
- ^ Biscombe & Drewett 2009, p. 168.
- ^ a b Biscombe & Drewett 2009, p. 170.
- ^ Hall of Fame honour for three of Ireland's greats - Sport, Frontpage - Independent.ie
- ^ John Daniell (9 December 2007). "Rugby: The fallback position". The New Zealand Herald. http://www.nzherald.co.nz/sport/news/article.cfm?c_id=4&objectid=10481227. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- ^ "England have finally ton it". The Sun (London). 3 February 2010. http://www.thesun.co.uk/sol/homepage/sport/rugby_union/2837927/England-have-finally-ton-it.html.
- ^ Hastings, Scott (30 January 2005). "Bulloch boys must cause disruption". The Times (London). http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/sport/article508340.ece.
- ^ a b c "Five French legends into IRB Hall of Fame" (Press release). International Rugby Board. 2011-03-19. http://www.irb.com/history/halloffame/newsid=2042103.html#five+french+legends+into+irb+hall+fame. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
- ^ Turnbull, Simon (14 March 2009). "Paterson takes aim at Irish dream". The Independent (London). http://www.independent.co.uk/sport/rugby/rugby-union/international/paterson-takes-aim-at-irish-dream-1644826.html.
- ^ Decision to jettison Maggs creates problem for backline - Rugby, Sport - Independent.ie
- ^ Gallagher, Brendan (27 November 2008). "JPR Williams - the greatest Lions fullback". The Daily Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/rugbyunion/international/britishandirishlionsrugby/3530689/JPR-Williams-the-greatest-Lions-fullback-Rugby-Union.html.
- ^ "The man, his boots and a rugby ball". The New Zealand Herald. 31 December 2002. http://www.nzherald.co.nz/all-blacks/news/article.cfm?c_id=116&objectid=3049307. Retrieved 10 September 2011.
- ^ McConnell, Robin C. (1-Sep-10). "Nepia, George - Biography', from the Dictionary of New Zealand Biography". Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/biographies/4n6/1.
- ^ Ferguson, David (7 January 2006). "Scottish rugby welcomes back Lomu". Scotsman. http://sport.scotsman.com/superteams/Scottish-rugby-welcomes-back-Lomu.2740238.jp.
- ^ Biscombe & Drewett 2009, p. 163.
- ^ Trace, Marion (12 November 2003). "Campese says sorry to Gregan". Scotsman. http://sport.scotsman.com/rugby/Campese-says-sorry-to-Gregan.2478147.jp.
- ^ Bills, Peter (17 July 2008). "Gerald Davies on the adventure of the Lions". The Independent (London). http://www.independent.co.uk/sport/rugby/rugby-union/gerald-davies-on-the-adventure-of-the-lions-870061.html.
- ^ "Rugby Union: Winger Evans hangs up his Test boots". The Independent (London). 12 March 1998. http://www.independent.co.uk/sport/rugby-union-winger-evans-hangs-up-his-test-boots-1149819.html.
- ^ "Rugby: All Black hero to retire". The Independent (London). 16 October 1994. http://www.independent.co.uk/sport/rugby-all-black-hero-to-retire-1443198.html.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "RWC legends inducted into IRB Hall of Fame" (Press release). International Rugby Board. 2011-10-26. http://www.irb.com/history/halloffame/newsid=2060049.html#rwc+legends+inducted+into+irb+hall+fame. Retrieved 2011-10-26.
- ^ Ackford, Paul (20 Sep 2008). "Jonah Lomu: A hero who just wants to help". The Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/rugbyunion/international/3023496/Jonah-Lomu-A-hero-who-just-wants-to-help-Rugby-Union.html.
- ^ Gribben, Roland (13 Mar 2009). "Sir Anthony O'Reilly: sporting legend and respected businessman". The Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/mediatechnologyandtelecoms/4984481/Sir-Anthony-OReilly-sporting-legend-and-respected-businessman.html.
