Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation

Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation

Infobox Law enforcement agency
agencyname = Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation
nativename =
nativenamea = Федера́льная слу́жба безопа́сности
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commonname = Federal Security Service
abbreviation = FSB
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logocaption = Minor emblem of the Federal Security Service
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formedyear = 1995
formedmonthday = April 3
preceding1 = Cheka
preceding2 = NKVD
preceding3 = KGB
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country = Russia
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federal = Yes

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headquarters = Lubyanka Square

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The Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation (FSB) (Russian: ФСБ, Федера́льная слу́жба безопа́сности; "Federalnaya Sluzhba Bezopasnosti") is the main domestic security service of the Russian Federation and the main successor agency of the Soviet-era Cheka, NKVD, and KGB.

The FSB is involved in counter-intelligence, internal and border security, counter-terrorism, and surveillance. Its headquarters are on Lubyanka Square, downtown Moscow, the same location as the former headquarters of the KGB.

The service was formerly known as the Federal Counterintelligence Service (FSK). A bill calling for the reorganization, expansion and renaming of FSK passed both houses of the Russian parliament and was signed into law on April 3, 1995 by Boris Yeltsin. It was made subordinate to the Ministry of Justice by presidential decree on March 9, 2004. [Presidential Edict No. 314, O sisteme i strukture federalnykh organov ispolnitelnoy vlasti, 9 March 2004; in Rossiyskaya gazeta, [http://www.rg.ru/2004/03/11/federel-dok.html] , 12 March 2004.]


The FSB is engaged mostly in domestic affairs, while espionage duties were taken over by the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service (former First Chief Directorate of the KGB). However, the FSB also includes the FAPSI agency, which conducts electronic surveillance abroad. In addition, the FSB operates freely within the territories of the former Soviet republics, and it can conduct anti-terrorist military operations anywhere in the World if ordered by the President, according to the recently adopted terrorism law. All law enforcement and intelligence agencies in Russia work under the guidance of FSB if needed. For example, the GRU, spetsnaz and Internal Troops detachments of Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs work together with the FSB in Chechnya.

The FSB is responsible for internal security of the Russian state, counterespionage, and the fight against organized crime, terrorism, and drug smuggling. However, critics claim that it is engaged in suppression of internal dissent, bringing the entire population of Russia under total control, and influencing important political events, just as the KGB did in the past. To achieve these goals, it is said the FSB implements mass surveillance and a variety of active measures, including disinformation, propaganda through the state-controlled mass media, provocations, and persecution of opposition politicians, investigative journalists, and dissidents. [ [http://www.hoover.org/publications/digest/7468137.html The Perils of Putinism] , By Arnold Beichman, Washington Times, February 11, 2007] [ [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A20887-2004Nov29.html Putinism On the March] , by George F. Will, Washington Post, November 30, 2004] [http://www.csis.org/media/csis/pubs/pm_0147.pdf The Essence of Putinism: The Strengthening of the Privatized State] by Dmitri Glinski Vassiliev, Center for Strategic and International Studies, November 2000] [ [http://eng.globalaffairs.ru/numbers/7/521.html What is ‘Putinism’?] , by Andranik Migranyan, "Russia in Global affairs", 13 April, 2004] [ [http://www.cdi.org/russia/johnson/4094.html#1 Putinism: highest stage of robber capitalism] , by Andrei Piontkovsky, The Russia Journal, February 7-13, 2000. The title is an allusion to work "Imperialism as the last and culminating stage of capitalism" by Vladimir Lenin] [ [http://www.hudson.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=publication_details&id=4852 Review of Andrei's Pionkovsky's "Another Look Into Putin's Soul" by the Honorable Rodric Braithwaite] , Hoover Institute] [ [http://ej.ru/comments/entry/6735/ Andrei Illarionov: Approaching Zimbabwe (Russian)] - [http://www.robertamsterdam.com/2007/04/andrei_illarionov_approaching.htm Partial English translation] ] [ [http://www.defac.ac.uk/colleges/csrc/document-listings/russian/04(01)-MAS.pdf Russia After The Presidential Election] by Mark A. Smith Conflict Studies Research Centre]

The FSB is a very large organization that combines functions and powers similar to those exercised by the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Federal Protective Service, the Secret Service, the National Security Agency (NSA), U.S. Customs and Border Protection, United States Coast Guard, and Drug Enforcement Administration. FSB also commands a contingent of Internal Troops, spetsnaz, and an extensive network of civilian informants. The number of FSB personnel and its budget remain state secrets, although the budget was reported to jump nearly 40% in 2006. The number of Chekists in Russia in 1992 was estimated as approximately 500,000.

