- Textile manufacturing terminology
The manufacture of
textiles is one of the oldest of human technologies. In order to make textiles, the first requirement is a source of fibre from which a yarncan be made, primarily by spinning. (Both fibre and fiber are used in this article.) The yarn is processed by knittingor weaving, which turns yarn into cloth. The machineused for weaving is the loom. For decoration, the process of colouring yarn or the finished material is dyeing. For more information of the various steps, see textile manufacturing.
;Absorbency:A measure of how much
watera fabric can absorb.
Acetateis a synthetic fiber.
Acrylic fiberis a synthetic polymer fiberthat contains at least 85% acrylonitrile.
Aida clothis a coarse open-weave fabric traditionally used for cross-stitch.
Alnageis the official supervision of the shape and quality of manufactured woolen cloth.
Alpacais a name given to two distinct things. It is primarily a term applied to the woolof the Peruvian alpaca. It is, however, more broadly applied to a style of fabric originally made from alpaca fiber but now frequently made from a similar type of fiber.
Angorarefers to the hair of either the Angora goat or the Angora rabbit, or the fabric made from Angora rabbit; see Angora wool. (Fabric made from angora goat is mohair.)
;Angora wool :
Angora woolis a generic term for either Mohairif the hair is from an Angora goator Angorafabric if the hair is from an Angora rabbit.
Appliqueis a technique in which pieces of fabric are sewn onto a foundation piece of fabric to create designs.
Aramid fiberis a fire-resistant and strong synthetic fiber
;Argyle:An argyle pattern is one containing diamonds in a sort of diagonal checkerboard pattern.
;Backstrap loom:Backstrap looms, as the name implies, are tied around the weaver's waist on one end and around a stationary object such as a tree, post, or door on the other. Tension can be adjusted simply by leaning back. Backstrap looms are very portable, since they can simply be rolled up and carried.
Baizeis a coarse woollenor cotton cloth, often coloured red or green.
Ballistic nylonis a thick, tough synthetic fabric used for a variety of applications.
Batikis an Indonesian traditional word and refers to a generic wax-resist dyeing technique used on fabric.
;Bedford-Cord:Combination of two kinds of Weave, Namely Plain and Drill.
;Bias:The bias direction of a piece of woven fabric, usually referred to simply as "the bias", is at 45 degrees to its warp and
weftthreads. Every piece of woven fabric has two biases, perpendicularto each other.
sewing, bindingis used as both a noun and a verb to refer to "finishing" a seam or hemof a garment, usually by rolling or pressing then stitching on an edging or trim.
Blendis a fabric or yarnmade up of more than one type of fiber.
Bobbin laceis a delicate lacethat uses wound spools of thread (the bobbins) to weave together the shapes in the lace.
Bobbinetis a tulle netting with hexagonal shaped holes, traditionally used as a base for embroidery and lingerie.
Bombazineis a fabric originally made of silkor silk and wool, and now also made of cottonand wool or of wool alone. It is twilled or corded and used for dress-material.
braidis to interweave or twine three or more separate strands of one or more materials in a diagonally overlapping pattern.
Broadcloth-material of superior quality.
Brocadeis the term for forming patterns in clothwith a supplementary weft.
Buckramis a stiff cloth, made of cottonor linen, which is used to cover, and protect, a book, and although is more expensive than its look-a-like, Brella, is stronger and resistant to cockroaches eating it. Buckram can also be used to stiffen clothes.
Burlapis a type of clothoften used for sacks.
;Calico:Calico is a type of fabric made from unbleached, and often not fully processed, cotton. Also referred to a type of Printing.
Cambricis a lightweight cottoncloth used as fabric for lace and needlework.
Camel's Hair is a natural fiberfrom the camel. Camel hair can produce a variety of different coarseness of yarn. This fiber is a novelty fiber spun by hand-spinners.
Canvasis an extremely heavy-duty fabric used for making sails, tents, marquees, and other functions where sturdiness is required. It is also popularly used on fashion handbags.
Canvas workis embroideryon canvas.