- ^ "IRB Hall of Fame: The 2009 Induction" (PDF) (Press release). International Rugby Board. 2009-10-27. http://www.irb.com/mm/document/unions/0/091022inducteeprofile2009_9131.pdf. Retrieved 2009-10-28.
- ^ "Players & Officials: Brian Lima". ESPN Scrum. http://www.espnscrum.com/scrum/rugby/player/10999.html. Retrieved 2011-10-24.
- ^ Biscombe & Drewett 2009, p. 157.
- ^ Bompa & Claro 2008, p. 66.
- ^ Bills, Peter (17 June 2009). "Lions 2009: South Africa Dream Team". The Independent (London). http://www.independent.co.uk/sport/rugby/rugby-union/news-comment/lions-2009-south-africa-dream-team-1707427.html.
- ^ Phillips, Mitch (10 February 2005). "England vs France no longer only game in town". IOL Sport. http://www.iol.co.za/sport/england-vs-france-no-longer-only-game-in-town-1.542080.
- ^ "Twice Tim: Horan named player of tournament". CNN. 7 November 1999.
- ^ "Ian McGeechan's passion for rugby 'undimmed' after knightood honour". The Telegraph. 31 Dec 2009.
- ^ Smith, David; Williams, Gareth (1980). Fields of Praise: The Official History of The Welsh Rugby Union. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. p. 138. ISBN 0708307663.
- ^ "All-time Greats - France". Sky Sport. 5 January 2010. http://www.skysports.com/story/0,,11069_5830888,00+en-USS_01DBC.html. Retrieved 4 July 2011.
- ^ Thomas, Wayne (1979). A Century of Welsh Rugby Players. Ansells Ltd. p. 10.
- ^ a b Biscombe & Drewett 2009, p. 149.
- ^ Biscombe & Drewett 2009, p. 148.
- ^ Gallagher, Brendan (04 Dec 2009). "Barbarians v New Zealand '73 - the greatest try of them all". The Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/rugbyunion/international/newzealand/6729175/Barbarians-v-New-Zealand-73-the-greatest-try-of-them-all.html.
- ^ Staats, Murray (4 March 2008). "Naas still winning over new fans". IOL Sport. http://www.iol.co.za/sport/naas-still-winning-over-new-fans-1.585913.
- ^ Butler, Eddie (6 January 2002). "The 10 greatest fly-halves in the history of rugby union". The Guardian (London). http://observer.guardian.co.uk/osm/story/0,,626700,00.html.
- ^ "Rugby Union: Fox the hot-shot retires". The Independent (London). 5 January 1994. http://www.independent.co.uk/sport/rugby-union-fox-the-hotshot-retires-1397919.html.
- ^ Devine, Darren; Rhys, Steffan (Feb 2 2009). "Barry John puts rugby memorabilia up for sale". Wales Online. http://www.walesonline.co.uk/news/wales-news/2009/02/02/barry-john-puts-rugby-memorabilia-up-for-sale-91466-22832300/.
- ^ "Sports Personality Of The Year". BBC Press office. December 2009. http://www.bbc.co.uk/pressoffice/keyfacts/stories/spoty.shtml. Retrieved 6 May 2011.
- ^ Mairs, Gavin (20 Mar 2009). "Jack Kyle hopes to lose tag of 'last Grand Slam winner' as Ireland face Wales in Cardiff". The Daily Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/rugbyunion/international/ireland/5023871/Jack-Kyle-hopes-to-lose-tag-of-last-Grand-Slam-winner-as-Ireland-face-Wales-in-Cardiff.html.
- ^ "Canadian rugby team thumped by Wallabies". Toronto Star. Jun 24, 1985. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/thestar/access/474498031.html?FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&type=current&date=Jun+24%2C+1985&author=from+CP&pub=Toronto+Star&desc=Canadian+rugby+team+thumped+by+Wallabies&pqatl=google.
