- Dorian mode
Greek Dorian mode
The Dorian mode (properly harmonia or tonos) is named after the Dorian Greeks. Applied to a whole octave, the Dorian octave species was built upon two tetrachords (four-note segments) separated by a whole tone, running from the hypate meson to the nete diezeugmenon. In the enharmonic genus, the intervals in each tetrachord are quarter-tone–quarter-tone–major third; in the chromatic genus, semitone-semitone-minor third; in the diatonic genus, semitone-tone-tone. In the diatonic genus, the sequence over the octave is the same as that produced by playing all the white notes of a piano ascending from E to E: E F G A | B C D E, a sequence equivalent to the modern Phrygian mode. Placing the single tone at the bottom of the scale followed by two conjunct tetrachords (that is, the top note of the first tetrachord is also the bottom note of the second), produces the Hypodorian ("below Dorian") octave species: A | B C D E | (E) F G A. Placing the two tetrachords together and the single tone at the top of the scale produces the Mixolydian octave species, a note sequence equivalent to modern Locrian mode.
Medieval and modern Dorian mode
Medieval Dorian mode
The early Byzantine church developed a system of eight musical modes (the octoechoi), which served as a model for medieval European chant theorists when they developed their own modal classification system starting in the 9th century. The success of the Western synthesis of this system with elements from the fourth book of De institutione musica of Boethius, created the false impression that the Byzantine oktōēchos were inherited directly from ancient Greece. Originally used to designate one of the traditional harmoniai of Greek theory (a term with various meanings, including the sense of an octave consisting of eight tones), the name was appropriated (along with six others) by the 2nd-century theorist Ptolemy to designate his seven tonoi, or transposition keys. Four centuries later, Boethius interpreted Ptolemy in Latin, still with the meaning of transposition keys, not scales. When chant theory was first being formulated in the 9th century, these seven names plus an eighth, Hypermixolydian (later changed to Hypomixolydian), were again re-appropriated in the anonymous treatise Alia Musica. A commentary on that treatise, called the Nova expositio, first gave it a new sense as one of a set of eight diatonic species of the octave, or scales. In medieval theory, the authentic Dorian mode could include the note B♭ "by licence", in addition to B♮. The same scalar pattern, but starting a fourth or fifth below the mode final D, and extending a fifth above (or a sixth, terminating on B♭), was numbered as mode 2 in the medieval system. This was the plagal mode corresponding to the authentic Dorian, and was called the Hypodorian mode. In the untransposed form on D, in both the authentic and plagal forms the note C is often raised to C♯ to form a leading tone, and the variable sixth step is in general B♮ in ascending lines and B♭ in descent.
Modern Dorian mode
The modern Dorian mode, by contrast, is a strictly diatonic scale corresponding to the white keys of the piano from "D" to "D", thus the name D Dorian, or any transposition of its interval pattern, which has the ascending pattern of:
- Whole Step - Half Step - Whole Step - Whole Step - Whole Step - Half Step - Whole Step
or more simply:
It can also be thought of as:
- Tone - Semitone - Tone - Tone - Tone - Semitone - Tone
or simply as a scale with a minor 3rd and 7th, a major 2nd and 6th, and a perfect 4th and 5th.
It may be considered an "excerpt" of a major scale played from the pitch a whole tone above the major scale's tonic (in the key of C Major it would be D, E, F, G, A, B, C, D), i.e., a major scale played from its second scale degree up to its second degree again. The resulting scale is, however, minor (or has a minor "feel" or character) because as the "D" becomes the new tonal centre the minor third between the D and the F make us "hear minor". If we build a chord on the tonic, third and fifth, it is a minor chord.
Examples of the Dorian mode include:
- The D Dorian mode contains all notes the same as the C major scale starting on D.
- The G Dorian mode contains all notes the same as the F major scale starting on G.
- The A♭ Dorian mode contains all notes the same as the G♭ major scale starting on A♭.
The modern Dorian mode is equivalent to the natural minor scale (or the Aeolian mode) but with the sixth degree raised a semi-tone. Confusingly, the modern Dorian mode is the same as the Greek Phrygian mode.
