- Great white shark
name = Great white shark
status = VU
trend = unknown
status_system = iucn2.3
image_width = 250px
phylum = Chordata
genus = "Carcharodon"
genus_authority = Smith, 1838
species = "C. carcharias"
binomial = "Carcharodon carcharias"
binomial_authority = (Linnaeus, 1758)
range_map_width = 250px
range_map_caption = Range (in blue)The great white shark, "Carcharodon carcharias", also known as white pointer, white shark, or white death, is an exceptionally large lamniform
sharkfound in coastal surface waters in all major oceans. Reaching lengths of more than 6 m (20 ft) and weighing up to 2,250 kg (5,000 lb), the great white shark is the world's largest known predatory fish. It is the only surviving speciesof its genus, "Carcharodon".
Carolus Linnaeusgave the great white shark its first scientific name, "Squalus carcharias" in 1758. Sir Andrew Smith gave it the genericname "Carcharodon" in 1833, and in 1873 the generic name was identified with Linnaeus specific name and the current scientific name "Carcharodon carcharias" was finalised. Carcharodon comes from the Greek words "karcharos", which means sharp or jagged, and "odous", which means tooth.cite web|url=http://sacoast.uwc.ac.za/education/resources/envirofacts/greatwhite.htm
publisher="The Enviro Facts Project"
title="The Great White Shark"
Dental features and the extreme size of both the great white and the
prehistoric Megalodonled many scientistsWho|date=August 2008 to believe they were closely related, and the name "Carcharodon megalodon" was applied to the latter. At present there is considerable doubt about this hypothesis, as many scientistsWho|date=August 2008 would place the megalodon and white shark as distant relatives - sharing the family Lamnidae but no closer relationship. Latest research suggests that the great white shark is more closely related to the mako sharkthan to the megalodon. [cite web | url = http://www.livescience.com/animalworld/050426_great_white.html | title = Great White Related to Mako Shark | publisher = Live Science | date = 2005-04-26| accessdate = 2006-11-18] According to this theory, the extinct broad tooth mako, "Isurus hastalis", is considered to be the true ancestor of the great white, while the megalodon has strong ties with the sharks belonging to "Carcharocles" genus. In this case, " Otodus obliquus" is considered to be the ancient representative of the extinct "Carcharocles" lineage; indeed, "Carcharocles megalodon" is a popular alternative classification of the megalodon.
Distribution and habitat
Great white sharks live in almost all coastal and offshore waters which have a water temperature of between 12 and 24° C (54° to 75° F), with greater concentrations off the southern coasts of
Australia, off South Africa, California, Mexico's Isla Guadalupe and to a degree in the Central Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas. One of the densest known populations is found around Dyer Island, South Africa where much research on the shark is conducted. It can be also found in tropical waters like those of the Caribbean, and has been recorded off Mauritius, Madagascar, Kenyaand the Seychelles.cite web|url=http://www.cites.org/eng/cop/11/prop/48.pdf
title="Proposal to include Carcharodon carcharias (Great White Shark) on Appendix I of the Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)"
accessdate=2007-04-22|format=PDF] It is an epipelagic fish, but recorded or observed mostly in coastal waters in the presence of rich game like
fur seals, sea lions, cetaceans, other sharks and large bony fish species. It is considered an open-ocean dweller and is recorded from the surface down to depths of convert|1280|m|ft|abbr=on, but is most often found close to the surface.
In a recent study great white sharks from
Californiawere shown to migrate to an area between Baja California and Hawaii, where they spend at least 100 days of the year before they migrate back to Baja. On the journey out, they swim slowly and dive down to around convert|900|m|ft|abbr=on. After they arrive, they change behaviour and do short dives to about convert|300|m|ft|abbr=on for up to 10 minutes. Another white shark tagged off the coast of South Africa swam to the southern coast of Australia and back within the space of a year. This had disproved traditional theories of white sharks being coastal territorial predators and opens up the possibility of interaction between white shark populations that were previously thought to be discrete from one another,and It is still unknown why they migrate and what they do there; it might be seasonal feeding or possibly a mating area.cite web
publisher="Los Angeles Times"
title="The Great White Way"
In a similar study a great white shark from South Africa was tracked swimming to the northwestern coast of Australia and back to the same location in South Africa, a journey of convert|20000|km|mi|abbr=on in under 9 months.cite web
publisher="White Shark Trust"
title="South Africa - Australia - South Africa "
Anatomy and appearance
The great white shark has a robust large conical-shaped
snout. It has almost the same size upper and lower lobeson the tail fin (like most mackerel sharks, but unlike most other sharks).