Cardingis the processing of brushing raw or washed fibers to prepare them as textiles.
carpet' is any loom-woven, felted textile or grass floor covering.
woolfrom the Cashmere goat.
Cellulose; this fiberprocessed to make cellophaneand rayon, and more recently Modal, a textilederived from beechwood cellulose.
Cheeseclothis a loosewoven cotton cloth, such as is used in pressing cheesecurds.
;Chiffon:Chiffon is a
sheerfabric made of silkor rayon.
Chino clothis a kind of twillfabric, usually made primarily from cotton.
Chintzis calico clothprinted with flowers and other devices in different colors. It was originally of Eastern manufacture.
Coiris a coarse fibre extracted from the fibrous outer shell of a coconut.
;Colorfast:A term used to describe whether the colors bleed or not in washing.
;Cord:Cord is twisted fibre, usually intermediate between
ropeand string. It is also used as a shortened form of corduroy.
Corduroyis a durable cloth.
Cottonis a soft fibrethat grows around the seeds of the cotton plant, a shrubnative to the tropical and subtropical regions of both the Old Worldand the New World. The fibre is most often spun into thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile.
Crepeis a silkfabric of a gauzy texture, having a peculiar crisp or crimpy appearance.
Crazy quiltingis often used to refer to the textile artof patchworkand is sometimes used interchangeably with that term.
Crinolinewas originally a stiff fabric with a weftof horse-hair and a warp of cottonor linenthread. The fabric first appeared around 1830.
Cross-stitchis a popular form of counted-thread embroideryin which X-shaped stitches are used to form a picture.
crochetdescribes the process of creating fabric from a length of cord, yarn, or thread with a hooked tool.
crochet hookis a type of needle, usually with a hook at one end, used to draw thread through knotted loops.
cro-hookis a special double-ended crochet hookused to make double-sided crochet. Because the hook has two ends, two colours of thread can be handled at once and freely interchanged.
Damaskis a fabric of silk, wool, linen, cotton, or synthetic fibers, with a pattern formed by weaving. Today, it generally denotes a linentexture richly figured in the weaving with flowers, fruit, forms of animal life, and other types of ornament.
darning mushroomis a tool which can be used for darning clothes, particularly socks. The sock can be stretched over the top of the (curved) mushroom, and gathered-tightly-around the stalk.
Denimdenotes a rugged cottontwill textile.
Dimityis a lightweight, sheer cottonfabric having at least two warp threads thrown into relief to form fine cords.
Dobby loomis a loomin which each harnesscan be manipulated individually. This is in contrast to a treadleloom, where the harnesses are attached to a number of different treadles depending on the weave structure.
Double weaveis a type of advanced weave. It is done by interlacing two or more sets of warps with two or more sets of filling yarns.
Dowlasis the name given to a plain cloth, similar to sheeting, but usually coarser.
durablea fabric or yarn is.
Dyeis used to color fabric. There are two main types: Natural dyes, and synthetic dyes. The process is called Dyeing.
Dye lotis a number that identifies yarns dyed in the same vat at the same time. Subtle differences can appear between different batches of the same color yarn from the same manufacturer.
Embroideryis an ancientvariety of decorative needleworkin which designs and pictures are created by stitching strands of some material on to a layer of another material. See also: Machine embroidery.
;Epinglé fabric:A type of velvet fabric woven on a
wire loomor épinglé loom. The épinglé velvet is specific by the fact that both loop pileand cut pilecan be integrated into the same fabric. The art of épinglé weaving in Europe originates from Lucca (Italy) and later Venice and Genua. Actually the term 'Genua velvet' is still in use. The Flemish region of Kortrijk and Waregem (Belgium) is the area where upon today the technique of épinglé weaving is still very actual. The fabric finds it application mostly in upholstery, although in medieval times is was used as apparel for princes and kings as well as for bishops, cardinals and the pope.
;Even-weave:Even-weave or evenweave fabric is used in
counted-thread embroideryand is characterized by Warp and weftthreads of the same size.
Grommets and eyelets are metal, plastic, or rubberrings that are inserted into a hole made through another material. They may be used to reinforce the hole, to shield something from the sharp edges of the hole, or both.