Some observers note that FSB is more powerful than KGB was, because it does not operate under the control of the Communist Party as KGB did in the past. [http://www.frontpagemag.com/Articles/ReadArticle.asp?ID=13210 Symposium: KGB Resurrection] , interview with Vladimir Bukovsky, Ion Mihai Pacepa, and R. James Woolsey, Jr., FrontPageMagazine.com, April 30, 2004.] According to Ion Mihai Pacepa, "In the Soviet Union, the KGB was a state within a state. Now former KGB officers are running the state. They have custody of the country’s 6,000 nuclear weapons, entrusted to the KGB in the 1950s, and they now also manage the strategic oil industry renationalized by Putin. The KGB successor, rechristened FSB, still has the right to electronically monitor the population, control political groups, search homes and businesses, infiltrate the federal government, create its own front enterprises, investigate cases, and run its own prison system. The Soviet Union had one KGB officer for every 428 citizens. Putin’s Russia has one FSB-ist for every 297 citizens." [http://www.frontpagemag.com/Articles/ReadArticle.asp?ID=23038 Symposium: When an Evil Empire Returns] , interview with Ion Mihai Pacepa, R. James Woolsey, Jr., Yuri Yarim-Agaev, and Lt. Gen. Tom McInerney, FrontPageMagazine.com, June 23, 2006.]

Peter Finn of the Washington Post argues that the FSB is now the leading political force in Russia, which simply replaced the Communist Party. [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/12/11/AR2006121101434.html "In Russia, A Secretive Force Widens"] - by P. Finn - Washington Post, 2006 ] Alexander Litvinenko and Yuri Felshtinsky claim in their book, "", that the FSB became an international criminal organization that actually promotes and perpetrates the terrorism and organized crime in order to achieve its political and financial goals, instead of fighting the terrorism and crime.] ]


Initial reorganization of the KGB

During the late 1980s, as the Soviet government and economy were disintegrating, the KGB survived better than most state institutions, suffering far fewer cuts in its personnel and budget. Following the attempted coup of 1991 (in which some KGB units participated) [ [http://www.ndu.edu/inss/mcnair/mcnair34/34tar.html THE MILITARY AND THE AUGUST 1991 COUP] McNair Paper 34, The Russian Military's Role in Politics, January 1995.] against Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, the KGB was dismantled and formally ceased to exist from November 1991. [But see [http://www.thebulletin.org/article.php?art_ofn=jf93gevorkian N. Gevorkian, "The KGB: "They still need us", 49 Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 36 (1993))] .]

In late 1991 the domestic security functions of the KGB were reconstituted as the Federal Counterintelligence Service (FSK), which was placed under the control of the president. The FSK had been known initially for some time as the Ministry of Security. In 1995, the FSK was renamed and reorganized into the FSB by the Federal Law of April 3, 1995, "On the Organs of the Federal Security Service in the Russian Federation", granting it additional powers, enabling it to enter private homes and to conduct intelligence activities in Russia as well as abroad in cooperation with the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service (SVR). [http://www.fas.org/irp/world/russia/docs/law_950403.htm On Organs of the Federal Security Service in the Russian Federation] Russian Federation Federal Law No. 40-FZ. Adopted by the State Duma 22 February 1995. Signed by Russian Federation President B. Yeltsin and dated 3 April 1995.]

The FSB reforms were rounded out by decree No. 633, signed by Boris Yeltsin on June 23, 1995. The decree made the tasks of the FSB more specific, giving the FSB substantial rights to conduct cryptographic work, and described the powers of the FSB director. The number of deputy directors was increased to 8: 2 first deputies, 5 deputies responsible for departments and directorates and 1 deputy director heading the Moscow City and Moscow regional directorate. Yeltsin appointed Colonel-General Mikhail Ivanovich Barsukov as the new director of the FSB.

In 1998 Yeltsin appointed as director of the FSB Vladimir Putin, a KGB veteran who would later succeed Yeltsin as federal president. [Mark Tran. [http://www.guardian.co.uk/yeltsin/Story/0,,205434,00.html Who is Vladimir Putin?] Profile: Russia's new prime minister. Guardian Unlimited August 9, 1999.] Yeltsin also ordered the FSB to expand its operations against labor unions in Siberia and to crack down on right-wing dissidents. As president, Putin increased the FSB's powers to include countering foreign intelligence operations, fighting organized crime, and suppressing Chechen separatists.