Great white sharks display
countershading, having a white underside and a grey dorsal area (sometimes in a brown or blue shade) that gives an overall "mottled" appearance. The colouration makes it difficult for prey to spot the shark because it breaks up the shark's outline when seen from a lateral perspective. When viewed from above, the darker shade blends in with the sea and when seen from below casts a minimal silhouette against the sunlight.
Great white sharks, like many other sharks, have rows of teeth behind the main ones, allowing any that break off to be rapidly replaced. A great white shark's teeth are serrated and when the shark bites it will shake its head side to side and the teeth will act as a saw and tear off large chunks of flesh. Great white sharks often swallow their own broken off teeth along with chunks of their prey's flesh.
A typical adult great white shark measures 4 to 4.8 m (13 to 16 ft) with a typical weight of 680 to 1,100 kg (1,500 to 2,450 lb), females generally being larger than males. The maximum size of the great white shark has been subject to much debate, conjecture, and misinformation. Richard Ellis and
John E. McCosker, both academic shark experts, devote a full chapter in their book, "Great White Shark" (1991), to analysing various accounts of extreme size.
Today, most experts contend that the great white shark's "normal" maximum size is about convert|6|m|ft|abbr=on, with a "normal" maximum weight of about convert|1900|kg|lb|abbr=on.
For several decades, many ichthyological works, as well as the "
Guinness Book of World Records", listed two great white sharks as the largest individuals caught: an convert|11|m|ft|abbr=on great white captured in Southern Australian waters near Port Fairy in the 1870s, and an convert|11.3|m|ft|abbr=on shark trapped in a herring weir in New Brunswick, Canadain the 1930s. While this was the commonly accepted maximum size, reports of 7.5 to 10 metre (25 to 33.3 ft) great white sharks were common and often deemed credible.
Some researchers questioned the reliability of both measurements, noting they were much larger than any other accurately-reported great white shark. The New Brunswick shark may have been a misidentified
basking shark, as both sharks have similar body shapes. The question of the Port Fairy shark was settled in the 1970s, when J.E. Reynolds examined the shark's jaws and "found that the Port Fairy shark was of the order of 5 m (17 ft) in length and suggested that a mistake had been made in the original record, in 1870, of the shark's length. [cite web|url=http://homepage.mac.com/mollet/Cc/Mike_Cappo.html |title=Size and age of the white pointer shark, "Carcharodon carcharias" (Linnaeus)|accessdate=2006-09-27]
Ellis and McCosker write that "the largest White Sharks accurately measured range between 19 and convert|21|ft|m|abbr=on [about 5.8 to 6.4 m] , and there are some questionable 23-footers [about 7 m] in the popular — but not the scientific — literature". Furthermore, they add that "these giants seem to disappear when a responsible observer approaches with a tape measure." (For more about legendary exaggerated shark measurements, see the submarine).
The largest specimen Ellis and McCosker endorse as reliably measured was convert|6.4|m|ft|abbr=on long, caught in
Cuban waters in 1945; though confident in their opinion, Ellis and McCosker note other experts have argued this individual might have been a few feet shorter. The unverified weight reported for the shark from Cuba was 3270 kg (7200 lbs). There have since been claims of larger great white sharks, but, as Ellis and McCosker note, verification is often lacking and these extraordinarily large great white sharks have, upon examination, all proved under the 20-21 ft limit. For example, a much-publicized female great white said to be convert|7.13|m|ft|abbr=on was fished in Maltain 1987 by Alfredo Cutajar. In their book, Ellis and McCosker agree this shark seemed to be larger than average, but they did not endorse the convert|7.13|m|ft|abbr=on measurement. In the years since, experts eventually found reason to doubt the claim, due in no small part to conflicting accounts offered by Cutajar and others. A BBCphoto analyst concluded that even "allowing for error ... the shark is concluded to be in the convert|18.3|ft|m|abbr=on range and in no way approaches the convert|23|ft|m|abbr=on reported by Abela." (as in original)Citeweb|title=Great White Shark Recorded Sizes|url=http://www.jawshark.com/great_white_recorded_sizes.html|publisher=JAWSHARK|accessdate=2008-02-10]
According to the Canadian Shark Research Centre, the largest accurately measured great white shark was a female caught in August 1988 at
Prince Edward Islandoff the Canadian (North Atlantic) coast and measured convert|6.1|m|ft|abbr=on. The shark was caught by David McKendrick, a local resident from Alberton, West Prince.