Feltis a non-woven cloththat is produced by matting, condensing and pressing fibers. The fibers form the structure of the fabric.
;Felting:The process of making
feltis called felting.
Fiberor fibre (see spelling differences) is a class of materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to pieces of thread. Fibers are often used in the manufacture of other materials. They can be spun into filaments, thread, or rope. They can be used as a component of composite materials. They can also be matted into sheets to make products such as paperor felt.
;Filament:A filament is a fine, thinly spun thread, fiber, or wire.
;Fishnet:Fishnet is a material with an open, diamond shaped knit.
Flannelis a cloththat is commonly used to make clothingand bedsheets. It is usually made from either wool, wool and cotton, or wool and synthetic fabric.
Flax fiberis soft, lustrous and flexible. It is stronger than cottonfiber but less elastic. The best grades are used for linen fabricssuch as damasks, laceand sheeting. Coarser grades are used for the manufacturing of twine and rope.
;Frieze:Frieze is a coarse woollen cloth with a nap on one side, that was raised by scrubbing it to raise curls of fibre (French: frisé). In the 19th century rough cheap frieze was made of wool mixed with shoddy (see Shoddy).
Fullingis a step in clothmaking which involves the cleansing of cloth (particularly wool) to get rid of oils, dirt, and other impurities.
Fustianis a term for a variety of heavy twilled woven cottonfabrics, chiefly prepared for menswear. Usually dyed in a dark shade. Declined in popularity from 1813, being replaced by harder wearing and better quality wool cloths.
Gabardineis a tough, tightly woven fabric often used to make suits, overcoats and trousers. The fibre used to make the fabric is traditionally worsted(a woolen yarn), but may also be cotton, synthetic or mixed. The fabric is smooth on one side and has a diagonally ribbed surface on the other.
;Gauge:A gauge is a set number of rows per inch (in
knitting) or the thread-countof a woven fabric that helps the knitter determine whether they have the right size knitting needlesor a weaver if the clothis tight enough.
;Gante:Gante is a
clothmade from cottonor tow warp and jute weft. It is largely used for bags for sugar and similar material, and has the appearance of a fine hessian cloth.
;Gauze:A very light, sheer, fine woven fabric.
;Genova velvet:A type of
velvetwhere in Jacquard patterns are woven into the ground fabric and where the pile is made of a combination of cut and uncut (loop) pile. This fabric is also known as Venetian velvet, or more generally, as épinglé velvet. In the actual terminology of furnishing fabrics it is mostly named with its French name " velours de Gênes".:This kind of fabric is made on a wire loomor épinglé loom.
geotextileis a synthetic permeable textile.
Ginghamis a fabric made from dyed cotton yarn.
Fiberglassis material made from extremely fine fibers of glass. It is widely used in the manufacture of insulation and textiles.
;Gossamer:A gossamer is a very light, sheer,
gauze-like fabric, popular for white weddingdresses and decorations.
Grogramis a coarse fabric of silkmixed with woolor with mohairand often stiffened with gum.
hema piece of cloth (in sewing), a garment worker folds up a cut edge, folds it up again, and then sews it down. The process of hemming thus completely encloses the cut edge in cloth, so that it cannot ravel.:A hem is also the edge of cloth hemmed in this manner.
;Hemp:The main uses of
hempfibre are rope, sacking, carpet, nets and webbing. Hemp is also being used in increasing quantities in papermanufacturing. The cellulosecontent is about 70%.
;Huckaback:Huckaback is a type of coarse absorbent
cottonor linenfabric used for making towels.
Ikatis a style of weavingthat uses a tie-dyeprocess on either the warp or weftbefore the threads are woven to create a pattern or design. A Double Ikat is when both the warp "and" the weft are tie-dyed before weaving.
;Intarsia : Intarsia is a
knittingtechnique used to create patterns with multiple colours.
Interfacingis a common term for a variety of materialsused on the unseen or "wrong" side of fabricsin sewing.
Jacquard loomwas the first machine to use punch cards. It uses punched cards to control the patternbeing woven. It is a form of dobby loom, where individual harnesses can be raised and lowered independently.