- ^ Hitt, Carolyn (Apr 10 2010). "Happy 80th birthday to Cliff Morgan - a great Welshman". Western Mail. http://www.walesonline.co.uk/rugbynation/rugby-columnists/2010/04/10/happy-80th-birthday-to-a-great-welshman-but-let-s-hope-he-ll-have-another-reason-to-celebrate-in-the-not-too-distant-future-91466-26212735/.
- ^ "IRB Hall of Fame 2009 Inductee: Bennie Osler". IRB. 27 October 2009. http://www.irb.com/history/halloffame/newsid=2034085.html. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
- ^ "Hugo Porta: Laureus Academy Member". Laureus Academy. http://www.laureus.com/members/167. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
- ^ SFMS Limited. "Statsguru / Test matches / Player records (overall figures for Canada, ordered by total points scored)". ESPN Scrum. http://stats.espnscrum.com/statsguru/rugby/stats/index.html?class=1;filter=advanced;orderby=points;team=25;template=results;type=player. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
- ^ a b c d e Bompa & Claro 2008, p. 62.
- ^ Bompa & Claro 2008, p. 63.
- ^ Kirby, Simon (17 April 2008). "Scott Miller, Ken Catchpole on drug charges". Courier Mail. http://www.couriermail.com.au/news/national/scott-miller-goes-into-hiding/story-e6freooo-1111116088373.
- ^ Slot, Owen (1 January 2010). "Countdown of Africa’s top sporting figures (25-21)". Times Online (London). http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/sport/more_sport/article6972886.ece.
- ^ Palmer, Bryn (6 November 2002). "The state of the Union". BBC SportOnline. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/rugby_union/2369877.stm.
- ^ News "Farr-Jones inducted into Hall of Fame". 21 July 2008. http://www.abc.net.au/news/2008-07-21/farr-jones-inducted-into-hall-of-fame/446546}newspaper=ABC News.
- ^ "Joost tips SA recovery". BBC Sport. 8 November 2003. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/rugby_union/rugby_world_cup/team_pages/south_africa/3253373.stm.
- ^ "Players & Officials: Agustin Pichot". ESPN Scrum. http://www.espnscrum.com/argentina/rugby/player/12004.html. Retrieved 2011-10-24.
- ^ a b c d e Bompa & Claro 2008, p. 61.
- ^ a b c Bompa & Claro 2008, p. 60.
- ^ a b Bompa & Claro 2008, p. 59.
- ^ Bompa & Claro 2008, p. 58.
- ^ Template:Http://www.rfu.com/TakingPart/Coach/CoachResourceArchive/PositionalSkills/~/media/Files/2009/Coaching/Articles/PositionalSkills/opensideflanker.ashx
- ^ a b Biscombe & Drewett 2009, p. 117.
- ^ Biscombe & Drewett 2009, p. 135.
- ^ Biscombe & Drewett 2009, p. 118.
- ^ a b Biscombe & Drewett 2009, p. 112.
- ^ a b Bompa & Claro 2008, p. 56.
- ^ a b Chris Hewett (14 December 2002). "Scrum safety? That's not as easy as it sounds". The Independent (London). http://www.independent.co.uk/sport/rugby/rugby-union/scrum-safety-thats-not-as-easy-as-it-sounds-610928.html.
- ^ "Statsguru / Test matches / Player records (filters: overall figures, South Africa, total matches played (descending order)". ESPN Scrum. SFMS Limited. http://stats.espnscrum.com/statsguru/rugby/stats/index.html?class=1;team=5;template=results;type=player. Retrieved 2011-10-24.
- ^ a b c Biscombe & Drewett 2009, p. 107.
- ^ a b John Drake (Nov 18, 2005). "The rules of engagement - tighthead v loosehead". http://www.nzherald.co.nz/john-drake/news/article.cfm?a_id=38&objectid=10355762.
