Treaty 4

Treaty 4

Treaty 4 was a treaty established between Queen Victoria and the Cree and Saulteaux First Nations. The area covered by Treaty 4 represents most of current day southern Saskatchewan, plus small portions of what are today western Manitoba and southeastern Alberta. This treaty is also called the "Qu'appelle Treaty," as its first signings were conducted at Qu'Appelle, Saskatchewan on September 15, 1874. Additional signings or adhesions would continue until September, 1877.

Reasons for the Treaty

The Government of Canada negotiated the first five Numbered Treaties to gain land from the First Nations for settlement, agricultural, and industry. Also, Prime Minister John A. Macdonald saw the land as necessary to complete a transcontinental railway, which would run through the cites of Regina, Moose Jaw, and Swift Current in southern Saskatchewan.

Terms of the Treaty

Each family of 5 covered by Treaty 4 would receive 2.5 square km of land, which they could sell back to the Government of Canada for compensation. Each person received $5 a year and a gift of clothing. A chief would receive $25 immediately plus and additional $25 per year, along with a coat and a silver medal. Every three years, a chief would receive a new suit of clothing. Four people of each band would also receive $15 a year and a new suit of clothing every three years.The people would also receive farming tools, and $750 annually for gunpowder, shot, bale and fishing net twine. Each reserve would get a school when they desired a teacher. The people would also have the right to hunt and fish on all ceded land, except that land used for agriculture, forestry, mining, or on any land that was settled.

Timeline

*15 September 1874: first signings at Qu'Appelle, Saskatchewan
*21 September 1874: Fort Ellice signing
*8 September 1875: Qu'Appelle Lakes signing
*9 September 1875: additional Qu'Appelle Lakes signing
*24 September 1875: Swan Lake signing
*24 August 1876: Fort Pelly signing
*25 September 1877: Fort Walsh signing

List of Treaty 4 First Nations

*Manitoba
**Swampy Cree Tribal Council
***Chemawawin Cree Nation—"Treaty 5 signatory council member"
***Grand Rapids First Nation—"Treaty 5 signatory council member"
***Marcel Colomb First Nation—"Treaty 6 signatory council member"
***Mathias Colomb First Nation—"Treaty 6 signatory council member"
***Mosakahiken Cree Nation—"Treaty 5 signatory council member"
***Opaskwayak Cree Nation—"Treaty 5 signatory council member"
***Sapotaweyak Cree Nation
***Wuskwi Sipihk First Nation
**West Region Tribal Council
***Ebb and Flow First Nation—"Treaty 2 signatory council member"
***Gamblers First Nation
***Keeseekoowenin First Nation—"Treaty 2 signatory council member"
***O-Chi-Chak-Ko-Sipi First Nation—"Treaty 2 signatory council member"
***Pine Creek First Nation
***Rolling River First Nation
***Skownan First Nation—"Treaty 2 signatory council member"
***Tootinaowaziibeeng Treaty Reserve First Nation
**independent
***Waywayseecappo First Nation
*Saskatchewan
**File Hills Qu'Appelle Tribal Council
***Carry The Kettle First Nation
***Little Black Bear First Nation
***Muscowpetung First Nation
***Nekaneet First Nation
***Okanese First Nation
***Pasqua First Nation
***Peepeekisis First Nation
***Piapot First Nation
***Standing Buffalo First Nation—"non-Treaty signatory council member; included in Treaty 4"
***Star Blanket First Nation
***Wood Mountain First Nation—"non-Treaty signatory council member; included in Treaty 4"
**Saskatoon Tribal Council
***Kinistin First Nation
***Mistawasis First Nation—"Treaty 6 signatory council member"
***Muskeg Lake First Nation—"Treaty 6 signatory council member"
***Muskoday First Nation—"Treaty 6 signatory council member"
***One Arrow First Nation—"Treaty 6 signatory council member"
***Whitecap Dakota First Nation—"non-Treaty signatory council member"
***Yellow Quill First Nation
**Touchwood Agency Tribal Council
***Day Star First Nation
***Fishing Lake First Nation
***Gordon First Nation
***Kawacatoose First Nation
***Muskowekwan First Nation
**Yorkton Tribal Administration
***Cote First Nation
***Kahkewistahaw First Nation
***Keeseekoose First Nation
***Ocean Man First Nation—"Treaty 4 signatory though in Treaty 2 area"
***Sakimay First Nations
***The Key First Nation
**independent
***Cowessess First Nation
***Ochapowace First Nation
***Pheasant Rump Nakota First Nation—"Treaty 4 signatory though in Treaty 2 area"
***White Bear First Nation—"Treaty 4 signatory though in Treaty 2 area"

ee also

* The Canadian Crown and First Nations, Inuit and Métis

External links

* [http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/pr/trts/trty4_e.html Indian and Northern Affairs Canada: Treaty 4 text]
* [http://www.manitobachiefs.com/treaty/retracing.html Manitoba Chiefs: First Nations Treaties with the British Crown]


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