Jamdaniis a kind of fine clothmade in Bangladesh.
Juteis a long, soft, shiny plant fibrethat can be spun into coarse, strong threads.
:Jute is one of the cheapest natural fibres, and is second only to cotton in amount produced and variety of uses. Jute fibres are composed primarily of the plant materials
;Knit fabrics:Knit fabrics are fabrics that were produced through the process of
;Knitting needle gauge:A
knitting needlegauge makes is used to determine the size of a knitting needle. Some also double for crochet hooks. Most needles come with the size written on the needle, but many needles (like double-pointed needles) tend to not be labeled. Also, with wear and time the label often wears off.
:Needle gauges can be made of any material, and are often made for metal and plastic. They tend to be about 3 by 5 inches. They contain holes of various sizes, and often have a ruler along the edge for determining the gauge of a sample.
Lace-makingis an ancient craft. A lace fabric is lightweight openwork fabric, patterned, either by machine or by hand, with open holes in the work. The holes can be formed via removal of threads or cloth from a previously woven fabric, but more often lace is built up from a single thread and the open spaces are created as part of the lace fabric.
Laméis a type of brocaded clothingfabric with inwoven metal threads, typically of goldor silver, giving it a metallic sheen.
;Lawn:Lawn is a fine
Linenis a material made from the fibers of the flaxplant. Linen produced in Ireland is called Irish linen. Linensare fabric household goods, such as pillowcases and towels.
Lodenis water-resistant material for clothing made from sheep wool.
Loomis a machineused for weavingfabric.
Lucetis a method of cordmaking or braiding which is believed to date back to the Vikingera. Lucet cord is square, strong, and slightly springy. It closely resembles knitted I-cord or the cord produced on a knitting spool. Lucet cord is formed by a series of loops, and will therefore unravel if cut.
Macrameor macramé is a form of textile-making using knotting rather than weavingor knitting. Its primary knots are the square knotand forms of hitching ( full hitchand double half hitches).
;Mercerized cotton:Mercerization is a treatment for
cottonfabric and thread mostly employed to give cotton a lustrous appearance.
Merinois the Spanish name for a breed of sheep, and hence applied to a woolen fabric.
meshis similar to fabric or a web in that it has many connected or weaved pieces. In clothing, a mesh is often defined as fabric that has a large number of closely-spaced holes, such as is common practice for modern sports jerseys.
Metallic fibers are fibers used in textileswhich are either composed of metal, or fibers of other materials with a metal coating.
:Their uses include decoration and the reduction of
Microfibreis a term for fibres with strands thinner than one denier. Fabrics made with microfibres are exceptionally soft and hold their shape well.
Millineryis women's hats and other articles sold by a milliner, or the profession or business of designing, making, or selling hats for women.
Mohairis a silk-like fabric made from the hairof the Angora goat. It is durable, light and warm, although some people find it uncomfortably itchy.
;Mungo:Fibrous woollen material generated from waste fabric, particularly tightly woven
cloths and rags. See also: shoddy.
Muslinis a type of finely-woven cottonfabric, introduced to Europefrom the Middle Eastin the 17th century. It was named for the city where it was first made, Mosulin what is now Iraq.
Nainsookis a fine, soft muslinfabric, often to used to make babies clothing.
;Nap:Nap is a term for the raised surface of certain
cloth, such as flannel.
Needlepointis a form of canvas workcreated on a mesh canvas. The stitching threads used may be wool, silk, or rarely cotton. Stitches may be plain, covering just one mesh intersection with a single orientation, or fancy, such as Bargello. Plain stitches, known as Tent stitches, may be worked as basketweave or half cross.
Needleworkis another term for the handicraftof decorative sewingand textile arts. Anything that uses a needle for construction can be called needlework.
;Net:Net is a device made by fibers woven in a
grid-like structure, as in fishing net, a soccergoal, a butterfly net, or the court divider in tennis
Non-woven textilesare those which are neither woven nor knit, for example felt. Non-wovens are typically not strong (unless reinforced by a backing), and do not stretch. They are cheap to manufacture.