On June 17, 2000, President Vladimir Putin signed a decree, according to which the FSB was supposed to have a director, a first deputy director and eight other deputy directors, including one stats-secretary and the chiefs of six departments (Economic Security Department, Counterintelligence Department, Organizational and Personnel Service, Department of activity provision, Department for Analysis, Forecasting and Strategic Planning, Department for Protection of the Constitutional System and the Fight against Terrorism). On June 11, 2001, the President introduced one more deputy director position.

According to a decree signed by Putin on March 11, 2003, by July 1 Border Guard Service of Russia had been transferred to FSB while FAPSI, agency of government telecommunications, had been abolished, granting FSB with a major part of its functions.

On August 12, 2003 Putin allowed the FSB to have three first deputy directors, including the Chief of the Border Guard Service (Vladimir Pronichev), and specified that a deputy director position must be assumed by the Chief of the Inspection Directorate.On July 11, 2004, the President reorganized FSB again. [ [http://www.agentura.ru/english/press/about/jointprojects/mn/fsbreform/ FSB Reform: Changes Are Few and Far between ] ] It was prescribed to have a director, two first deputy directors (Sergei Smirnov and Vladimir Pronichev, one of whom should be the Chief of the Border Guard Service (Pronichev).

On December 2, 2005, Putin authorized FSB to have one more deputy director. This position was assumed by Vladimir Bulavin on March 3, 2006.

In the beginning of 2006 the Italian news agency ANSA reported the publication on the FSB website of an offer, open to Russian citizens working as spies for a foreign country, to work as double agents.

In September 2006, the FSB was shaken by a major reshuffle, which, combined with some earlier reassignments (most remarkably, those of FSB Deputy Directors Yury Zaostrovtsev and Vladimir Anisimov in 2004 and 2005, respectively), were widely believed to be linked to the Three Whales Corruption Scandal that had slowly unfolded since 2000. Some analysts considered it to be an attempt to undermine FSB Director Nikolay Patrushev's influence, as it was Patrushev's team from the Karelian KGB Directorate of the late 1980s – early 1990s that had suffered most and he had been on vacations during the event. [ [http://2005.novayagazeta.ru/nomer/2005/46n/n46n-s00.shtml Фсб Закрытого Типа ] ] [ [http://www.kommersant.com/p704751/r_1/Mass_Dismissals_at_the_FSB/ Mass Dismissals at the FSB - Kommersant Moscow ] ] [ [http://www.kommersant.ru/doc.html?docId=704751 Ъ - Кит и меч ] ]



Then-FSB Director Nikolay Kovalev said in 1996: "There has never been such a number of spies arrested by us since the time when German agents were sent in during the years of World War II." The FSB reported that around 400 foreign intelligence agents were uncovered in 1995 and 1996. [http://www.globalsecurity.org/intell/world/russia/fsb-cases.htm Counterintelligence Cases] - by GlobalSecurity.org] In 2006 the FSB reported about 27 foreign intelligence officers and 89 foreign agents whose activities were stopped. [http://grani.ru/Politics/Russia/FSB/m.115994.html Story to the Day of Checkist] - by Vladimir Voronov, for grani.ru, December 2006.]

An increasing number of scientists have been accused of espionage and illegal technology exports by FSB during the last decade: researcher Igor Sutyagin, [http://www.hrw.org/backgrounder/eca/russia/4.htm Case study: Igor Sutiagin] ] physicist Valentin Danilov, [http://shr.aaas.org/aaashran/alert.php?a_id=290 AAAS Human Rights Action Network] ] physical chemist Oleg Korobeinichev, [http://www.mosnews.com/news/2006/03/23/korobeinichev.shtml Russian Scientist Charged With Disclosing State Secret] ] academician Oskar Kaibyshev, [http://www.themoscowtimes.com/stories/2006/08/09/001.html Oskar Kaibyshev convicted] ] and physicist Yury Ryzhov. [http://www.themoscowtimes.com/stories/2006/07/28/011.html Researchers Throw Up Their Arms] ] Some other widely covered cases of political prosecution include investigator Mikhail Trepashkin [http://eng.trepashkin.ru/ Trepashkin case] ] and journalist Vladimir Rakhmankov. [http://www.rferl.org/featuresarticle/2006/6/DF7B2E15-2F9F-4A8B-AAF0-A7622F0D33F7.html Russia: 'Phallic' Case Threatens Internet Freedom] ] All these people are either under arrest or serve long jail sentences.

