Treaty 6

Treaty 6

Treaty 6 is an agreement between the Canadian monarch and the Plain and Wood Cree Indians and other tribes of Indians at Fort Carlton, Fort Pitt and Battle River. The area given up by the Plain and Wood Cree represents most of the central area of the current provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta. One Manitoba band would also sign on to the treaty by adhesion in 1898. The treaty signings began in August, 1876, with adhesions added in 1889 in central Saskatchewan in the Montreal Lake area.

Reasons for a proposed treaty

At this time, the buffalo, the staple of the people that lived on the plains, was disappearing at an alarming rate. The chiefs realized that if they didn't sign a treaty with the government, they might starve to death or have to attack more of the forts and settlements within the area. A second major reason for the signing of the treaty was that a smallpox epidemic had recently gone through the area, killing many of the Cree.

Terms of the treaty

Each Native family of five covered by Treaty 6 received 2.5 square km of land, which they could sell back to the Government of Canada for compensation. Each person immediately received $12 and an additional $5 a year. The chief would receive one horse, one harness, and one wagon or two carts. The people would also receive $1500 a year for ammunition and fishing net twine. One of the selling points of the treaty was that a medicine chest would be kept at the home of the Indian Agent for use by the people. Another of the selling points was the guarantee of assistance for famine or pestilence relief.

One of the famous chiefs who signed this treaty was Poundmaker.


*23 August 1876: first signing at Fort Carlton
*28 August 1876: second signing at Fort Carlton
*9 September 1876: Fort Pitt signing
*9 August 1877: Fort Pitt adhesion signing by Cree bands
*25 September 1877: Blackfoot Crossing at Bow River signing (at Siksika Nation reserve, Alberta)
*19 August 1878: additional signing
*29 August 1878: Battleford signing
*3 September 1878: Carlton signing
*18 September 1878: additional signing, Michel Band, near Edmonton, Alberta
*2 July 1879: Fort Walsh signing
*8 December 1882: further Fort Walsh signing
*11 February 1889: Montreal Lake signing
*10 August 1898: Colomb band signing in Manitoba
*25 May 1944: Rocky Mountain House adhesion signing
*13 May 1950: further Rocky Mountain House adhesion signing
*21 November 1950: Witchekan Lake signing
*18 August 1954: Cochin signing
*15 May 1956: further Cochin signing
*1958, the Michel Band is "enfranchised" by the Department of Indian Affairs, and the reserve is dissolved. This is the only case of an entire band (save a few individuals) being involuntarily enfranchised. [ [ Friends of the Michel Society [1958 Enfranchisement Claim] ]

List of Treaty 6 First Nations

**Alexander First Nation
** Alexis First Nation
**Beaver Lake Cree Nation
**Cold Lake First Nation
**Enoch Cree Nation
**Ermineskin Tribe
**Frog Lake First Nation
**Heart Lake First Nation
**Kehewin Cree Nation
**Louis Bull First Nation
**Montana First Nation
**O'Chiese First Nation
**Paul First Nation
**Saddle Lake First Nation
**Samson First Nation
**Sunchild First Nation
**Whitefish Lake First Nationcol-3
**Marcel Colomb First Nation
**Mathias Colomb First Nation
**Ahtahkakoop First Nation
**Beardy's and Okemasis First Nation
**Big Island Lake Cree Nation
**Big River First Nation
**Chakastaypasin First Nation
**Flying Dust First Nation
**Island Lake First Nation
**James Smith First Nation
**Lac La Ronge First Nation
**Little Pine First Nation
**Lucky Man First Nation
**Makwa Sahgaiehcan First Nation
**Mistawasis First Nation
**Montreal Lake First Nationcol-3
**Moosomin First Nation
**Mosquito, Grizzly Bear's Head, Lean Man First Nation
**Muskeg Lake First Nation
**Muskoday First Nation
**One Arrow First Nation
**Onion Lake First Nation
**Pelican Lake First Nation
**Peter Ballantyne Cree Nation
**Poundmaker First Nation
**Red Pheasant First Nation
**Saulteaux First Nation
**Sweetgrass First Nation
**Sturgeon Lake First Nation
**Thunderchild First Nation
**Waterhen Lake First Nation
**Witchekan Lake First Nationcol-end

ee also

* The Canadian Crown and First Nations, Inuit and Métis


External links

* [ - The Making of Treaty 6 - Alberta Online Encyclopedia]

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