Nylonis a synthetic polymer, a plastic. Nylon fibres are used to make many synthetic fabrics and women's stockings.
;Oilcloth:Oilcloth was, traditionally, heavy cotton or linen
clothwith a linseed oil coating: it was semi-water-proof. The most familiar use was for brightly printed kitchen tablecloths. Dull colored oilcloth was used for bedrolls, sou'westers, and tents. By the late 1950's, oilcloth became a synonym for vinyl (polyvinyl chloride) bonded to a flanneled cloth.
;Paisley:Paisley is a droplet-shaped vegetal motif, similar to half of the T'ai Chi symbol, the
Indian bodhi tree leaf, or the mango tree. The design originated in Indiaand spread to Scotlandwhen British soldiers brought home cashmere shawls.
Patchworkis a form of needleworkor craft that involves sewing together small pieces of fabric and stitching them together into a larger design, which is then usually quilted, or else tied together with pieces of yarn at regular intervals, a practice known as tying. Patchwork is traditionally 'pieced' by hand, but modern quiltmakers often use a sewingmachine instead.
Percalerefers to a closely woven, high thread count, cottonfabric often used for sheets and clothing.
Persian weaveis a method of weaveused in jewelryand other art forms.
Plaidis a Scots languageword meaning "blanket", usually referring to patterned woollen cloth
yarnis yarn that has been plied, with the process called plying.
Plushis a fabric having a cut nap or pile the same as fustianor velvet.
Polyesteris a synthetic fiber
Poplinis a heavy, durable fabric that has a ribbed appearance. It is made with wool, cotton, silk, rayon, or any mixture of these. The ribs run across the fabric from selvage to selvage. They are formed by using coarse filling yarns in a plain weave.
;Purl stitch:a commonly used stitch in
Qalamkariis a type of hand-painted or block-printed textile, produced in various places in India.
Qiviutis the woolof the musk ox.
Quiltingis a method of sewing or tying two layers of cloth with a layer of insulating batting in between. A bed covering or similar large rectangular piece of quilting work is called a quilt.
Rayonis a transparent fibre made of processed cellulose. Cellulose fibres from woodor cottonare dissolved in alkalito make a solution called viscose, which is then extruded through a nozzle, or spinneret, into an acidbath to reconvert the viscose into cellulose. A similar process, using a slit instead of a hole, is used to make cellophane.
rolagis a loose woolen roll of fibers that results from using handcards.
rovingis a long rope of fibers where all of the fibers are going parallel to the roving.
rugis a form of carpet. It is usually smaller than a carpet. See also: rug making
Sateenis a fabric formed with a satin weave where the floats are perpendicular to the selvage of the goods.
Satinis a cloththat typically has a glossy surface and a dull back. It is formed by a sequence of broken twill floats in either the warp or weft system, which respectively identify the goods as either a satin or a sateen.
;Satin weave:A satin is a broken
twill weavingtechnique that forms floats on one side of the fabric. If a satin is woven with the floats parallel to the selvedge of the goods, the corresponding fabric is termed a "satin." If the floats are perpendicular to the selvedge of the goods, the fabric is termed a 'sateen.'"
seam, in sewing, is the line where two pieces of fabric are held together by thread.
seam ripperis a small toolused for unpicking stitches.
;Selvage or Selvedge:The woven edge portion of a fabric parallel to the warp is called
Sergeis a type of twillfabric that has diagonal lines or ridges on both sides, made with a two-up, two-down weave. The worstedvariety is used in making military uniforms, suits, great and trench coats. Its counterpart, silkserge, is used for linings. French serge is a softer, finer variety. The word is also used for a high quality woolen woven.
Sergingis a sewingterm, the binding off of an edge of cloth.
Sewingis an ancient craft involving the stitching of cloth, leather, animal skins, furs, or other materials, using needle and thread. Its use is nearly universal among human populations and dates back to Paleolithictimes (30,000 BC). Sewing predates the weaving of cloth.