The question of maximum weight is complicated by the unresolved question of whether or not to account for the weight of a shark's recent meals when weighing the shark itself. With a single bite, a great white can take in up to convert|14|kg|lb|abbr=on of flesh, and can gorge on several hundred kilograms or pounds of food.
Ellis and McCosker write in regards to modern great white sharks that "it is likely that [Great White] sharks can weigh as much as 2 tons", but also note that the largest recent scientifically measured examples weigh in at about 2
tonnes (2.2 short tons).
The largest great white shark recognized by the
International Game Fish Association(IGFA) is one landed by Alf Dean in south Australian waters in 1959, weighing convert|1208|kg|lb|abbr=on. Several larger great white sharks caught by anglers have since been verified, but were later disallowed from formal recognition by IGFA monitors for rules violations.
Great white sharks, like all other sharks, have an extra sense given by the
Ampullae of Lorenzini, which enables them to detect the electromagnetic field emitted by the movement of living animals. Every time a living creature moves it generates an electrical field and great whites are so sensitive they can detect half a billionth of a volt. Most fish have a less developed but similar ability in the horizontal line along their body.
To more successfully hunt fast moving and agile prey such as sea lions, the
poikilothermicgreat white shark has developed adaptations that allow it to maintain a body temperature warmer than the surrounding water. One of these adaptations is a " rete mirabile" (Latin for "wonderful net"). This close web-like structure of veins and arteries, located along each lateral side of the shark, conserves heat by warming the cooler arterial blood with the venous blood that has been warmed by the working muscles. This keeps certain parts of the body (particularly the brain) at temperatures up to 14 °C [ [http://www.elasmo-research.org/education/white_shark/p_body_temp.htm Body Temperature of the Great White and Other Lamnoid Sharks] ] above the surrounding water, while the heart and gills remain at sea-temperature. When conserving energy (a great white shark can go weeks between meals), the core body temperature can drop to match the surroundings. A great white shark's success in raising its core temperatureis an example of gigantothermy. Therefore, the great white shark can be considered an endothermic poikilotherm, because its body temperature is not constant but is internally regulated.
Diet and hunting
Great white sharks are
carnivorous, and primarily eat fish(including rays, tuna, and smaller sharks), dolphins, porpoises, whalecarcasses and pinnipeds such as seals, fur seals and sea lions and sometimes sea turtles. Sea otters and penguins are attacked at times although rarely, if ever, eaten. Great whites have also been known to eat objects that they are unable to digest. In great white sharks above 3.41 m (11 ft, 2 in) a diet consisting of a higher proportion of mammals has been observed.cite web|url=http://home.uchicago.edu/~arice/Estrada.et.al.2006.pdf|title=Use of isotopic analysis of vertebrae in reconstructing ontogentic feeding ecology in white sharks|author="James A. Estrada, Aaron N. Rice, Lisa J. Natanson, and Gregory B. Skomal"|publisher="Ecological Society of America"|accessdate=2006-10-20|format=PDF] These sharks prefer prey with high contents of energy-rich fat. Shark expert Peter Klimley used a rod-and-reel rig and trolled carcasses of a seal, a pig, and a sheep to his boat in the South Farallons. The sharks attacked all three baits but rejected the sheep carcass. [ [http://www.elasmo-research.org/education/topics/b_catch.htm Catch as Catch Can] ]
The great white is regarded as an
apex predatorwith its only real threats from humans. Although their diets overlap greatly, great whites do not seem to directly compete with orcas and there are few reports of encounters between them. However in one famous incident a female orca killed a subadult great white and her calf feasted on the shark's liver. [ [http://edition.cnn.com/EARTH/9710/08/whale.vs.shark/ Clash of the titans: Whale vs. Shark] CNN October 8, 1997.] Pods of dolphins can kill a great white shark through mobbing behaviour in which the dolphins ram the shark. Great whites are also sometimes preyed on by larger specimens.
