- Houghton, Michigan
official_name = Houghton
nickname = Hoton
seal_size = 150px
mapsize = 250x200px
map_caption = Location of Houghton, Michigan
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_type1 = State
subdivision_type2 = County
subdivision_name2 = Houghton
unit_pref = Imperial
area_total_km2 = 11.8
area_land_km2 = 11.2
area_water_km2 = 0.6
area_total_sq_mi = 4.6
area_land_sq_mi = 4.3
area_water_sq_mi = 0.3
area_water_percent = 5.48
population_as_of = 2000
population_total = 7010
population_density_km2 = 627.6
population_density_sq_mi = 1625.5
timezone = Eastern (EST)
utc_offset = -5
timezone_DST = EDT
utc_offset_DST = -4
latd = 47 |latm = 7 |lats = 2 |latNS = N
longd = 88 |longm = 33 |longs = 45 |longEW = W
elevation_m = 196
elevation_ft = 643
postal_code_type = ZIP code
postal_code = 49931
area_code = 906
blank_name = FIPS code
blank_info = 26-39360GR|2
blank1_name = GNIS feature ID
blank1_info = 0628661GR|3
footnotes = Houghton is a
cityin the U.S. stateof Michigan's Upper Peninsulaand largest city in the Copper Countryon the Keweenaw Peninsula. As of the 2000 census, the city population was 7,010. It is the county seatof Houghton CountyGR|6. It has been listed as one of the "100 Best Small Towns in America." [http://books.google.com/books?vid=08Ecwzx6-TTN6uYqkb&id=4rkYAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA180&lpg=PA180&dq=Houghton,+Michigan]
Houghton is sometimes confused with, or thought to be close to, Houghton Lake; the latter is actually located in the state's Lower Peninsula. Due to its location in the northwestern portion of the Upper Peninsula, Houghton is isolated from the state's most populous areas. It is farther to travel from Houghton to
Detroitthan it is from Detroit to Washington, DC, or Louisville, Kentucky. [cite book|first=Willard Michael James|last=Baird|title=This Is Our Michigan|publisher=Federated Publications|year=1959|page=2]
Houghton was named after Houghton County, which was named after
Douglass Houghton. [cite web|title=Houghton, Michigan 49931: InfoMI.com|url=http://www.infomi.com/city/houghton/|accessdate=2007-10-02]
The area lends itself to a wide variety of outdoor sports, both winter (
ice hockey, Nordic and Alpine skiing, figure skating, and snowmobiling) and summer (trail running, hiking, camping, kayaking, sailing, windsurfing and road and mountain biking).
Despite the common belief that Douglass Houghton was the discoverer of
copperin the area, Native Americans had mined copper [cite book |first=Katerine Bishop |last=Eckert |title=Buildings of Michigan (Society of Architectural Historians) |publisher=Oxford University Press, USA |pages=461 |id=ISBN 0195093798 |year=Reprint Edition 1995] in and around what would later be Houghton [cite book
title=The Mystic Symbol: Mark of the Michigan Mound Builders
year=2004] thousands of years before European settlement. "French explorers had noted... [its] existence [in the area] as early as the seventeenth century, [and in] 1772 Alexander Henry had prospected for copper on the
Ontonagon Rivernear Victoria." [cite book |first=Katerine Bishop |last=Eckert |title=Buildings of Michigan (Society of Architectural Historians) |publisher=Oxford University Press, USA |pages=461 |id=ISBN 0195093798 |year=Reprint Edition 1995] When Horace Greeleysaid, "Go West, young man" he was referring to the copper rush in "Michigan's western Upper Peninsula." [cite book
title=Houghton County 1870-1920 (MI) (Images of America)
year = 2006] Fact|date = July 2008 Many Cornish and Finnish immigrants arrived in the Houghton area to work in the copper mines; both groups have had a great influence on the culture and cuisine of the local area. Smaller numbers of
French-Canadianimmigrants moved to Houghton, while more of them settled elsewhere in Houghton County. [http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://habitant.org/images/stignatius.jpg&imgrefurl=http://habitant.org/houghton/fcgenealogy.htm&h=287&w=320&sz=29&hl=en&start=33&um=1&tbnid=ibPawlbIEskUcM:&tbnh=106&tbnw=118&prev=/images%3Fq%3DHoughton%2BMI%26start%3D20%26ndsp%3D20%26svnum%3D10%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN]
The last nearby mines closed in the late 1960s, but a school founded in 1885 by the
Michigan State Legislatureto teach metallurgy and mining engineering, the Michigan College of Mines, continues today under the name of Michigan Technological Universityand is the primary employer in the city. MTU has a reputation for being a good value in education and attracting engineering and science students who like the outdoors.