- ^ a b Cleary, Mick (3 August 2011). "Ben Foden keen to side-step curse of the utility player". The Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/rugbyunion/international/england/4241515/Ben-Foden-keen-to-side-step-curse-of-the-utility-player.html.
- ^ Kidd, Patrick (5 February 2009). "I want to be England's rock, says Delon Armitage". Times Online (London). http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/sport/rugby_union/article5669832.ece.
- ^ Baldock, Andrew. "Ashton: Cipriani To Be Specialist". Sporting Life. http://www.sportinglife.com/rugbyunion/news/story_get.cgi?STORY_NAME=rugby/08/01/10/RUGBYU_England_Ashton.html. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
- ^ Capostagno, Andy (5 June 2009). "Horns forward for the Boks". Mail and Guardian. http://mg.co.za/article/2009-06-05-horns-forward-for-the-boks.
- ^ "Thomson and McCaw to be flexible". ONE Sport. 28 July 2011. http://tvnz.co.nz/all-blacks/thomson-start-no-8-4329086.
- ^ "White's injury concerns doubles". Reuters. 8 July 2007. http://uk.reuters.com/article/2009/06/15/rugby-lions-safrica-idUKLF58105220090615.
- ^ "Smit dismisses prop problem". Sport 24. 2008-11-07. http://www.sport24.co.za/Rugby/Smit-dismisses-prop-problem-20081107.
- ^ "Ton-up Smit very 'special'". Independent Online. 2009-08-19. http://www.iol.co.za/sport/ton-up-smit-very-special-1.675555.
- ^ "Statsguru / Player analysis / Mike Gibson / Test matches". Scrum.com. http://www.espnscrum.com/statsguru/rugby/player/6881.html?class=1;template=results;type=player;view=match. Retrieved 2011-08-04.
- ^ "Statsguru / Player analysis / Tim Horan / Test matches". Scrum.com. http://www.espnscrum.com/statsguru/rugby/player/10595.html?class=1;template=results;type=player;view=match. Retrieved 2011-08-04.
- ^ "Statsguru / Player analysis / Austin Healy / Test matches". Scrum.com. http://www.espnscrum.com/statsguru/rugby/player/12431.html?class=1;template=results;type=player;view=match. Retrieved 2009-06-27.
- ^ "Statsguru / Player analysis / Mike Catt / Test matches". Scrum.com. http://www.scrum.com/statsguru/rugby/player/11696.html?class=1;template=results;type=player;view=match. Retrieved 2009-06-27.
- ^ "Statsguru / Player analysis / Frans Steyn / Test matches". Scrum.com. http://www.scrum.com/statsguru/rugby/player/15421.html?class=1;template=results;type=player;view=match. Retrieved 2009-06-27.
- ^ "Statsguru / Player analysis / Danie Craven / Test matches". Scrum.com. http://www.espnscrum.com/statsguru/rugby/player/3907.html?class=1;template=results;type=player;view=match. Retrieved 2009-06-27.
- ^ International Rugby Board 2011, p. 169.
- ^ International Rugby Board 2011, p. 174.
- ^ "Rugby Sevens". Pro Training Programs. http://www.protrainingprograms.com/training-programs/rugby-sevens/. Retrieved 4 September 2011.
- Brown, Mathew; Guthrie, Patrick; Growden, Greg (2010). Rugby For Dummies. John Wiley and Sons.
- Biscombe, Tony; Drewett, Peter (2009). Rugby: Steps to Success. Human Kinetics.
- Bompa, Tudor; Claro, Frederick (2008). Periodization in Rugby. Meyer and Meyer Sport.
- Collins, Tony (2009). A Social History of English Rugby Union. Routledge.
- International Rugby Board (2011). Laws of the game: Rugby Union. International Rugby Board. ISBN 978-1-907506-09-3. http://www.irblaws.com/downloads/EN/IRB_Laws_2011_EN.pdf.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.