Great white sharks' reputation as ferocious predators is well-earned, yet they are not (as was once believed) indiscriminate "eating machines". They typically hunt using an "ambush" technique, taking their prey by surprise from below. Near the now-famous Seal Island, in South Africa's False Bay; studies have shown that the shark attacks most often occur in the morning, within 2 hours after sunrise. The reason for this is that it is hard to see a shark close to the bottom at this time. The success rate of attacks is 55% in the first 2 hours, it falls to 40% in late morning and after that the sharks stop hunting.cite web|url=http://nhmag.com/master.html?http://nhmag.com/1006/1006_feature.html|title=Sociable Killers
author="R. Aidan Martin and Anne Martin"|publisher="Natural History Magazine, Inc"|accessdate=2006-09-30]
The hunting technique of the white shark varies with the species it hunts. When hunting
Cape fur seals off Seal Island, South Africa, the shark will ambush it from below at high speeds and hit the seal at mid-body. They go so fast that they actually breach out of the water. They have also been observed chasing their prey after a missed attack. The prey is usually attacked at the surface. [ [http://www.elasmo-research.org/education/white_shark/predation.htm White Shark Predatory Behavior at Seal Island] ]
Northern elephant seals off California, the shark immobilizes the prey with a large bite to the hindquarters (which is the main source of the seal's mobility) and waits for the seal to bleed to death. This technique is especially used on adults which are large and dangerous. Prey is normally attacked sub-surface. Harbour seals are simply grabbed from the surface and pulled down until they stop struggling. They are then eaten near the bottom. California sea lions are ambushed from below and struck in mid-body before being dragged and eaten. [ [http://www.sharkresearchcommittee.com/predation.htm Predatory Behavior of Pacific Coast White Sharks] ]
When hunting dolphins and porpoises, white sharks attack them from above, behind or below to avoid being detected by their echolocation. Among the species targeted are
dusky dolphins, harbour porpoises, Risso's dolphins and Dall's porpoises. [Long, D. J; Jones, R. E (1996) "White shark predation and scavenging on cetaceans in the Eastern North Pacific Ocean."]
A new study from the University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia, is using CT scans of a shark's skull and complex computer models to measure the maximum bite force of the great white. The study will reveal what forces and behaviours the carnivore's skull is adapted to handle and will help resolve competing theories about its feeding behaviour. [cite news |title=Measuring the great white's bite |url=http://www.cosmosmagazine.com/node/1499 |work=Cosmos Magazine |date=
27 July 2007]
The behavior and social structure of the white shark is not well understood but recent research shows that white sharks are more social than previously thought. In South Africa, white sharks seem to have a
dominance hierarchydepending on size, sex and squatter's rights. Females dominate over males, larger sharks dominate smaller sharks, and residents dominate newcomers. When hunting, the white sharks tend to space out between each other and resolve conflicts with rituals and displays. White sharks rarely resort to combat although some individuals have been found with bite marks that match that of other white sharks. This suggests that when their personal space is intruded upon, a white shark will give the intruder a warning bite. Another possibility is that white sharks may softly bite other individuals as a way of showing their dominance.Also, as noted above, white sharks can be cannibalistic.
The great white shark is one of only a few sharks known to regularly lift its head above the sea surface to gaze at other objects such as prey; this is known as "spy-hopping". This behaviour has also been seen in at least one group of
blacktip reef sharks, but this might be a behaviour learned from interaction with humans (it is theorized that the shark may also be able to smell better this way, because smells travel through air faster than through water). They are very curious animals, and can display a high degree of intelligence and personality when conditions permit (such as in the clear waters off of Isla Guadalupe, Mexico).
There is still a great deal that is unknown about great white shark behaviour, such as their
matinghabits. Birth has never been observed, but several pregnant females have been examined. Great white sharks are ovoviviparous, the eggs developing in the female's uterus, hatching there and continuing to develop until they are born. The great white has an 11 month gestation period, with the sharks powerful jaws beginning to develop in the 1st month. The natural predatory phenomenon is known as intrauterine-cannibalism and is known to occur in several other species of shark as well. After 10 months only 1 great white is born from what can number up to 40 for a single delivery. The delivery takes place in the period transitioning spring and summer. When giving birth, the female has to fast to prevent herself from eating her young after they are born.
Almost nothing, however, is known about how and where the great white mates. There is some evidence that points to the near-soporific effect resulting from a large feast (such as a whale carcass) possibly inducing mating.