The first known European settler of Houghton was named
Ransom Sheldon, who set up a store named Ransom's near Portage Lake, [Taylor p. 11] though it is unclear whether this was in the same building as the 1852 Shelden and Shafer drugs, sometimes described as "the first commercial building constructed in Houghton," which Sheldon owned with his son Ransom B. [Taylor p. 40] The main street of Houghton, variously called "Sheldon Avenue," Sheldon Street and Shelden Avenue, is named for him. In the 1970s the construction of a parking deck and the connection of downtown stores [Eckert p. 409] to create Sheldon Centersignificantly changed the downtown.
William W. Henderson was appointed the first postmaster of Houghton in 1852.
Houghton gained in importance as a port with the opening of the
Keweenaw Waterwayin 1873; [Eckert p. 461] the waterway being the cumulative dredging and extension of the Portage Lake, Portage Shipping Canal and Lily Pond so as to isolate the northern part of the Keweenaw Peninsula into Copper Island.
Ernest F. Pletschkeplatted Houghton, which was incorporated as a village by Sheldon, C [hristopher] C [olumbus] Douglass and Capt. Richard Edwards three years later. [Taylor p. 39] In Houghton's first days it was said that "only thieves, crooks, murderers and Indians" lived there. The postwar boom and increasing demand for copper wiring fueled the development of Houghton in the 1860s and 1870s. [Taylor p. 39]
By 1880 Houghton had become "a burgeoning city" [Taylor p. 43] and in 1883, the
railroadwas extended from Marquette.
1909 saw the founding of what would later become
Portage Lake District Library.
During the bitter
Copper Country Strike of 1913-1914, the Michigan National Guardwas called in after the sheriff petitioned the governor.
Houghton was the birthplace of professional ice hockey in the United States when the Portage Lakers were formed in 1903. Houghton is the home of the Portage Lake Pioneers Senior Hockey Team. The team's home ice is
Dee Stadium, named after James R. Dee. Dee Stadium was originally called the Amphidrome, before it was severely damaged in a 1927 fire. (The stadiumalso contains a skateparkfor skateboarding.)
In the winter of 2001, Houghton was the site of one of the first
lumitalos (Finnish temporary snow houses) to be constructed in the United States.
October 28, 2002, the first day of issue ceremony was held in Houghton for the " snowmanstamps" issued by the United States Postal Service. [cite web|title=United States Postal Service Press Release: "Four Whimsical Snowmen Figurines Featured On U.S. Postage Stamps"|url=http://www.usps.com/news/2002/philatelic/sr02_080.htm|accessdate=2007-09-26]
One of the 2006 United States Postal Service snowflake stamps ("photographed in Houghton by
Cal Tech physicist Kenneth Libbrechtusing a digital cameraand special microscope") was unveiled in Houghton. [cite news
last = Schneider
first = Dan
title = Houghton puts its stamp on America
work = The
[Houghton, Michigan]Daily Mining Gazette
pages = 1, 10
date=February 12, 2007
accessdate = ]
pictorial postmarkcommemorating Winter Carnival2007, "Ancient Worlds Come to Play in Snowy Drifts of Modern Day," was applied at the Winter Carnival temporary station in Michigan Technological University's Memorial Union Building, February 10, 2007 (see below).
