- Sokollu Mehmet Paşa
Sokollu Mehmed Pasha (Serbian: Mehmed-paša Sokolović, ["Sokolović" means "son of Sokol" and "sokol" means
falconin several Slavonic languages. "Sokollu" in Turkish means "from Sokol", Sokol being a place name. ] Cyrillic: Мехмед-паша Соколовић) (born 1506, Sokolovići [Some sources claim he was born in the Ravanci (a hamlet near Sokolovići) Fact|date=April 2008.] - died 1579, Istanbul) was a 16th-century Ottoman statesman. Born in a Bosnian SerbKočan, Ismet (Dec. 21, 2005). [http://www.novosti.co.yu/code/navigate.php?Id=16&status=jedna&datum=2006-02-03&feljton=4972 Mit i stvarnost - Mehmed-paša Sokolović] . Večernje Novosti Online.] family in southeast Bosnia, Mehmed was taken away at an early age as part of the devshirmehsystem of Ottoman collection of young boys to be raised to serve as a janissary.
He rose through the ranks of the Ottoman imperial system, eventually holding positions as commander of the imperial guard (1543-1546), High Admiral of the Fleet (1546-1551),
Governor-Generalof Rumelia(1551-1555), Third Vizier(1555-1561), Second Vizier (1561-1565) and as Grand Vizier(1565-1579) (for a total of 14 years, 3 months, 17 days) under three Sultans: Suleiman the Magnificent, Selim II, and Murad III.Imamović, Mustafa (1996). Historija Bošnjaka. Sarajevo: BZK Preporod. ISBN 9958-815-00-1] He was assassinated in 1579, ending a near 15-year rule as "de facto" ruler of the Ottoman Empire. Another unusual fact about him is that at a height of above 2 metres, he was the tallest amongst all of the Grand-Viziers that have served the Ottoman Empire.
Little is known for certain about Mehmed's birth and early life. Turkish chroniclers and historians only took notice of him after he had attained great standing in the Ottoman hierarchy. The facts regarding his youth may further be obscured by popular myths from later ages, making it difficult for historians to separate them.
Mehmed was born into a Serb Orthodox family in or near Sokolovići (which under Ottoman rule in Turkish was called Sokol), near modern-day
Rudo. Said to have come from a modest shepherd family,Samarčić, Radovan (2004). Sokollu Mehmet Paşa (3rd ed.) Istanbul: Aralik. ISBN 975882362-0] Sokollu Mehmed Pasha's name derives from his place of birth ("-lu" indicates in Turkish "from a place", in this case Sokollu or from "Sokol"). While some other sources suggest that the Sokolović family was descended from feudal Bosnian nobility, this was a common myth regarding various eminent families of the time. Research into the roots of Ottoman Bosnia's aristocratic families seems to discredit this thesis.
Mehmed's birth name was probably "Bajica",, while his father was named Dimitrije. He had two brothers and a sister, as well as at least one uncle. However, details about his family and relations are disputed on two major counts. One is his relationship to
Makarije Sokolović. Traditionally identified as his brother, today some historians consider him to have been either a nephew or distant relative. The second is the matter of Mehmed's uncle. By some accounts, his uncle was a monk at the Mileševamonastery who had his two nephews, Bajica and Makarije (taken to be brothers according to this view), educated there. Other sources suggest that his only uncle converted to Islamearly.
In 1516, an Ottoman expedition gathering up Christian boys as part of the
devshirmehsystem reached Sokolovići. According to folklore, Bajica was either simply taken from his father's home or, due to a reputation as a gifted child, specifically chosen by the commanding Yeshilche Mehmed Bey. The story further holds that his uncle unsuccessfully appealed to the authorities, even offering gold for the child's return.
He accepted the name of Mehmed and first in
Edirneand then in Istanbulgot a thorough Ottoman education as a recruit, first as an apprentice Janissary (in Turkish Acemi Oglan); then in Imperial Squires school (in Turkish Enderun) in Topkapi Palace.