Ecologist and journalist Alexander Nikitin, who worked with the Bellona Foundation, was accused of espionage. He published material exposing hazards posed by the Russian Navy's nuclear fleet. He was acquitted in 1999 after spending several years in prison (his case was sent for re-investigation 13 times while he remained in prison). Other cases of prosecution are the cases of investigative journalist and ecologist Grigory Pasko, [http://www.index.org.ru/mayday/pasko_a.html Grigory Pasko site] ] [ The Pasko case] ] Vladimir Petrenko who described danger posed by military chemical warfare stockpiles, and Nikolay Shchur, chairman of the Snezhinskiy Ecological Fund. [http://www.globalsecurity.org/intell/world/russia/fsb-cases.htm Counterintelligence Cases] - by GlobalSecurity.org]

Other arrested people include Viktor Orekhov, a former KGB officer who assisted Soviet dissidents, Vladimir Kazantsev who disclosed illegal purchases of eavesdropping devices from foreign firms, and Vil Mirzayanov who had written that Russia was working on a nerve gas weapon.

It has been reported that the FSB uses drugs to erase the memories of people who had access to secret information. [http://2005.novayagazeta.ru/nomer/2005/37n/n37n-s12.shtml "A nuclear chemist has been returned to a childhood state". - by Aleksei Tarasov - Novaya Gazeta (Russian)] ]


Over the years, FSB and affiliated state security organizations have killed all elected and appointed presidents of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria including Dzhokhar Dudaev, Zelimkhan Yandarbiev, Aslan Maskhadov, and Abdul-Khalim Saidullaev. Just before his death, Saidullaev claimed that the Russian government "treacherously" killed Maskhadov, after inviting him to "talks" and promising his security "at the highest level." [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/news/2006/03/mil-060308-rferl01.htm Russia Used 'Deception' To Kill Maskhadov] , March 8, 2006 (RFE/RL)]

During the Moscow theater hostage crisis and Beslan school hostage crisis, all hostage takers were killed on the spot by FSB spetsnaz forces. Only one of the suspects, Nur-Pashi Kulayev, survived and was convicted later by the court. It is reported that more than 100 leaders of terrorist groups have been killed during 119 operations on North Caucasus during 2006. On July 28, 2006 the FSB presented a list of 17 terrorist organizations recognized by the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, to Rossiyskaya Gazeta newspaper, which published the list that day. The list had been available previously, but only through individual request. [cite news|url=http://www.rg.ru/2006/07/28/terror-organizacii.html
title=17 particularly dangerous|publisher=Rossiyskaya Gazeta|language=Russian|date=2006-07-28|accessdate=2006-08-13
] [cite news|url=http://www.arabtimesonline.com/arabtimes/kuwait/Viewdet.asp?ID=8534&cat=a
title=‘Terror’ list out; Russia tags two Kuwaiti groups|publisher=Arab Times|date=2006-08-13|accessdate=2006-08-13
] Commenting on the list, Yuri Sapunov, head of anti-terrorism at the FSB, named three main criteria necessary for organizations to be listed. [cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/5223458.stm
title=Russia names 'terrorist' groups|publisher=BBC News|date=2006-07-28|accessdate=2006-08-13

Anti-corruption and organized crime

The FSB cooperates with Interpol and other national and international law enforcement agencies.Fact|date=August 2007 It has provided information on many Russian criminal groups operating in Europe.Fact|date=August 2007 FSB has also been involved in preparation of requests for extradition of high-profile suspects who escaped abroad, such as Aleksander Litvinenko, Oleg Kalugin, Akhmed Zakayev, Leonid Nevzlin, and Boris Berezovsky. However, these requests have been denied by UK, US, Danish, and Israeli courts.Fact|date=August 2007

Border protection

The Federal Border Guard Service (FPS) has been part of the FSB since 2003. Russia has 61,000 kilometers of sea and land borders, 7,500 kilometers of which is with Kazakhstan, and 4,000 kilometers with China. One kilometer of border protection costs around 1 million rubles per year. Vladimir Putin called on the FPS to increase the fight against international terrorism and "destroy terrorists like rats". [http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/library/news/russia/2006/russia-060208-rferl01.htm Putin Calls On FSB To Modernize Border Guards] by Victor Yasmann for Radio Free Europe, December 2005.]

Export control

The FSB is engaged in the development of Russia's export control strategy and examines drafts of international agreements related to the transfer of dual-use and military commodities and technologies. Its primary role in the nonproliferation sphere is to collect information to prevent the illegal export of controlled nuclear technology and materials. ["Status of the State Licensing System of Control over Exports of Nuclear Materials, Dual-use Commodities and Technologies in Russia: Manual for foreign associates in Russia," International Business Relations Corporation, Department of Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Fuel Cycle (Moscow, 2002).]