Great White Sharks take around 15 years to reach sexual maturity. The lifespan of the great white has not been definitively established, although many sources estimate that great whites live 30 to over 100 years. It would not be unreasonable to expect such a slow maturing animal to live longer than other, faster maturing varieties. [ [http://www.prbo.org/cms/176 Natural History of the White Shark] ]
Relationship with humans
More than any documented attack, Steven Spielberg's 1975 film "Jaws" provided the great white shark with the image of a "man eater" in the public mind. While great white sharks have been responsible for fatalities in humans, they typically do not target humans as prey: for example, in the
Mediterranean Seathere were 31 confirmed attacks against humans in the last two centuries, only a small number of them deadly. Many incidents seem to be caused by the animals "test-biting" out of curiosity. Great white sharks are known to perform test-biting with buoys, flotsam, and other unfamiliar objects as well, and might grab a human or a surfboardwith their mouth in order to determine what kind of object it might be.
Other incidents seem to be cases of mistaken identity, in which a shark ambushes a bather or surfer, usually from below, believing the silhouette it sees on the surface is a seal. Many attacks occur in waters with low visibility, or other situations in which the shark's senses are impaired. It has been speculated that the species typically does not like the taste of humans, or at least that the taste is unfamiliar. [Citation|first=Meghan|last=McCabe|title=Sharks: Killing Machines?|url=http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/biology/b103/f00/web1/mccabe.html]
However some researchers have hypothesized that the reason the proportion of fatalities is low is not because sharks do not like human flesh, but because humans are often able to get out of the water after the shark's first bite. In the 1980s John McCosker noted that divers who dove solo and were attacked by great whites were generally at least partially consumed, while divers who followed the buddy system were normally pulled out of the water by their colleagues before the shark could finish its attack. Tricas and McCosker suggest that a standard attack modus operandi for great whites is to make an initial devastating attack on its prey, and then wait for the prey to weaken before going in to consume the wounded animal. A human's ability to get to land (or onto a boat) with the help of others is unusual for a great white's prey, and thus the attack is foiled. [cite journal | first= T.C.| last=Tricas |coauthors=John McCosker| title= Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences | journal=Predatory behavior of the white shark, "Carcharodon carcharias", and notes on its biology | volume=43 | issue=14 | pages=221–238 | year=1984| unused_data= |McCosker, J.E. ]
Humans, in any case, are not healthy for great white sharks to eat because the sharks' digestion is too slow to cope with the human body's high ratio of bone to muscle and fat. Accordingly, in most recorded attacks, great whites have broken off contact after the first bite. Fatalities are usually caused by loss of blood from the initial limb injury rather than from critical organ loss or from whole consumption.
Biologist Douglas Long writes that the great white shark's "role as a menace is exaggerated; more people are killed in the U.S. each year by dogs than have been killed by great white sharks in the last 100 years." [cite web|url=http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/nAMEvertebrates/Doug/shark.html|title=The Great White Shark |accessdate=2003-09-27] However, such comments should be taken in context; interaction between humans and canines takes place far more regularly and in greater numbers than it does between humans and sharks.
Many "shark repellents" have been tested, some using scent, others using protective clothing, but to date the most effective is an electronic beacon (POD) worn by the diver/surfer that creates an electric field which disturbs the shark's sensitive electro-receptive sense organs, the
ampullae of Lorenzini.
Attacks on boats
Great white sharks infrequently attack and sometimes even sink boats. Only 5 of the 108 authenticated unprovoked shark attacks reported from the Pacific Coast during the Twentieth Century involved kayakers. [Shark Research Committee. Access date 09-14-2008. http://www.sharkresearchcommittee.com/unprovoked_kayaker.htm. Unprovoked White Shark Attacks on Kayakers.] In a few cases they have attacked boats up to 10 meters in length. They have bumped or knocked people overboard, usually 'attacking' the boat from the stern. In one case (in 1936), a large shark leapt completely into the South African fishing boat "Lucky Jim", knocking a crewman into the sea. Tricas and McCosker's underwater observations suggest that sharks are attracted to boats due to the electrical fields they generate. [Tricas and McCosker. 1984. Predatory Behaviour of the White Shark. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sci. 43(14):221-38.]