As proclaimed in
Baghdadon 13 March 1535, Mehmed was sent to be one of the seven retainers of the Imperial Treasurer Iskender Celebi. On Iskender's death, Mehmed returned to Istanbul. In addition to Turkish, he spoke Serbian [In Arhiv für slawische Philologie, Aleksa Ivic, 1909, page 211] , Persian, Arabic, Venetian-Italian and Neo-Latin.
Mehmed in 1541 first became an Imperial Chamberlain and then the head of the Sultan's
squires. In these positions he became very close to Sultan Suleyman and learnt from him.
As a soldier, Mehmed excelled at the
Battle of Mohácsand the first Siege of Vienna. In 1546 the AdmiralKapudan Pasha Heiradin Barbarossa died and Mehmed was appointed his successor. In this capacity he was present at the naval expedition against Trablus (present day Libya). During his five years in this position, Mehmed Pasha greatly strengthened the arsenal of the Naval fleet.
Mehmed became "
Beylerbey" (Governor-General) of Rumeliain 1551, headquartered in Sofia. While he was visiting the area of his birth, his mother recognized him by the birthmarkon his face and embraced her child for the first time in more than thirty years.fact|date=April 2008
After the death of Jovan Zapolja Duke of Erdelj (Transylvania) the King of Hungary and the [Habsburg Emperor] wanted to annex his lands, and civil war erupted between duchess Isabella (wife of Jovan Zapolja, and daughter of King of Poland) and her supporters under command of Petar Petrovic (predominantly Serbs), and the Djordje Utješenović (later will become a Cardinal as reward for his accomplishments in this conflict). The Habsburg Emperor sent a Condotier Officer (Bartolomeo Castoldo) and more than 7,000 soldiers (mercenaries) who beat the Serbs under Petar Petrović and killed more than 2,500 of them near Chanad (Csanad). The Sultan ordered Sokollu Mehmed Pasha to move immediately to
Hungary. Mehmed assembled an army of 90,000 soldiers and 54 cannons and marched into Hungary. He also summoned the Pashas of Smederevo, Vidinand Nicopolis. When his forces reached Slankamenin Srem, MonkĐorđe Utješenović, a Transylvanian viceroy, begged Mehmed not to attack Transylvania, arguing that it had remained in the possession of the Sultan. Mehmed rejected negotiation proposals, led Ottoman forces into Transylvania and soon captured 16 cities, including Bečej, Bečkerek, Csanádand Linova. Đorđe Utješenović responded by raising a rebellion in Transylvania, mustering one soldier from every household. Mehmed had to fall back and once again laid siege to Temišvaron 14 Octoberwith the main part of his army and 50 cannons. Mehmed demanded surrender, but the city's commander (Stevan Loshonci) replied with a recommendation for Mehmed's return to Rumelia. According to folklore, Mehmed then said:
: "Prije će, dakle, laki jelen u vazduhu pasti": "I more gole ribe na obali ostaviti."fact|date=April 2008
Mehmed besieged the city until
28 Octoberbut could not seize it. Retreating to Belgrade, he initiated peace negotiations with the Monk-Viceroy. Đorđe Utješenović was assassinated on 17 December 1551, and peace talks ended. Sokollu Mehmed Pasha renewed his military campaign in 1552, seizing Temišvar, Hollakö, Bujak, Ságh, Gürmath, the whole of Banatand Szolnak. Mehmed Pasha's forces then joined with those of Ahmet Pashaadvancing towards Eger. Mehmed's army assembled on the Hill of Egid but could not take the city itself.
In 1553, Sultan Suleyman declared war on
Persia, when the Persian Shah Tahmasp wanted to take adventage of the Sultan's preoccupation with Hungary and started making armed incursions against Ottoman areas. Sokollu Mehmed Pasha was dispatched to spend the winter of 1553/1554 in Tokatto take charge of the war against Persia. In June 1554, Sokollu Mehmed Pasha with the Rumeli (European) levies joined the army of the Sultan in the field near Susehri. He and the Rumeli contingent showed great successes in this campaign of Sultan Suleyman (called the "Nakhchevan Campaign" by the Turkish historians).