The city is located on the south shore of Portage Lake, primarily "on rolling wooded hills" [cite book
title=Some Copper Country Names and Places: fifth of a local history series
publisher=Welden H. Curtin, Lake Linden, Michigan USA
year = 1975] "less than a mile" across Portage Lake." [cite book
title=Some Copper Country Names and Places: fifth of a local history series
publisher=Welden H. Curtin, Lake Linden, Michigan USA
year = 1975] from Hancock. The city is bounded on the east by Portage Township, on the west by Dakota Heights and on the south by Hurontown, both unincorporated communities that are part of Portage Township; and also on the west by Adams Township. Houghton is named after
Douglass Houghton, discoverer of coppernearby. Houghton is also the home of Michigan Technological University. The city is served by Houghton County Memorial Airport.
According to the
United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.6 square miles (11.8 km²), of which, 4.3 square miles (11.2 km²) of it is land and 0.2 square miles (0.6 km²) of it (5.48%) is water.
West Houghtonneighbourhood is West Houghton Park, containing an outdoor ice rink and lawn tennis courts. Along Portage Lake is the Raymond Kestner Waterfront Recreation Area, the principal feature of which is a large " Chutes and Ladders" playground; it also includes Houghton Beach. Along the waterfront, in the area that used to be occupied by the railroad tracks, runs the "flat, paved" [http://www.keweenawnow.com/happenings/art_music_festival_05_05/festival_may_05.htm] Waterfront Trailfor bikers and pedestrians; at one end of this is the Houghton RV Park, [cite web
url = http://www.cityofhoughton.com/rec-rv.php
title = RV Park - City of Houghton
quote = ] at the other end the Nara Nature Park and midway along this corridor is "
Mattila Square," [http://www.keweenawnow.com/happenings/art_music_festival_05_05/festival_may_05.htm] which is really nothing more than a parking lot. Prince's Point Beach is also along this trail. [http://usg.students.mtu.edu/usg/index.php?curpage=116] Veterans Park is just across the Portage Lake Lift Bridgefrom Hancock, and contains the memorial to the Houghton Company, which fought in the Civil War. Houghton is the headquarters for Isle Royale National Park.
The Portage Lift Bridge [ http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/be/Portagelakeliftbridge.jpg] crosses
Portage Lake, connecting Hancock and Houghton, Michigan, by crossing over Portage Lake, which is part of the river and canal system that crosses the entire peninsula. The Portage Lift Bridge is the world's heaviest and widest double-decked vertical lift bridge. Its center span "lifts" to provide convert|100|ft|m of clearance for ships. Since rail traffic was discontinued in the Keweenaw, the lower deck is used to accommodate snowmobiletraffic in the winter. This is the only land based link between the north and south section of the Keweenaw peninsula, and is crucial. [ [http://www.keweenaw.info/virtualkeweenaw.aspx Virtual Keweenaw Peninsula.] ]
Houghton has a
humid continental climatebut the (typically) long and snowy (due to lake-effect snow, with an average of 208 inches) [cite web|title=City of Houghton|url=http://www.cityofhoughton.com] winters occasion much humor. It is sometimes said that Houghton has "two seasons: winter's here and winter's coming." [cite book
title=Hockey: A People's History
publisher=McClelland & Stewart Ltd.
year = 2006]
While Houghton's winters may be the subject of humor, residents take the subject of snow and winter very seriously. Houghton is one of the premier "Winter Cities" found anywhere. A "
Winter City" is a community that accommodates winter, celebrates it, and whose residents generally enjoy the season by participating in a variety of outdoor activities. Among those activities are cross country skiing, snow-shoeing, ice fishing, snowmobiling, ice skating and outdoor hockey, among other activities.
Houghton's summer climate tends to be especially pleasant, as hot temperatures are often moderated by the cool waters of the nearby Lake Superior.