Great white sharks in captivity
Prior to August 1981, no attempt to keep a great white shark in captivity lasted longer than 11 days. In August 1981, a shark was held for 16 days at
SeaWorld San Diegobefore being released into the wild. [cite web| url=http://www.usatoday.com/news/science/2004-10-02-great-white_x.htm |title=Great white shark sets record at California aquarium |publisher= USA Today|date=2004-10-02| accessdate=2006-09-27]
In 1984, shortly before opening day, the
Monterey Bay Aquariumin Monterey, Californiahoused its first great white shark, which died after 10 days. In July 2003, Monterey researchers captured a small female and kept it in a large, netted pen off Malibu for five days, where they had the rare success of getting the shark to feed in captivity before it was released. [cite web| url=http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2004/09/16/BAGCM8PN3E1.DTL |title= Great white shark puts jaws on display in aquarium tank |publisher=San Francisco Chronicle| date=2004-09-16| accessdate=2006-09-27] It was not until September 2004 that the aquarium was the first to place a great white on long-term exhibit. The young female, who was caught off the coast of Ventura, was kept in the aquarium's massive 3,800,000 litres (1 million-gallon) Outer Bay exhibit for 198 days before her successful release back to the wild in March 2005. She was tracked for 30 days after her early morning release. [cite web| url=http://www.mbayaq.org/cr/whiteshark.asp |title=White Shark Research Project| publisher= Monterey Bay Aquarium| accessdate=2006-09-27] On the evening of August 31 2006the aquarium introduced a second shark to the Outer Bay exhibit. The juvenile male, caught outside Santa Monica Bayon August 17, [cite web| url=http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2006/09/01/MNG1IKTP904.DTL|title= Great white shark introduced at Monterey Bay Aquarium| publisher=San Francisco Chronicle | date=2003-09-01| accessdate=2006-09-27] had its first official meal in captivity (a large salmon steak) on September 8, 2006and as of that date, the shark was estimated to be 1.72 m (5 ft 8 in) and to weigh approximately 47 kg (104 lb). He was released on January 16 2007after 137 days in captivity.
In addition, Monterey Bay Aquarium housed a third Great White, a juvenile male, for 162 days between August 27, 2007 through February 5, 2008. On arrival, he was 4-feet, 9-inches long and weighed 67 ½ pounds. He grew to 5-feet, 10-inches and 140 pounds at release. A fourth Great White, a juvenile female, was introduced to Monterey's Outer Bay Exhibit on August 27, 2008, and will remain on exhibit as long as she's in good health and hasn't grown too large for the aquarium staff to safely return her to the wild.
Probably the most famous great white shark to be kept in captivity was a female named "Sandy", which in August 1980 became the first and only great white shark to be housed at the
Steinhart Aquariumin San Francisco, California. She was returned to the wild because she would not eat anything given to her and constantly bumped against the walls. [cite web| url=http://www.elasmo-research.org/education/white_shark/electroreception.htm |title=Electroreception |publisher=Elasmo-research| accessdate=2006-09-27]
hark tourism and cage diving
Shark cage-diving is when a group of tourists, or those who wish to study the sharks up close are lowered into the water beside a boat, protected by a steel cage. From this view point it is easier to view the sharks up close without the dangers of being bitten. Cage diving is most common off the coasts of
Australia, South Africa, and Guadalupe Islandoff the coast of Baja California as these are places where great white sharks are most likely to be seen.
Viewing sharks from the safety of a cage gives tourists an
adrenalinerush and has become a booming industry. A common practice is to chumthe water to draw in sharks for the tourists to view. These practices have raised the fear that sharks may be becoming more accustomed to people in their environment and beginning to associate human activity with food - a potentially dangerous situation. It is claimed that certain methods of chumming, such as when bait on a wire is drawn towards the divers in the cage, which may result in the shark striking the cage, exacerbate this problem. Other operators purposefully draw the bait away from the cage causing the shark to swim past the divers.
Companies respond that they are being made the scapegoats, as people try to find someone to blame for shark attacks on humans. Most point out that lightning tends to strike humans more often than sharks bite humans. [cite web|url=http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/Sharks/attacks/relarisklightning.htm |title=Shark Attacks Compared to Lightning|publisher=
Florida Museum of Natural History|date=2003-07-18|accessdate=2006-11-07] Their position is that further research needs to be done before banning practices such as chumming which are said to alter sharks' natural behaviour. [cite web| url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/3716093.stm |title=SA shark attacks blamed on tourism |publisher= BBC|date=2004-04-15| accessdate=2006-10-24]
It has been advised that all dive boats should only use chum in areas in which whites are known to actively patrol anyway, and these should be far enough away from human leisure areas so as not to draw the sharks towards them. Also, responsible dive operators will not feed the sharks; only sharks that are willing to scavenge will follow the chum trail, and if they find no food at the end then the shark will soon swim off and not associate chum with a meal. It has been suggested that government licensing strategies may help enforce these suggested advisories.