Impressed by Sokollu Mehmed Pasha, the Sultan made him the Third Vizier in 1555 and he was given a place in the Imperial Council. His position as Governor-General of Rumelia was given to a Herzegovinian
Janissaryaga, Pertev Pasha, Mehmed's companion while they had served under Iskender Chelebi.
Almost immediately Sokollu Mehmed Pasha had to quell a rebellion around Balkans and Salonica. The rebellion was raised by Mustafa Bey, who pretended to be the Sultan's late son Mustafa. Sokollu Mehmed Pasha took 4,000
horsemenand 3,000 janissaries and quelled the rebellion. Mustafa Bey was hanged.
Mehmed's brother, Topuzli-Makarije, was an Iguman of the Serb Chilandar monastery on
Athos. Makarije Sokolović paid a visit to his brother's palace in Istanbulin 1557. Mehmed discussed with his brother the possibilities of renewing the Serbian Orthodox Church. Later that same year, Mehmed Pasha issued an edict ("Ferman") declaring the restoration of the Peć Patriarchate, with Makarije Sokolović as PatriarchMakarije I. The edict also guaranteed the rights and religious freedom of all inhabitants of the Ottoman Empire.
When the former Grand Vizier Ahmet Pasha was deposed and hanged, he was replaced by
Rustem Pasha, who had numerous enemies. One of them was Lala Mustafa who instigated the Sultan's third son, Bayezid, then Beylerbey of Karaman, to raise a rebellion against his brother Selim, who was to inherit the Imperial throne. Sokollu Mehmed mustered an army and went to Konya, where he defeated Bayezid's forces decisively in May 1559. Bayezid fled to Persia. Mehmed Pasha remained in Asiaand spent the winter negotiating with the Persian Shahregarding Bayezid's extradition. After long negotiations, the Shah extradited Bayezid and his four sons, who were subsequently executed.
Grand Vizier Rustem Pasha died in 1561. He was succeeded by the Second Vizier,
Semiz Ali Pasha. Sokollu Mehmed Pasha in turn became Second Vizier, while Pertev Pasha became Third Vizier.
Sokollu Mehmed Pasha married Sultan Suleyman's granddaughter – Prince
Selim II's daughter, "Ismihan Sultan" (some sources read her name as "Esma Han Sultan") on 17 August 1562. Mehmed spent the following years in peace, governing and administrating the realm.
In 1564, Mehmed's nephew, Sokollu Mustafa Bey, became Viceroy of Bosnia.
In June 1565, Grand Vizier Semiz Ali Pasha died. Sultan Suleyman had much confidence in Sokollu Mehmed Pasha and promoted him to this position.
At the end of 1565 and the beginning of 1566, tensions between the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II and Sultan Suleyman grew. Maximilian wanted the cities previously taken by
Gazi Hasan Pasha Predojevićrestored to him. When negotiations failed, Maximilian declared war. Grand Vizier Sokollu Mehmed Pasha ordered his nephew, Sokollu Mustafa Beg of Bosnia, to advance against Maximilian. Mustafa managed to capture the cities of Krupaand Dvor na Uni. The Sultan immediately declared war against the Holy Roman Empire, and Grand Vizier Mehmed began the preparations for the army's advance. Mehmed went ahead, preparing for the arrival of the Sultan, who was leading the main part of the Ottoman forces. After 50 days, they arrived in Belgrade.
Zemun, one part of the army crossed Varadinand struck Egarbefore proceeding towards Vienna. The Croatian-Hungarian nobleman Nikola Zrinyi had defeated Sanjak Bey Tirhal Mohammed, executing him and his son, and capturing 17,000 ducats. This incurred the Sultan's wrath, and he dispatched Mehmet's forces to besiege Szigetvár. The Sultan remained in Harsang. Budin's commander Arslan Pasha lost the cities of Palota, Veszprémand Tata. The Sultan sent a platoon of 15 troopers to bring him Arslan Pasha's head, but Arslan had already left his forces three days earlier and was on his way to the Sultan. The Sultan showed Mehmed a letter in which Arslan had insulted Mehmed. On 3 August, Arslan reported to Mehmed's tent with 15 heavily armed horsemen. Sokollu Mehmed criticized Arslan for his conduct, accused him of treason and stripped him of his post, giving it instead to the Bosnian Governor-General, Sokollu Mustafa Bey. The Sultan finally arrived with Mehmed's sons, Kurt Bey and Hasan Bey, at Pécs. Finally, the large Ottoman force laid siege to Battle of Szigetvár. It numbered 90,000 soldiers and 300 cannons. Szigetvár fell after a long siege. Sultan Suleiman died before this and Nikola Zrinyi was executed after the takeover of the city.