Structure of the Federal Office (incomplete):
*Counterintelligence Service (Department) - chiefs: Oleg Syromolotov (since Aug 2000), Valery Pechyonkin (September 1997 – August 2000)
**Directorate for the Counterintelligence Support of Strategic Facilities
**Military Counterintelligence Directorate - chiefs: Alexander Bezverkhny (at least since 2002), Vladimir Petrishchev (since January 1996)
*Service (Department) for Protection of the Constitutional System and the Fight against Terrorism – chiefs: Alexey Sedov (since March 2006), Alexander Bragin (2004 – March 2006), Alexander Zhdankov (2001 - 2004), German Ugryumov (2000-2001)
**Directorate for Terrorism and Political Extremism Control – chiefs: Mikhail Belousov, before him Grafov, before the latter Boris Mylnikov (since 2000)
*Economic Security Service (Department) – chiefs: Alexander Bortnikov (since March 2, 2004), Yury Zaostrovtsev (January 2000 – March 2004), Viktor Ivanov (April 1999 – January 2000), Nikolay Patrushev (1998 – April 1999), Alexander Grigoryev (August 28 – October 1, 1998).
*Operational Information and International Relations Service (Analysis, Forecasting, and Strategic Planning Department) – chiefs: Viktor Komogorov (since 1999), Sergei Ivanov (1998-1999)
*Organizational and Personnel Service (Department) – chiefs: Yevgeny Lovyrev (since 2001), Yevgeny Solovyov (before Lovyrev)
*Department for Activity Provision – chiefs: Mikhail Shekin (since September 2006), Sergey Shishin (before Shekin), Pyotr Pereverzev (as of 2004), Alexander Strelkov (before Pereverzev)
*Border Guard Service – chiefs: Vladimir Pronichev (since 2003)
*Control Service – chiefs: Alexander Zhdankov (since 2004)
**Inspection Directorate – chiefs: Vladimir Anisimov (2004-May 2005), Rashid Nurgaliyev (July 12 2000 - 2002),
**Internal Security Directorate – chiefs: Alexander Kupryazhkin (until September 2006), Sergei Shishin (before Kupryazhkin since December 2002), Sergei Smirnov (April 1999 – December 2002), Viktor Ivanov (1998 – Aril 1999), Nikolay Patrushev (1994-1998)
*Science and Engineering Service (Department) – chiefs: Nikolai Klimashin
*Investigation Directorate – chiefs: Nikolay Oleshko (since December 2004), Yury Anisimov (as of 2004), Viktor Milchenko (since 2002), Sergey Balashov (until 2002 since at least 2001), Vladimir Galkin (as of 1997 and 1998)

Besides the services (departments) and directorates of the federal office, the territorial directorates of FSB in the federal subects are also subordinate to it.

Of these, St. Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast Directorate of FSB and its predecessors (historically covering both Leningrad/Saint Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast) have played especially important roles in the history of this organization, as many of the officers of the Directorate, including Vladimir Putin and Nikolay Patrushev, later assumed important positions within the federal FSB office or other government bodies. After the last Chief of the Soviet time, Anatoly Kurkov, the St. Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast Directorate were led by Sergei Stepashin (November 29, 1991 - 1992), Viktor Cherkesov (1992 –1998), Alexander Grigoryev (October 1, 1998 – January 5, 2001), Sergei Smirnov (January 5, 2001 – June 2003), Alexander Bortnikov (June 2003 – March 2004) and Yury Ignashchenkov (since March 2004).

Heads of the FSB

On June 20, 1996, Boris Yeltsin fired FSB Director Mikhail Barsukov and appointed Nikolay Kovalyov as acting Director and later Director of the FSB.
*Viktor Barannikov January 1992 - July 1993
*Nikolai Golushko, July 1993 - February 1994
*Sergei Stepashin, February 1994 - June 1995
*Mikhail Barsukov, July 1995 - June 1996
*Nikolai Kovalev, July 1996 - July 1998
*Vladimir Putin, July 1998 - August 1999
*Nikolai Patrushev, August 1999 - 12 May 2008
*Aleksandr Bortnikov, since 12 May 2008


The FSB has the power to enter any home or business without a search warrant if there is sufficient reason to believe that "a crime has been, or is being, committed there". [Aleksandr Platkovskiy, "Pod novoy vyveskoy vozrozhdayetsya staroe KGB," Izvestiya, 18 March 1995, pp. 1-2] ["Russia, Keeps Getting Back," Economist, 15 April 1995, pp. 51-52.] Article 24 of the law exempts the agency from certain oversight by Russia’s Public Prosecutor.

