Solid rocket booster

Solid rocket booster

Solid rocket boosters (SRB) (or motors, SRM) are used to provide the main thrust in spacecraft launches from the launchpad up to burnout of the SRBs. Many launch vehicles include SRBs, including the Ariane 5, Atlas V, and the NASA Space Shuttle. The NASA Space Shuttle uses two Space Shuttle SRBs, which are the largest of their type.

The solid-fuel SRBs are advantageous for the purpose of boosting launches compared to liquid-fueled rockets because they provide greater thrust and do not have the refrigeration and insulation requirements of liquid-fueled rockets. Adding detachable SRBs to a vehicle also powered by liquid-fueled rockets eases the amount of liquid-fuel needed and lowers the launch vehicle mass. This is known as staging.

One example of the increased performance from SRBs is the Ariane 4 rocket. The basic 40 model with no boosters could lift 2,175 kilograms payload to Geostationary transfer orbit [ [ Ariane 4 ] ] . The 44P model with 4 solid boosters has a payload of 3,465 kg to the same orbit [ [ Ariane 44P ] ] .

Solid boosters are usually cheaper to design, test, and produce compared to equivalent thrust liquid boosters. However, the costs on a per-flight basis tend to be equivalent.

It is difficult to stop a solid rocket motor before normal burnout. This can be done by explosively separating the nozzleand/or splitting the case lengthwise with a linear shaped charge. The latter method is common in range safety destruct systems.Either method terminates thrust by reducing combustion chamber pressure and propellant burn rate, though the propellant (usually in many pieces at this point) will continue to burn vigorously.

SRB failure rates are about 1%. They usually fail in sudden, catastrophic explosions due to case overpressurization.(The SRB failure mode on Challenger was an exception.)

These are all serious risk factors for manned spacecraft.

Solid rocket motors also present a significant handling risk on the ground. Once their propellant is poured into place and cured, they are always loaded and could catch fire or explode in an accident. Such an accident on August 22, 2003 killed 21 technicians at the Brazilian VLS rocket launch pad. [ [ VLS ] ]

The manned and unmanned Shuttle Derived Launch Vehicles currently planned as part of NASA's Vision for Space Exploration both rely heavily on modified versions of the current Space Shuttle solid rocket boosters; the manned vehicle would use a single, expanded solid rocket booster as its first stage.

ee also

*Solid-fuel rocket
*Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster
*Liquid Rocket Booster

External links

* [ NASA website about the solid rocket booster]
* [ U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission article on solid propelled rockets]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем сделать НИР

Look at other dictionaries:

  • solid rocket booster — a solid propellant strap on rocket used to accelerate a missile or launch vehicle during liftoff. Abbr.: SRB * * * …   Universalium

  • solid rocket booster — a solid propellant strap on rocket used to accelerate a missile or launch vehicle during liftoff. Abbr.: SRB …   Useful english dictionary

  • Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster — The Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) are the pair of large solid rockets used by the Space Shuttle during the first two minutes of powered flight. They are located on either side of the orange external propellant tank. Each SRB produces …   Wikipedia

  • Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster — Die Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB, englisch für Space Shuttle Feststoffraketen) sind ein Teil des Space Shuttles. Sie sind die leistungsstärksten Raketentriebwerke, die je eingesetzt wurden. Übersichtsbild eines SRB Die beiden… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Liquid rocket booster — A Liquid Rocket Booster (LRB) is similar to a solid rocket booster (SRB) attached to the side of a rocket to give it extra lift at takeoff. A Liquid Rocket Booster has fuel and oxidiser in liquid form, as opposed to a solid rocket or hybrid… …   Wikipedia

  • Rocket propellant — is mass that is stored, usually in some form of propellant tank, prior to being used as the propulsive mass that is ejected from a rocket engine in the form of a fluid jet to produce thrust.Chemical rocket propellants are most commonly used,… …   Wikipedia

  • rocket and missile system — ▪ weapons system Introduction       any of a variety of weapons systems that deliver explosive warheads to their targets by means of rocket propulsion.       Rocket is a general term used broadly to describe a variety of jet propelled missiles… …   Universalium

  • Booster (rocketry) — In spaceflight, a booster may be either: * an entire launch vehicle or launcher used to lift a spacecraft. Initially all boosters used for human spaceflight and most unmanned boosters used liquid propellant, at least for the core launch vehicle.… …   Wikipedia

  • Solid-fuel rocket — A solid rocket or a solid fuel rocket is a rocket with a motor that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer). The earliest rockets were solid fueled, powered by gunpowder, used by the Chinese and Arabs in warfare as early as the 13th century. All… …   Wikipedia

  • Rocket engine — RS 68 being tested at NASA s Stennis Space Center. The nearly transparent exhaust is due to this engine s exhaust being mostly superheated steam (water vapor from its propellants, hydrogen and oxygen) …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”