Sokollu Mehmed Pasha had all witnesses to the Sultan's death executed. He announced that Suleyman was too sick to perform his duties and that he would be healing in Szigetvár, while Mehmed would be acting on his behalf. Mehmed rewarded those involved in the capture of Szigetvár and increased the soldiers' wages. He sent a part of the army to capture Bobovac. The
Tartars, however, spread the news of the Sultan's death, and Sokullu Mustafa Bey wrote to Prince Selim about his father's death. Selim marched immediately towards Srem. Upon his arrival in Vukovar, Mehmed Pasha wrote him that it would be best if he went to Belgrade to greet his army for a more formal and effective take-over of the Empire. Selim returned to Belgrade, and Mehmed ordered the army to march towards Belgrade. 40 days after the Sultan's death, in October 1566, the army set out for Belgrade. At the fourth stop on the way to Belgrade, 48 days after Suleyman's death, Mehmed announced the Sultan's death ceremonially, during the traditional reading of the Koran. Mehmed had Suleyman's body embalmed and ordered the army to proceed to meet the new Sultan in Belgrade. After three marches, the Army arrived to Sremska Mitrovica. Mehmed reminded Selim IIto send gifts to the Viziers, Pashas and the army, but Selim's advisors convinced the new Sultan not to do so. Sokollu Mehmed Pasha went to Belgrade and swore allegiance to Selim II as his Sultan, and Selim confirmed him as his Grand Vizier.
Expecting a mutiny among the military, Mehmed Pasha had Suleyman's body sent to Istanbul to restore order amongst the janissaries and other officials, who now demanded more compensation for their past efforts. In Belgrade, Sultan Selim II called a council, as even some of his closest officials were openly mocking him. Mehmed Pasha assured him that he would manage everything effectively, and dispatched gifts to the military ranks, rewarding them handsomely to regain their loyalty.
On the 5th day of their stay in Belgrade, the Sultan, Sokollu Mehmed Pasha and the army departed for Istanbul. Before they managed to return to the Empire's capital, a mutiny broke out and the road to the city was blocked. Sokollu Mehmed Pasha and Ahmed Pasha had to bribe their way into the city. Order was restored after Mehmed convinced the Sultan to promise to send handsome gifts and higher wages to the janissaries. The next morning, each janissary was given standard pay of 40 ducats and an additional 20 ducats as an accession bonus. Soon, other branches of the military, spahies and mercenaries, demanded higher wages as well. Mehmed arrested and replaced their agas at once, finally stopping all dissent.
Two years after Selim's accession, on 17 February 1568, Sokollu Mehmed Pasha succeeded in concluding at
Istanbula peace treaty with Emperor Maximilian II, whereby the Emperor agreed to pay an annual "tribute" of 30,000 ducats.
Mehmed Pasha had little success against
Russia, and the first encounter between the Ottoman Empire and her future northern rival presaged the disaster to come. A plan had been devised at Istanbul for connecting the Volgaand Don by a canal, and in the summer of 1569 a large force of janissaries and cavalry was sent to lay siege to Astrakhanand begin the canal works, while an Ottoman fleet besieged Azov. However, a sortie of the garrison of Astrakhan drove back the besiegers. A Russian army of 15,000 men attacked and scattered the workmen and the Tatarforce sent for their protection, and the Ottoman fleet was destroyed by a storm Fact|date=April 2008. Early in 1570 the ambassadors of Ivan the Terribleconcluded at Istanbul a treaty which restored friendly relations between the Sultan and the Tsar. Selim IIwas a very weak ruler, and Grand Vizier Sokollu Mehmed Pasha held the real power in the administration, thanks to the reforms of Selim's predecessor, Suleyman the Magnificent. Although the government was weakening, Sokollu Mehmed Pasha managed to expand the borders of the Ottoman Empire greatly. In 1570 he dispatched Sinan Pashato conquer Arabia. Sinan Pasha solemnly declared the reign of Sultan Selim II in Meccaupon finishing his military campaign in Hejazand Yemen.