Human rights activists have claimed that the FSB has been slow to shed its KGB heritage, and there have been allegations that it has manufactured cases against suspected dissidents and used threats to recruit agents. At the end of the 1990s, critics charged that the FSB had attempted to frame Russian academics involved in joint research with Western arms-control experts. [Peter Finn. [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/12/11/AR2006121101434.html In Russia, A Secretive Force Widens] Washington Post, December 12, 2006.]

Despite early promises to reform the Russian intelligence community, the FSB and the services that collect foreign intelligence and signals intelligence (the SVR and the Federal Agency for Government Communications and Information) remained largely unreformed and subject to little legislative or judicial scrutiny. [http://www.agentura.ru/english/press/about/jointprojects/mn/fsbreform/ FSB Reform: Changes Are Few and Far between] Agentura.Ru] Although some limits were placed on the FSB's domestic surveillance activities — for example, spying on religious institutions and charitable organizations was reduced — all the services continued to be controlled by KGB veterans schooled under the old regime. Moreover, few former KGB officers were removed following the agency's dissolution, and little effort was made to examine the KGB's operations or its use of informants. [Charles Gurin. [http://www.jamestown.org/publications_details.php?volume_id=401&issue_id=3019&article_id=2368262 FSB RESTRUCTURING MORE MODEST THAN EXPECTED] EURASIA DAILY MONITOR, Volume 1, Issue 53 (July 16, 2004)]

Alleged FSB-organized coup

Starting from 1998, people from state security services came to power as Prime Ministers of Russia: a KGB veteran Yevgeny Primakov; former FSB Director Sergei Stepashin; and finally former FSB Director Vladimir Putin who was appointed in August 8, 1999.

In August 7, separatist guerrilla leader Shamil Basayev began an incursion into Dagestan leading to the start of the Dagestan War which was regarded by Anna Politkovskaya as a provocation initiated from Moscow to start war in Chechnya, because Russian forces provided safe passage for Islamic fighters back to Chechnya. [http://www.press.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/hfs.cgi/00/16135.ctl Politkovskaya, Anna (2003) "A Small Corner of Hell: Dispatches from Chechnya"] ] It was reported that Aleksander Voloshin of the Yeltsin administration paid money to Shamil Basayev to stage this military operation. [http://www.peaceinthecaucasus.org/reports/paper_dunlop.htm The Second Russo-Chechen War Two Years On] - by John B. Dunlop, ACPC, October 17, 200] Paul Klebnikov: Godfather of the Kremlin: The Decline of Russia in the Age of Gangster Capitalism, ISBN 0-15-601330-4] [http://www.lib.ru/HISTORY/FELSHTINSKY/naslednik.txt The Operation "Successor"] by Vladimir Pribylovsky and Yuriy Felshtinsky (in Russian).] (Basayev reportedly worked for Russian GRU at this time and earlier). [http://prima-news.ru/eng/news/articles/2005/3/11/31434.html Western leaders betray Aslan Maskhadov] - by Andre Glucksmann. Prima-News, March 11, 2005] [http://www.jamestown.org/publications_details.php?volume_id=416&issue_id=3848&article_id=2371430 CHECHEN PARLIAMENTARY SPEAKER: BASAEV WAS G.R.U. OFFICER] The Jamestown Foundation, September 08, 2006] [http://www.rferl.org/featuresarticle/2005/03/533b2aa8-dfbd-4837-9dfe-ec64e3206aa6.html Analysis: Has Chechnya's Strongman Signed His Own Death Warrant?] - by Liz Fuller, RFE/RL, March 1, 2005 ]

On September 4, a series of four Russian apartment bombings began. Three FSB agents were caught while planting a large bomb in the basement of an apartment complex in the town of Ryazan in September 22. That was last of the bombings. Russian Minister of Internal Affairs Rushailo congratulated police with preventing the terrorist act, but FSB Director Nikolai Patrushev declared that the incident was a training exercise just an hour later, when he had learned that the FSB agents were caught.

The next day, Boris Yeltsin received a demand from 24 Russian governors to transfer all state powers to Prime Minister Vladimir Putin, according to Sergei Yushenkov [http://www.hro.org/editions/yushenkov/02_06_03.htm Sergei Yushenkov: That was a coup in 1999] .] . The Second Chechen War began on September 24. This war made Prime Minister Vladimir Putin very popular, although he was previously unknown to the public, and helped him to win a landslide victory in the presidential elections on March 26, 2000.

