Treaty 8

Treaty 8

Treaty 8 was an agreement signed on June 21, 1899, between Queen Victoria and various First Nations at Lesser Slave Lake. Adhesions to this agreement were signed that same year on July 1 at Peace River Landing, July 6 at Dunvegan, July 8 at Fort Vermilion, July 13 at Fort Chipewyan, July 17 at Smith's Landing, July 25 and 27 at Fond du Lac, August 4 at Fort McMurray, and August 14 at Wabasca Lake. Further Adhesions were in 1900 on May 13 at Fort St. John, June 8 at Lesser Slave Lake, June 23 at Fort Vermilion and July 25 at Fort Resolution. The land covered by Treaty 8 is larger than France and includes northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, northwestern Saskatchewan and a southernmost portion of the Northwest Territories.

Chief Keenooshayoo was one of the First Nations signatories to Treaty 8. First Nations that are considered signatories to Treaty 8 include Woodland Cree, Dunneza (or "Beaver") and Chipewyan. Other signatories included David Liard, Father Albert Lacombe, Rev. George Homes, Bishop Grourad, J.A.J. McKenna, J.H. Ross, W.G. White, James Walker, A. Arthur Cote, A.E. Snyder, H.B. Round, Harrison S. Young, J.F. Prud'Homme, C. Mair, H.A. Conroy, Pierre Deschambeault, J.H. Picard, Richard Secord, M. McCauley, Headman Moostoos, Headman Felix Giroux, Headman Wee Chee Way Sis, Headmman Charles Sue Ta Sis. Treaty 8 is one of eleven numbered treaties made between the Government of Canada and First Nations. The Government of Canada had between 1871 and 1877 signed Treaties 1 to 7. Treaties 1 to 7 covered the southern portions of what was the Northwest Territories. At that time, the Government of Canada had not considered a Treaty with the First Nations in what would be the Treaty 8 territory necessary, as conditions in the north were not considered conducive to settlement. However in the mid-1890s, the Klondike Gold Rush began to draw Europeans northward into the previous undisturbed territory. The increase contact and conflict between First Nations of the region and Europeans prompted the Government of Canada to enter into Treaty 8. In September 1899, the Treaty and Half Breed Commissioners finally concluded the treaty process, with 2217 accepting the treaty, and another 1234 people opting for scrip.

Father Albert Lacombe, a trusted Catholic missionary, had been asked by Canadian officials to be present to help convince First Nations that it was in their interest to enter into a treaty. He was present on June 21, 1899 and assured the First Nations that their lives would remain, more or less, unchanged. He was also present at some of the meetings at which adhesions were signed. The elements of Treaty 8 included provisions to maintain livelihood for the native populations in this 840 000 km² region, such as entitlements to land, ongoing financial support, annual shipments of hunting supplies, and hunting rights on ceded lands, unless those ceded lands were used for forestry, mining, settlement or other purposes. [ [http://www.canadiana.org/citm/_textpopups/aboriginals/doc64_e.html Text Pop-up ] ]

Gordon Benoit, a Mikisew Cree, filed a legal challenge against the income taxes in 1992 citing Treaty 8 rights still applied. His case was upheld in 2002 at the federal court level, but was subsequently overturned by the Federal Court of Appeal, and in 2004 the Supreme Court of Canada refused to hear a further appeal. Benoit had his housing and employment outside of a reservation, but a section of the Canadian Indian Act provides tax exemption for properties and jobs only within reserves.

ee also

* List of treaties
* Numbered Treaties
* The Canadian Crown and First Nations, Inuit and Métis

References

* [http://www.treaty8.org Treaty 8 First Nations of Alberta]
* [http://www.treaty8.bc.ca/ Treaty 8 Tribal Association (British Columbia)]
* [http://www.sicc.sk.ca/bands/treaty8.html List of Treaty 8 First Nations in Saskatchewan]

External links

* [http://www.collectionscanada.ca/treaty8/index-e.html Collections Canada: Treaty 8]
* [http://www.albertasource.ca/treaty8/eng/default.htm Virtual Museum of Canada Exhibit: The Making of Treaty #8 in Canada’s Northwest] http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/pr/trts/trty8_e.html


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужно решить контрольную?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Treaty 4 — was a treaty established between Queen Victoria and the Cree and Saulteaux First Nations. The area covered by Treaty 4 represents most of current day southern Saskatchewan, plus small portions of what are today western Manitoba and southeastern… …   Wikipedia

  • Treaty 3 — was an agreement entered into on October 3, 1873, by the Ojibway Nation and Queen Victoria. The treaty covers a large part of what is now northwestern Ontario and a small part of eastern Manitoba. Treaty 3 also provided for rights for the Metis… …   Wikipedia

  • treaty — treat‧y [ˈtriːti] noun treaties PLURALFORM [countable] 1. a formal agreement between two countries or governments: • The US Taiwan trade treaty is still valid, despite the ending of diplomatic ties. comˌmercial ˈtreaty ECONOMICS an agreement on… …   Financial and business terms

  • treaty — trea·ty n pl treaties [Anglo French treté, from Middle French traité, from Medieval Latin tractatus, from Latin, handling, treatment, from tractare to treat, handle] 1: the action of treating and esp. of negotiating 2: an agreement or arrangement …   Law dictionary

  • Treaty 7 — was an agreement between Queen Victoria and several mainly Blackfoot First Nations tribes in what is today the southern portion of Alberta. It was concluded on September 22, 1877. The agreement was signed at the Blackfoot Crossing of the Bow… …   Wikipedia

  • Treaty 2 — was an agreement established August 21, 1871, between the Queen Victoria and various First Nations in southwest Manitoba and a small part of southeast Saskatchewan; treaty signatories from this region included the Ojibway tribes. This would be… …   Wikipedia

  • Treaty 6 — is an agreement between the Canadian monarch and the Plain and Wood Cree Indians and other tribes of Indians at Fort Carlton, Fort Pitt and Battle River. The area given up by the Plain and Wood Cree represents most of the central area of the… …   Wikipedia

  • Treaty 5 — is a treaty that was first established in September, 1875, between Queen Victoria and Saulteaux and Swampy Cree non treaty tribes and peoples around Lake Winnipeg in the part of the North West Territories known as Rupert s Land. [A written text… …   Wikipedia

  • Treaty 1 — was an agreement established August 3, 1871 between Queen Victoria and various First Nations in South Eastern Manitoba including the Chippewa and Swampy Cree tribes. This would be the first treaty signed since the 1867 formation of the modern… …   Wikipedia

  • Treaty 9 — was an agreement established in July, 1905, between King Edward VII and various First Nations in northern Ontario. One First Nation community in the bordering Abitibi region of northwestern Quebec is also included in this treaty. It was also… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”