In 1571-1572, on the order Mehmed's wife Ismihan Sultan (or Esma Han Sultan), the famous architect
Sinanbuilt the "Sokollu Mehmed Pasha Mosque" -- which an authoritative guide to Istanbul states to be "The most beautiful of the smaller mosques in Istanbul, a minor masterpiece by Sinan".J.Freely (1998) "Istanbul: The Imperial City", Penguin] [ [http://newmanservices.com/turkey/thumbs.asp?sokollu Sokollu Mehmet Pasa Mosque 1572 photos] ]
During the rule of Sokollu Mehmed Pasha as the Grand Vizier, the Ottoman navy and army took
Cyprusin 1571 from Venice. The administration of Cyprus was given to Mehmed's old friend, the ArabAhmed Pasha. The invasion of Cyprus led to the formation of a so-called Holy League, comprising the Pope, Spain with Naples and Sicily, the Republic of Venice, Genoa, Tuscany, and the Maltese Knights. On 7 October 1571, the coalition's fleet under the command of Don Juan of Austria decisively defeated the Ottoman fleet under Ali Pasha in the Battle of Lepanto (Turkish Inebahti Savasi).
Sokollu Mehmed Pasha immediately ensured that
Piale Pashaand Kilic Ali Pasha, the new Grand Admiral, were provided with all the necessary means and resources to rebuild the Empire's shattered fleet. By July 1572 the Ottoman fleet already numbered 250 fully-equipped warships "including eight of the largest capital ships ever seen in the Mediterranean" [S.J.Shaw,  History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, pp.178] . It is reported in Turkish chronicles that Sokollu Mehmed Pasha had said to the Venetian Ambassador "By conquering Cyprus we have cut off one of your arms; at Inebahti by defeating our navy you have only shaved off our beard. However, you know that a cut-off arm cannot be replaced but shaved-off beard grows thicker." [http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sokullu_Mehmet_Pa%C5%9Fa] . Indeed, the Holy League (1571)ships had to retire to ports and Ottoman naval supremacy in the Mediterranean was restored. The new Ottoman Navy that started a naval expedition in summer of 1573 under Kilic Ali Pashafound no rivals in the Mediterranean and ravaged the coasts of Sicily and southern Italy and in 1574 it captured Tunisfrom the Hafsids, who for some time had been supported by Spanish troops, thus restoring Ottoman domination of Western Mediterranean.
In March 3, 1573, Venetian Republic signed a new peace treaty with Ottomans under Mehmed Pasha, thereby bringing the Holy League to an end, accepting the loss of Cyprus and increasing the tribute payments. He also extended for eight more years the peace treaty with the Holy Roman Empire and Hapsburg
Austriaand maintained good relations with France, Polandand Russia. He was preparing for a fresh attack on Venice when the Sultan's death on 12 December 1574cut short his plans.
Sokollu Mehmed Pasha's wealth reached its peak around 1573. The worth of his personal property (cash, goods, accounts, objects) amounted to 18 million ducats. Mehmed received the standard Grand Vizier's wage of 20 ducats every day. His wealth increased greatly through gifts and taxes of Ottoman officials: anyone who became a Vizier had to pay Mehmed Pasha 50,000-60,000 ducats, and every Governor-General had to pay 15,000-20,000 or even sometimes 30,000-40,000 ducats upon ascending to office. The provincial governor of Egypt at Cairo alone dispatched 100,000 ducats to the Grand Vizier every year.Fact|date=April 2008
30 August1574, Grand Vizier Sokollu Mehmed Pasha installed his nephew Antonije Sokolović, then the Metropolitan of Hum, as the new Orthodox Christian Archbishopof Ochryd. On 23 Octoberthe same year, upon Peć Patriarch Makarije's death, Antonije became the new Serbian Orthodox Christian Patriarchof Peć. Antonije died soon, in 1575, and was replaced by yet another one of Mehmed's nephews, Gerasim Sokolović.