This was a successful coup d'état organized by the FSB to bring Vladimir Putin to power, according to former FSB officer Alexander Litvinenko, lawmaker Sergei Yushenkov, and journalist David Satter, a Johns Hopkins University and Hoover Institute scholar. Yuri Felshtinsky, Alexander Litvinenko, and Geoffrey Andrews. . New York 2002. ISBN 1-56171-938-2.] [http://www.hro.org/editions/yushenkov/02_06_03.htm Sergei Yushenkov: That was a coup in 1999] .] David Satter. "Darkness at Dawn: The Rise of the Russian Criminal State." Yale University Press. 2003. ISBN 0-300-09892-8.] All attempts to independently investigate the Russian apartment bombings were unsuccessful. Journalist Artyom Borovik died in a suspicious plane crash. Vice-chairman of the Sergei Kovalev commission created to investigate the bombings, Sergei Yushenkov, was assassinated. Another member of this commission Yuri Shchekochikhin died presumably from poisoning by thallium. Investigator Mikhail Trepashkin hired by relatives of victims was arrested and convicted by Russian authorities for allegedly disclosing state secrets.

FSB as ruling political elite

According to former Russian Duma member Konstantin Borovoi, "Putin's appointment is the culmination of the KGB's crusade for power. This is its finale. Now the KGB runs the country." Olga Kryshtanovskaya, director of the Moscow-based Center for the Study of Elites, has found that up to 78% of 1,016 leading political figures in Russia have served previously in organizations affiliated with KGB or FSB. She said: "If in the Soviet period and the first post-Soviet period, the KGB and FSB people were mainly involved in security issues, now half are still involved in security but the other half are involved in business, political parties, NGOs, regional governments, even culture... They started to use all political institutions." "Like cockroaches spreading from a squalid apartment to the rest of the building, they have eventually gained a firm foothold everywhere," said Sergei Grigoryants, a Soviet dissident.

This situation is very similar to that of the former Soviet Union where all key positions in the government were occupied by members of the Communist Party. The KGB or FSB members usually remain in the "acting reserve" even if they formally leave the organization ("acting reserve" members receive second FSB salary, follow FSB instructions, and remain "above the law" being protected by the organization, according to Kryshtanovskaya). [http://www.echo.msk.ru/programs/albac/ Interview with Olga Kryshtanovskaya (Russian)] "Siloviks in power: fears or reality?" by Evgenia Albats, Echo of Moscow, 4 February 2006] As Vladimir Putin said, "There is no such thing as a former KGB man". [http://msnbc.msn.com/id/11081430/site/newsweek/ "A Chill in the Moscow Air" - by Owen Matthews and Anna Nemtsova - Newsweek International, Feb. 6, 2006] ] GRU defector and writer Victor Suvorov explained that members of Russian security services can leave such organizations only in a coffin, because they know too much. Soon after becoming prime minister of Russia, Putin also claimed that "A group of FSB colleagues dispatched to work undercover in the government has successfully completed its first mission." [http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/latimes/access/47922334.html?dids=47922334:47922334&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&type=current&date=Jan+12%2C+2000&author=RICHARD+C.+PADDOCK&pub=Los+Angeles+Times&edition=&startpage=1&desc=COLUMN+ONE "The KGB Rises Again in Russia" - by R.C. Paddock - Los Angeles Times, January 12, 2000] ]

The idea of the KGB acting as a leading political force rather than a security organization has been discussed by historian Abdurakhman Avtorkhanov, [http://www.chechentimes.org/en/chechentimes/16/?id=974 "Idea which is worth of dying for it"] , The Chechen Times №17, 30.08.2003] journalist John Barron, writer and former GRU officer Victor Suvorov, retired KGB Major General Oleg Kalugin, [http://cicentre.com/Documents/DOC_Kalugin_Nov_00_Speech.htm "The Triumph of the KGB" by retired KGB Major General Oleg D. Kalugin] The Centre for Counterintelligence and Security Studies] and Evgenia Albats. According to Avtorkhanov, "It is not true that the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party is a superpower... An absolute power thinks, acts and dictates for all of us. The name of the power — NKVDMVDMGB. ...Chekism in ideology, Chekism in practice. Chekism from top to bottom."

According to Albats, most KGB leaders, including Lavrenty Beria, Yuri Andropov, and Vladimir Kryuchkov, have always struggled for the power with the Communist Party and manipulated the communist leaders. Moreover, FSB has formal membership, military discipline, an extensive network of civilian informants, [http://www.yabloko.ru/Publ/Raby/rab.html Slaves of KGB. 20th Century. The religion of betrayal (Рабы ГБ. XX век. Религия предательства)] , by Yuri Shchekochikhin Moscow, 1999.] hardcore ideology, and support of population (60% of Russians trust FSB), [http://www.grani.ru/Society/History/m.116094.html Archives explosion] by Maksim Artemiev, grani.ru, December 22, 2006] which makes it a perfect totalitarian political party.Yevgenia Albats and Catherine A. Fitzpatrick. The State Within a State: The KGB and Its Hold on Russia--Past, Present, and Future. 1994. ISBN 0-374-52738-5.] However the FSB party does not advertise its leading role because the secrecy is an important advantage.