Shag (fabric)is typically used to make a deep-pile carpets. This is the oldest use of the term. Shag carpet is sometimes evoked as an example of the aesthetic from the culture of the U.S. 1970s. Also used to make carpets for mariners.
weaving, the shed is the gap between yarns on a loom when one or more, but not all, of the harnesses are raised.
Sheeris a semi-transparent and flimsy cloth.
;Shoddy:Recycled or remanufactured
woolwhich is of inferior quality compared to the original wool. Historically generated from loosely woven materials. Benjamin Lawinvented shoddyand mungo, as such, in 1813. He was the first to organise, on a larger scale, the activity of taking old clothes and grinding them down into a fibrous state that could be re-spun into yarn. The shoddy industry was centred on the towns of Batley, Morley, Dewsburyand Ossettin West Yorkshire, and concentrated on the recovery of wool from rags. The importance of the industry can be gauged by the fact that even in 1860 the town of [Batley] was producing over 7000 tonnes of shoddy. At the time there were 80 firms employing a total of 550 people sorting the rags. These were then sold to shoddy manufacturers of which there were about 130 in the West Riding.
;ShotThe opal effect achieved on a fabric by dyeing the warp and weft threads different colours. The yarns are dyed first and then woven. When looking at the fabric from various angles it appears to alter in colour, this is more obvious in lustrous fabrics and more so in certain types of weaves.
;Shuttle:A shuttle in
weavingis a device used with a loomthat is thrown or passed back and forth between the threads of the warp in order to weave in the weft.
Silkis a natural protein fiberthat can be woven into textiles. It is obtained from the cocoon of the silkworm larva, in the process known as " sericulture", which kills the larvae. The shimmering appearance for which it is prized comes from the fibres triangular prism-like structure, which allows silk cloth to refract incoming light at different angles.
Sisalor sisal hemp is an agave"Agave sisalana" that yields a stiff fiberused in making rope. (The term may refer either to the plant or the fiber, depending on context.) It is not really a variety of hemp, but named so because hemp was for centuries a major source for fiber, so other fibers were sometimes named after it.
Spandexor elastane is a synthetic fiberknown for its exceptional elasticity (stretchability). It is stronger and more durable than rubber, its major plantcompetitor. It was invented in 1959 by DuPont, and when first introduced it revolutionized many areas of the clothing industry.
;Spinning:Spinning is the process of creating
yarn(or thread, rope, cable) from various raw fiber materials.
;Staple:Staple is the raw material, or its length and quality, of
fiberfrom which textilesare made.
;Stuff:Stuff is a course cloth, sometimes made with a
linenwarp and worsted weft.
;Super:The Super grading system is used to grade the quality of wool fabric. The higher the number, the more yarn is packed in per square inch, therefore all things being equal a super 120’s yarn is better than super 100’s.
Tablet weavingis a process of weavingwhere tablets, also called 'cards', are used to create the shed the weftis passed through. It is generally used to make narrow worksuch as belts or straps.
Tactelis the brandname of a man-made fibre made from nylon.
Taffetais a type of fabric, often used for fancy dresses.
Tapestryis a form of textile art. It is woven by hand on a weaving- loom. The chain thread is the carrier in which the coloured striking thread is woven. In this way, a colourful pattern or image is created. Most weavers use a naturally based chain thread made out of linenor wool. The striking threads can be made out of silk, wool, goldor silver, but can also be made out of any form of textile.
;Tarlatan:Tarlatan is a
starched, open-weave fabric, much like cheese cloth. It is used to wipe the inkoff a plate during the intaglio inking process. The open weave allows for the tarlatan to pick up a large quantity of ink. The stiffness imparted by the starch helps prevent the fabric from taking the ink out of the incised lines.
tasselis a ball-shaped bunch of plaited or otherwise entangled threads from which at one end protrudes a cordon which the tassel is hung, and which may have loose, dangling threads at the other end.
Tattingis a technique for handcrafting lacethat can be documented approximately to the early 19th century.
;Terry cloth:Terry cloth is a type of
clothwith loops sticking out. Most bath towelsare examples of Terry cloth.
thimbleis a protective shield worn on the finger or thumb.