When Sultan Selim II died, Sokollu Mehmed Pasha again kept this secret until the Selim's oldest son Murad arrived from
Manisa. Mehmed Pasha bowed to the new Sultan, Murad III, and remained Grand Vizier. He now had to cope with the ascendancy of the political influences of Palace women, first with Sultan's mother Nurbanu Sultan and then his wife of Venetian origin, Safiye Sultan. Murad III gradually soured on Mehmed's overwhelming power within the Empire, and Mehmed's influence declined.
Sokollu Mehmed Pasha was involved in the Polish Crown's succession disputes in 1576 and 1577, but this did not reach greater measures.Fact|date=April 2008
Sokollu Mehmed Pasha signed numerous treaties of friendship with Venice,
Florence, Spain, Englandand Switzerland. He also managed to force a number of European states to pay tribute. Austria paid 9,000 ducats; Transylvania 3,000; Wallachia7,000; Moldavia3,000. Eventually, even Venice had to pay him 4,000 ducats annually. This altogether gave him an annual income of 31,000 ducats in gold.Fact|date=April 2008
Sultan Murad III began to limit Sokollu Mehmed Pasha's powers by slowly removing his allies from high offices. Mehmed was known to be opposed to the war with Persia which started in 1578. The state secretary Feridun, Mehmed Pasha's veteran from the siege of Szigetvár, was sent to Belgrade, away from Istanbul. Mehmed's faithful Arab friend, the Governor-General of Cyprus, was lynched by mutinous soldiers. Mehmed's greatest rivals,
Hamid Efendiand Piyale Pasha, arranged the execution of the Grand Vizier's protector, Michael Cantakuzines. On 10 October 1578, Sokollu Mustafa Bey, Mehmed Pasha's nephew and Governor-General of Budin, was assassinated. On the anniversary of this day, on 10 October 1579, Sokollu Mehmed Pasha had his servant Hasan Bey read to him about the Battle of Kosovo.
The next day, on
11 October, a mentally unstable dervishdemanded to see the Grand Vizier. Sokollu Mehmed Pasha allowed the dervish to enter his quarters, whereupon the dervish took out a knife and stabbed the Grand Vizier. After three hours, Sokollu Mehmed Pasha died. There are some who claim that the assassin was a janissary in disguise in employment of Safiye Sultan, the wife of Murad III.
He is buried at his complex, "Sokollu Mehmed Pasha Kulliyesi" at the back of Eyub Mosque, in Istanbul, at the "Sokollu Mehmed Pasha Turbe" built by famous architect
Sinanfor him c.1572. His wife Ismihan (or Esma Han) is buried near him and in the little garden of the Turbe are buried the family and descendants of Sokollu Mehmed Pasha.
Sokollu Mehmed Pasha has had 60 years service in the administration of Ottoman Empire. He holds an unusual distinction that, among all the persons who have reached Grand Vizier rank, he is the only single one who has never been demoted from any administrative job that he had been assigned and had reached the highest rank in Ottoman State always by promotion. Compared to other Ottoman administrators, Mehmed was calm in external affairs Dubious|date=April 2008. He preferred strategic moves to brutal ones Dubious|date=April 2008. He conquered only strategic points like
Cyprusand Tunis. He started grand canal related works near Istanbul joining Marmara Sea through Izmit Bay, through Sapanca Lake and Sakarya River to the Black Sea. Also he had canal digging work started at the sites of present Suez Canal and Volga-Don Canal. After his death, the religious freedom which he gave to the inhabitants of the Ottoman Empire was re-guaranteed.
Heritage and legacy
Sokollu Mehmed Pasha has left numerous architecturally well known buildings in Istanbul and in Ottoman lands of his day. A few of the most noteworthy can be cited here.