People and Culture
Every summer, the city of Houghton hosts a festival known as "Bridgefest," to commemorate the building of the
Portage Lake Lift Bridge; this is often held in conjunction with "Seafoodfest." [http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.flatbrokebluesband.com/photos/BFWALT.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.flatbrokebluesband.com/photos.php&h=383&w=640&sz=138&hl=en&start=111&um=1&tbnid=zwZV_NrIDRROJM:&tbnh=82&tbnw=137&prev=/images%3Fq%3DHoughton%2BMI%26start%3D100%26ndsp%3D20%26svnum%3D10%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN] Every fall, the Parade of Nations takes place in downtown Houghton to commemorate the ethnic diversity of Michigan Technological University. "Strawberry Fest" is held every summer, which not only the celebrates the fruit, but also includes an art market with paintings, photos, sculptures, and crafts.
The city houses two museums. The Carnegie Museum, located in the former Portage Lake District Library building, contains photographs from the Raffaelli Historical Photo Collection [http://www.cityofhoughton.com/documents/09-27-2006.pdf] and other artifacts on the history of the local area, as well as a mural depicting the history of Houghton, Ontonagon, Baraga and Keweenaw Counties [Gahagan, Kayla, "Mural in Motion," "The" [Houghton, Michigan] "Daily Mining Gazette," p.1] and exhibits of artwork. The
Seaman Mineral Museum, state mineral museum of Michigan, is located on the campus of Michigan Technological University.
Houghton is often the host of winter sporting events, due to its long winters and many ski hills. The 2006
Cross Country SkiingJunior Olympics took place in Houghton. [citeweb|url=http://www.2006juniorolympics.org/|title=2006 Junior Olympics site] The US National Championships for Nordic Skiingtook place in Houghton in January 2007. [citeweb|url=http://www.seniornationals.org/|title=Senior Nationals site] In addition, the International FrisbeeTournament (IFT) takes place every year in Houghton and the roll-out of the distance events of the Keweenaw Chain Drive bike races of Houghton and Hancock takes place in downtown Houghton. [citeweb|url=http://www.chaindrive.org/2007/events.htm|title=Chain Drive site] .
Other winter events focus around
Michigan Technological University. Michigan Tech hosts a yearly Winter Carnival in which thousands of visitors come to see snow sculptures built by members of fraternities, sororities, [cite book
first = Pam
last2 = Sisskind
first2 = Mitch
title = The Extra Mile: One Woman's Personal Journey to Ultra-Running Greatness
place= New York
publisher = Rodale, Inc.
year = 2006
isbn = 978-1594864155] other student organizations, [cite book
first = Ander
title = Neck Deep and Other Predicaments: Essays
place= New York
year = 2006
location = p.13
isbn = 978-1555974596] as well as a few community groups, and participate in the week-long celebration. Students at the university also receive several days of vacation for Carnival. As part of Winter Carnival 2006, the city of Houghton and the university broke three world records: the largest
snowball, the largest snowball fight, and the largest number of people making snow angels in one place. They currently still hold two of these records: largest snowball and largest snowball fight. [http://www.usatoday.com/weather/news/2007-03-28-snow-angel-record_N.htm accessed on August 25, 2007.]
The Daily Mining Gazette" (formerly "The Mining Gazette") [cite web|title=Mining Gazette|url=http://history.cityofhoughton.com/history/Displays/Indust/industpop_gazette1.html|accessdate=2007-10-03] is a daily newspaper published in Houghton.
The town is sometimes referred to by locals as "Hoton" or "Ho-town." "Hoton" is even stenciled on city property. Since Houghton and Hancock are very near each other, their combined area is often referred to as "Houghton-Hancock," though the towns are often fierce [Taylor p. 54] rivals, something particularly manifested by the sports rivalry between
Houghton High Schooland Hancock Central.
Tourism is a major industry in Houghton. Summer tourism is very popular, especially among those wishing to tour old mines, visit various historical sites, and camp. Winter tourism is also very active from November through April, for snowmobiling, skiing and other winter sports.