The only difference between the Dorian and Aeolian scales is whether or not the 6th is major (in the Aeolian it is minor, in the Dorian it is major). The I, IV, and V triads of the Dorian mode are minor, major, and minor, respectively (i-IV-v), instead of all minor (i-iv-v) as in Aeolian. In both the Dorian and Aeolian, strictly applied, the dominant triad is minor, in contrast to the modern minor key, where it is normally major (see harmonic minor). It is also worth noting that the sixth scale degree is often raised in minor music, just as it is often lowered in the Dorian mode (see melodic minor).
Notable compositions in Dorian mode
- "Along Comes Mary" by The Association
- "Drunken Sailor"
- "Eleanor Rigby" by The Beatles
- "Scarborough Fair"
- "Milestones" by Miles Davis — The composition takes the form aabba with the a sections in G Dorian and the b sections in A Aeolian.
- "The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald" by Gordon Lightfoot
- "So What" by Miles Davis Written in D dorian and E♭ dorian.
- The "Et incarnatus est" in the Credo movement of Beethoven's Missa Solemnis.
- "Maiden Voyage" by Herbie Hancock
- "Billie Jean" by Michael Jackson
- ^ So-called by Balakirev. Richard Taruskin, "From Subject to Style: Stravinsky and the Painters", in Confronting Stravinsky: Man, Musician, and Modernist, edited by Jann Pasler, 16–38 (Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press, 1986): 33. ISBN 0-520-05403-2.
- ^ Thomas J. Mathiesen, "Greece, §I: Ancient: 6. Music Theory: (iii) Aristoxenian Tradition: (d) Scales". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell (London: Macmillan Publishers, 2001).
- ^ Thomas J. Mathiesen, "Greece, §I: Ancient: 6. Music Theory: (iii) Aristoxenian Tradition: (e) Tonoi and Harmoniai". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell (London: Macmillan Publishers, 2001).
- ^ Harold S. Powers, "Mode, §II: Medieval modal theory, 2: Carolingian synthesis, 9th–10th centuries", The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell (London: Macmillan Publications; New York: Grove’s Dictionaries of Music, 2001). ISBN 9781561592395
- ^ Peter Jeffery, "Oktōēchos", The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell (London: Macmillan Publications; New York: Grove’s Dictionaries of Music, 2001). ISBN 9781561592395
- ^ Harold S. Powers, "Dorian", The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, 29 vols., edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell (London: Macmillan Publishers, 2001): 7:507. ISBN 9781561592395
- ^ Harold S. Powers, "Hypodorian", The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, 29 vols., edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell (London: Macmillan Publications, 2001): 12:36–37. ISBN 9781561592395
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- ^ a b Tillekens, Ger (November 2002). "Marks of the Dorian family". Soundscapes. http://www.icce.rug.nl/~soundscapes/VOLUME05/Dorian_family.shtml. Retrieved 30 June 2009.
- ^ Pollack, Alan W.. "Notes on "Eleanor Rigby"". http://www.icce.rug.nl/~soundscapes/DATABASES/AWP/er.shtml. Retrieved 2008-08-11.
- ^ a b c d Herder, Ronald (1987). 1000 Keyboard Ideas, p.75. ISBN 9780943748481.
- ^ Kernfeld, Barry Dean (2002). The New Grove dictionary of jazz. New York City: Macmillan Publishers. p. 785. ISBN 1-56159-284-6. OCLC 46956628.
- ^ "Traditional & Folk Music - Encyclopedic Dictionary". http://www.traditionalmusic.co.uk/traditional-music/ency/m3.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-05.
- ^ Lawn, Richard; Jeffrey L. Hellmer (1996). Jazz: theory and practice. Los Angeles: Alfred Publishing. p. 190. ISBN 0-88284-722-8.
- ^ Steinberg, Michael (1994). "Notes on the Quartets". In Robert Winter and Robert Martin. The Beethoven Quartet Companion. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. p. 270. ISBN 978-0-520-20420-1. OCLC 27034831.
Modes in Western music Gregorian Other Diatonic MinorSee also Properties of musical modes
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