"Sokollu Mehmed Pasha Mosque" and the complex built at Kadirga district of Istanbul by architect
Sinanis considered to be the most beautiful of the smaller mosques in Istanbul. It is well known for unusually fine ordering of medrese (cells and lecture hall) over the entry stairs; for its lofty elegant interior; the first (but then well-copied) hooded fountain; ogival arches of the arcades; but above all the fine and well deservedly famed Iznik tiles. In Istanbul at Azapkapi district he also has another mosque, also known as the "Azapkapi Mosque", built by Sinan in 1577-1578, which is called most important Ottoman monument in Galata. In Eyub district of Istanbul, there is the "Sokollu Mehmed Pasha Kulliyesi" again built by Sinan c.1572, which is a complex including a medrese, a school and his tomb. On the main highway between the two Ottoman capitals of Istanbul and Edirne, at Luleburgaz there is well-known "Sokollu Mehmed Pasha Complex" of a caravanserai, bathhouse, mosque, medrese, a school, market streets and private apartments for Sultan's use (when it became a palace) built in 1549 and extended at 1569, both times by Sinan. He has further complexes built at Havsa, a city on the Istnabul-Edirne highway and in Payas, in southern Turkey near Antakya. Again, built by Sinan and known by the name of Sokollu Mehmed Pasha are the bridges at Alpullu, Luleburgaz and Corlu. There are in Havsa, Yesildirek (Istanbul), Edirne and Luleburgaz public bathhouses that were built by Sinan in the name Sokollu Mehmed Pasha.
Sokullu Mehmed Pasha is also remembered by South Slavic peoples for his architectural endowments in the area. He renewed the
Serbian Orthodox Churchin the Peć Patriarchateduring his tenure as third vizier and member of the imperial council in 1557 and instantiated his relative Makarije Sokolović, as a Patriarch of Serbia.
His most renowned endowment is an eleven-arched
bridgein his home town Višegrad. Building and history of the Višegrad bridgeis the topic of the well-known book by Ivo Andrić- The Bridge on the Drina, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prizefor literary achievements. His life also interested Meša Selimović. There were numerous Serbian legends on the bridge's construction. According to one, Mehmed Pasha built the bridge in his son's name. Another is present through Ivo Andrić's "Bridge on the Drina". It tells the tale of Rade the Architect who built the bridge.
In his native village of Sokolovići he has built a
mosque, meqteb, musafirhana and plumbing(? bathhouse); today, only the plumbing(?) remains. His foundations are spread over Edirne, Halep, Medina, Bečkerek, Belgradeand alongside Bosnia, where he is especially remembered for his bridges. Meccaand Istanbulcontained numerous mosquesalone. Apart from the Višegrad bridge, "Arslanagić bridge" in Trebinje, "Vizier's bridge" in Podgorica, the bridge on Žepaand "Kozja ćuprija" in Sarajevoare attributed to his name. Between Višegradand Sarajevo, on Glasinac, he built a Road of four paces and a castle. Of the castle, only a drinking-fountain remained – the "Mehmed Sokolović's han".
Every summer in the palace in
Istanbul, Mehmed Pasha prepared the choire's performations Fact|date=April 2008.
Mehmed Pasha's life became the subject of numerous Serbian and
Islamic legends, poems and tales.Fact|date=April 2008
References and notes
* [http://www.rastko.org.yu/istorija/mvuk_muslimani.pdf Знаменити Срби Муслимани] (pdf) - "Famous Serbs Muslims" by Milenko. M. Vukićević, 1906,
Belgrade, Davidović new Printing Press
* [http://www.geocities.com/famous_bosniaks/MEHMED_PASA_SOKOLOVICH.html Bosniak Mehmed Pasha Sokolovic] - Article by Prof. Muhamed Filipovic (historian) examining history of Bosniak hero Mehmed-pasa Sokolovic
* [http://www.novosti.co.yu/code/navigate.php?Id=16&status=jedna&datum=2006-02-03&feljton=4972 "Myth and Reality – Mehmed Pasha Sokolović", Ismet Kočan, feuilleton in Večernje Novosti] (in Serbian).
* [http://newmanservices.com/turkey/thumbs.asp?sokollu Photos of Sokollu Mehmet Pasa Mosque at Kadirga, Istanbul]
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