As of the
censusGR|2 of 2000, there were 7,010 people, 2,114 households, and 877 families residing in the city. The population densitywas 1,625.5 per square mile (628.0/km²). There were 2,222 housing units at an average density of 515.2/sq mi (199.1/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 89.24% White, 1.87% Black or African American, 0.40% Native American, 6.79% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.24% from other races, and 1.44% from two or more races. 0.77% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 16.4% were of German, 12.7% Finnish, 8.2% Irish, 8.0% English, 6.0% Polish and 5.1% Italian ancestry according to Census 2000. 94.8% spoke English, 1.8% Spanish and 1.2% Chinese as their first language.
There were 2,114 households out of which 21.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.6% were married couples living together, 7.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 58.5% were non-families. 35.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.94. Note that the
United States Census Bureaudoes not consider people living in communal arrangements, such as university dormitories, to be part of a household; this is relevant in a community with a large student presence such as Houghton.
The age distribution was 12.0% under the age of 18, 55.2% from 18 to 24, 15.3% from 25 to 44, 10.3% from 45 to 64, and 7.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 22 years. For every 100 females there were 160.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 173.2 males. The unusual age and sex distribution can be explained by the presence of Michigan Tech, a university focused strongly on the traditionally male-dominated field of engineering.
The median income for a household in the city was $21,186, and the median income for a family was $41,779. Males had a median income of $36,161 versus $28,639 for females. The
per capita incomefor the city was $11,750. About 20.3% of families and 36.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.9% of those under age 18 and 18.2% of those age 65 or over.
The local school district is
Houghton-Portage Township Schools. Students K-12 are served by Houghton Elementary (K-5), Middle (6-8), and High (9-12) [http://www.houghton.k12.mi.us Schools] . Houghton is also the home of Michigan Technological University.
Houghton Motor Transit operates both a demand bus and a route bus throughout Houghton and in nearby parts of Portage Township; there are also night trips to
Mont Ripleyin Ripley. [http://www.cityofhoughton.com/citytransit.html]
Houghton is the port of departure for
Isle Royale National Park. [cite book
publisher=Graphic Arts Center Publishing Company
year = 1994] Cruise ships on the great lakes formerly (in the 1950s) used to frequently stop in Houghton, but this is now an exceedingly rare occurrence.
Houghton was formerly served by airship. [http://digarch.lib.mtu.edu/showbib.aspx?bib_id=603832#] A
seaplanedeparts from Houghton to Isle Royale National Park.
Snowmobiling is a major winter activity in the area, both locally (snowmobiles are often the best available means of transportation after a blizzard) and as a tourist industry. The Bill Nichols Snowmobile Trail has a terminus in Houghton. [citeweb|url=http://www.exploringthenorth.com/keweenaw/billnichols.html|title=Exploring the North article on Bill Nichols Snowmobile Trail]
Power for Houghton is provided by the
Upper Peninsula Power Company.
Houghton is generally said to be divided into East Houghton, the Central Houghton area (which includes the
downtown) and West Houghton.
*East Houghton runs from Franklin Square to the eastern city limits. A principal street is College Avenue, characterised by Colonial Revival [Eckert p. 409] homes, which formerly ran from urbanised Houghton "farms, villas and mining operations... and the Michigan School of Mines, now Michigan Technological University;" [Eckert p. 411] today the main campus of MTU has taken over much of the College Avenue area and some of East Houghton generally, [Eckert p. 411] though it remains a primarily residential neighbourhood. (However, this has changed somewhat with construction of the Pearl Street Mall. The Chassell Sands, which are usually considered apart from it, are partially zoned "Industrial."  ) It is home to East Houghton Park. The park was established in 1974 and contains
tenniscourts and playgroundequipment. The Chassell sands may be technically said to be part of this neighbourhood, but are usually considered as apart from it, as is Minoru-Yamasaki-designed Daniell Heights, married-student housing at Tech. [Eckert p. 468]
*Central Houghton is a relatively urbanized area of the town, generally considered as being roughly between Franklin Square and the Portage Lake Lift Bridge. The "heart of Houghton's commercial district" is characterised by
sandstone[Eckert p. 409] (frequently mined from Jacobsville or Portage Entry) buildings with the frequent "classical detail"; [Eckert p.409] it is centered on Shelden Avenue, the downtown lying in Central Houghton between Montezuma Avenue and Lake Street/Brew Alley/Lakeshore Drive, which are generally considered one continuous street. Recently as 2003 the Houghton area has also brought a micro brew and brewpub, Keweenaw Brewing Company, great for all and also a great place to enjoy they atmosphere of the Keweenaw and a freshly brewed pint. South of this area are a series of streets with small wooden houses, primarily from mining days, rising over the arc of the hills that the city is built upon. Northward is the waterfront, which has several dockyards, and older buildings alongside it.