The shark tourist industry has some financial leverage in conserving this animal. For a fisherman with limited income, a single set of white jaws can fetch up to £20,000, a very substantial amount of money for a day's fishing. However, the value of the dead animal is a fraction of the value of viewing a live shark, which can become a more viable and sustainable economic activity to the local community. For example, the dive industry in Gaansbai South Africa, consists of about six boat operators with each boat taking around 30 people out to sea a day; if each person pays anywhere between £50 to £150, then in a single day a solitary live shark that visits each boat can create anywhere between £9,000 to £27,000 of revenue daily.
It is unclear how much a concurrent increase in fishing for great white sharks had to do with the decline of great white shark population from the 1970s to the present. No accurate numbers on population are available, but populations have clearly declined to a point at which the great white shark is now considered endangered. Their reproduction is slow, with sexual maturity occurring at about 12-15 years of age, the population, therefore, can take a long time to rise.
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species(C.I.T.E.S.) has put the great white shark on its 'Appendix II' list of endangered species. The shark is targeted by fishermen for its jaws, teeth, and fins, and as a game fish. The great white shark, however, is rarely an object of commercial fishing, although its flesh is considered valuable. If casually captured (it happens for example in some tonnare in the Mediterranean), it is sold as " smooth-hound shark".
From April 2007 great white sharks are fully protected within convert|200|nmi|km of
New Zealandand additionally from fishing by New Zealand-flagged boats outside this range. [cite web| url=http://www.nzherald.co.nz/section/story.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=10413182| title=Great white sharks to be protected |publisher= New Zealand Herald| date=2006-11-30| accessdate=2006-11-30]
* Database entry includes justification for why this species is vulnerable
* [http://repositories.cdlib.org/sio/lib/3/ Biology of the White Shark, a Symposium.] Gretchen Sibley editor; Jeffrey A. Siegel, Camm C. Swift assistant editors. Los Angeles: Southern California Academy of Sciences, 1985. Memoirs of the Southern California Academy of Sciences, volume 9.
* [http://www.sharkresearchcommittee.com Shark Research Committee]
* ARKive - [http://www.arkive.org/species/GES/fish/Carcharodon_carcharias/ Images and movies of the great white shark, "Carcharodon carcharias"]
* [http://www.zoo.co.uk/~z9015043/gws_conserv.html Review of the great white shark] Ian K. Fergusson, Shark Trust & IUCN Shark Specialist Group
* [http://sacoast.uwc.ac.za/education/resources/envirofacts/greatwhite.htm Envirofacts: Great white shark]
* [http://www.pbs.org/kqed/oceanadventures/episodes/sharks/indepth-senses.html In-depth article: Shark's Super Senses from the PBS Ocean Adventures site]
* [http://www.sharkinformation.org/sharkprofiles/great-white-shark/ Photos and profile of the great white shark]
* [http://www.livescience.com/animalworld/050426_great_white.html Are great whites descended from mega-sharks?]
* [http://www.underwater.com.au/article.php/id/7395/ "Great White Sharks - The Truth"] by documentary maker Carly Maple - Australian focus
* [http://www.topp.org/species/white_shark/ TOPP, Tagging of Pacific Predators] , a research group that tags and studies the habits and migration of the white shark.
* [http://www.sampla.org South African Marine Predator Lab] a research institute studying marine top predators.
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D_EIGI9qFp4 A 2 ton, 15-foot Great White barrels into my cage and breaks through the bars... Patrick Walsh - Filming]
* [http://www.diveaday.tv/content/view/57/37/ Spectacular video of cage diving with Great White Sharks in Guadalupe, Mexico]
* [http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2005/12/06/60minutes/main1099368.shtml Great white shark gets stuck in cage/ shark tourism issues]
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/animals/planetearth/realmedia/video/bb/pe0107_16x9_bb.ram Slow motion sequence of great white shark attacking seals] from
Planet Earth (TV series)
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