;Threads per inch (TPI):Threads per inch is the measurement of the number of threads per inch of material, such as fabric, or metal in the case of screws and bolts.
;Tissue:Tissue is a fine woven fabric or
;Trim:Trim or trimming in
clothingand home decoratingis applied ornament such as gimp, passementerie, ribbon, ruffles, or, as a verb, to apply such ornament.
;Tulle:Tulle is a netting, which is often starched, made of various fibers, including
silk, nylon, and rayon, that is most commonly used for veils, gowns (particularly wedding gowns) and ballet tutus.
Tweedis a type of fabric using the twillweave.
Twill tapeis a flat twill-woven ribbonof cotton, linen, polyester, or wool.
Twillis a type of fabric woven with a pattern of diagonal parallel ribs. It is made by passing the weftthreads over one warp thread and then under two or more warp threads. Examples of twill fabric are gabardine, tweedand serge.
Velouris a textile, a knitted counterpart of velvet.
:It combines the stretchy properties of
knitssuch as spandexwith the rich appearance and feel of velvet.
Velvetis a type of tuftedfabric in which the cut threads are very evenly distributed, with a short dense pile, giving it its distinct feel. Velvet can be made from any fiber. It is woven on a special loomthat weaves two piece of velvet at the same time. The two pieces are then cut apart and the two lengths of fabric are wound on separate take-up rolls.
Velveteenis a cottoncloth made in imitation of velvet. The term is sometimes applied to a mixture of silkand cotton. Some velveteens are a kind of fustian, having a rib of velvet pile alternating with a plain depression. The velveteen, trade varies a good deal with the fashions that control the production of velvet.
;Warp:The warp is the set of lengthwise threads attached to a loom before weaving begins, and through which the weft is woven.
Knitfabric in which intermeshing loops are positioned in a lengthwise, or warp, direction. The fabric has a flatter, closer, less elastic structure than most weft knits and is run-resistant.
Weavingis an ancient textileart and craft that involves placing two sets of threads or yarnmade of fibrecalled the warp and weftof the loomand turning them into cloth. This cloth can be plain (in one color or a simple pattern), or it can be woven in decorative or artistic designs, including tapestries.
weftis the yarn that is woven back and forth through the warp to make cloth.
;Wilton Carpet: Wilton carpet is produced on a specific type of weaving machine called
wire loom. Wilton carpets are pile carpets whereby the pile is formed by inserting steel rods in the pile warps of the fabric. After extraction of the rods the pile is looped (in case straight wires have been used) or cut (in case cutting wires are used). Wilton carpet is generally considered as high quality and is used for heavy duty applications.
;Wire loom, :
Weavingmachine for pile fabrics or velvets whereby the pile is made by weaving steel rods or wires into the fabrics. When the wires are extracted the warp ends that have been woven over the wires remain as loops on top of the fabric or will form cut pile if the wire is equipped with a cutting blade. This technique is also know as "épinglé weaving". A wire loom in a much wider version (up to 5 meters of width) and in heavier construction is used for the manufacturing of carpets is called a "WILTON" loom, and the carpets made on such a loom are known as " Wilton Carpets"
woofis the same thing as the weft.
Woolis the fiber derived from the hairof domesticated animals, usually sheep.
Woolenis the name of a yarnand clothusually made from wool.
Worstedis the name of a yarnand clothusually made from wool. The yarn is well twisted and spun of long staple wool (though nowadays also medium and short fibres are used). The wool is combed so that the fibres lie parallel.
wovenis a clothformed by weaving. It only stretches in the bias directions (between the warp and weftdirections), unless the threads are elastic. Woven cloth usually frays at the edges, unless measures are taken to counter this, such as the use of pinking shearsor hemming.
Yarnis a long continuous length of interlocked fibers, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weavingand ropemaking. Yarn can be made from any number of synthetic or natural fibers.
Zibelineis a thick, soft fabric with a long nap.
* [http://www.isbona.com/vol5no1win01b.html Spinning techniques and textile terminology]
* [http://www.carrscorner.com/yabbse/membertools/glossary.php Carr's Corner Glossary]
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