*West Houghton is the site of more recent construction compared to the other two neighborhoods. Therefore the area has a more modern,
suburbanfeel to it than the other areas. This includes larger middle class houses built with large wooded lots between them. Most prominent in this area, however, are the retail stores which are becoming the new commercial heart of the city. These include Wal-Mart, ShopKo, and several recent strip malls, with numerous small stores housed under a single roof. Several prominent beach areas are located on this side of the city. It is often referred to by locals as "ShopKo Heights," the "neighborhood behind ShopKo," or "ShopKoville."
Houghton, Michigan micropolitan areais a statistical aggregation of the United States census bureau.
"See also: Pryor's Location,
Houghton in Popular Culture
Houghton figures in the
novels "The Truth About Fire" by Elizabeth Hartmannand "A Superior Death" by Nevada Barr, and the poem "The Idea of Children at Houghton, Michigan" in Gavin Ewart's "Penultimate Poems".
*Maki, Wilbert, "Hockey finals here?" (letter to the editor), "
The Daily Mining Gazette", January 27, 2001.
*Gray, Dick, "Our Story" (website), "
Keweenaw Brewing Company", November 5, 2007
* [http://www.cityofhoughton.com/ City of Houghton]
* [http://www.pldl.org/ Portage Lake District Library]
* [http://www.houghton.k12.mi.us/ Houghton Portage Township Schools]
* [http://history.cityofhoughton.com/ Historic Houghton Virtual Tour]
* [http://hunts-upguide.com/houghton.html/ Hunts' Guide to the Upper Peninsula: Houghton]
* [http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=%22houghton%2C+michigan%22 National Geographic website on Houghton]
* [http://www.cityofhoughton.com/documents/HOUGHTON.pdf Houghton Downtown Blueprint 2005]
* [http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://museum.woolworths.co.uk/people/kirby%2520houghton%2520mi.jpg&imgrefurl=http://museum.woolworths.co.uk/1900uspeople.htm&h=403&w=610&sz=23&hl=en&start=10&um=1&tbnid=TknPA4rO1bfdMM:&tbnh=90&tbnw=136&prev=/images%3Fq%3DHoughton%2BMI%26svnum%3D10%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN Picture of F.M. Kirby Woolworth's store in Houghton]
* [http://www.cityofhoughton.com/carnegie.html Carnegie Cultural Museum]
*outagraph [http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en/thumb/c/cf/200px-Outagraph_of_old_Houghton,_Michigan_fire_station.jpgof the old Houghton, Michigan fire station (original site of the Michigan College of Mines)]
* [http://www.admin.mtu.edu/urel/cams/statue1/still.html Webcam for Delta Sigma Phi statue site on US Hwy 41]
* [http://www.northskyaerialphoto.com/Gallery/Houghton%20Hancock%20%20Michigan/slides/Rozsa%20Center%20Michigan%20Tech%20Houghton%20Michigan%20Aerial%20Photo%208236.html Picture of Rosza Center, Walker Center and Wadsworth Hall at Michigan Technological University]
* [http://www.flickr.com/photos/jbbois/93710510/ Picture of Sheldon Avenue and Huron Square including Lode Theatre, Bookworld, Douglass House &c.]
* [http://www.fadingad.com/blog/bob_kisken/015kisken.jpgPicture of Hunan Garden Chinese Restaurant with fading "Bosch Beer" sign on adjacent building]
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