With regard to death of Aleksander Litvinenko, the highest-ranking Soviet Bloc intelligence defector, Lt. Gen. Ion Mihai Pacepa stated that there is "a band of over 6,000 former officers of the KGB — one of the most criminal organizations in history — who grabbed the most important positions in the federal and local governments, and who are perpetuating Stalin’s, Khrushchev’s, and Brezhnev’s practice of secretly assassinating people who stand in their way." [http://article.nationalreview.com/?q=MzY4NWU2ZjY3YWYxMDllNWQ5MjQ3ZGJmMzg3MmQyNjQ= The Kremlin’s Killing Ways] - by Ion Mihai Pacepa, National Review Online, November 28, 2006]

It is well known that certain very senior clergy of the Moscow Patriarchate are members of the FSB. They use their ecclesiastical positions to further the interests of the Russian State in foreign countries.

uppression of internal dissent

Many Russian opposition lawmakers and investigative journalists have been assassinated while investigating corruption and alleged crimes conducted by FSB and state authorities: Sergei Yushenkov, ‎Yuri Shchekochikhin, Galina Starovoitova, Anna Politkovskaya, Alexander Litvinenko, Paul Klebnikov, Nadezhda Chaikova, Nina Yefimova, and many others. [http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/engEUR460401998 Amnesty International condemns the political murder of Russian human rights advocate Galina Starovoitova] ] [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/2957823.stm Yushenkov: A Russian idealist] ] Former KGB officer Oleg Gordievsky believes that murders of writers Yuri Shchekochikhin (author of "Slaves of KGB" [ [http://www.yabloko.ru/Publ/Raby/rab.html «Рабы ГБ. XX век. Религия предательства» ] ] ), Anna Politkovskaya, and Aleksander Litvinenko show that FSB has returned to the practice of political assassinations [ [http://www.svobodanews.ru/Transcript/2006/11/20/20061120204213113.html Бывший резидент КГБ Олег Гордиевский не сомневается в причастности к отравлению Литвиненко российских спецслужб - svobodanews.ru ] ] which were conducted in the past by the Thirteenth KGB Department. *Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, "The Mitrokhin Archive: The KGB in Europe and the West", Gardners Books (2000), ISBN 0-14-028487-7] Just before his death, Alexander Litvinenko accused Vladimir Putin of personally ordering the assassination of Anna Politkovskaya. [ [http://video.google.co.uk/videoplay?docid=-7225032942379831216&q=Anna+Politkovskaya Alexander Litvinenko at the Frontline Club accusing Vladimir Putin of the assassination of journalist Anna Politkovskaya] "(In Russian and English)"]

Political dissidents from the former Soviet republics, such as Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, are often arrested by FSB and extradited to these countries for prosecution, despite protests from international human rights organizations.] ] [http://2006.novayagazeta.ru/nomer/2006/82n/n82n-s11.shtml FSB serves to Islam - by Aleksander Podrabinek - Novaya Gazeta] ] Special services of Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan also kidnap people at the Russian territory, with the implicit approval of FSB. [http://2006.novayagazeta.ru/nomer/2006/14n/n14n-s18.shtml "Special services of former Soviet republics at the Russian territory" - by Andrei Soldatov - Novaya Gazeta (Russian)] ]

Criticism of anti-terrorist operations

Use of excessive force by the FSB spetsnaz was criticized with regard to resolving Moscow theater hostage crisis and Beslan hostage crisis. According to Sergey Kovalev, the Russian government kills its citizens without any hesitation. He provided the following examples: murdering of hostages by the poison gas during Moscow theater hostage crisis; burning school children alive by spetsnaz soldiers who used RPO flamethrowers during Beslan school hostage crisis; crimes committed by death squads in Chechnya; [http://hrw.org/english/docs/2006/10/13/russia14384.htm Russia Condemned for Chechnya Killings] ] and assassination of Zelimkhan Yandarbiyev. [http://www.svobodanews.ru/Article/2006/12/10/20061210124323093.html Sergey Kovalev - Interview to Radio Free Europe] ] Anna Politkovskaya and Irina Hakamada, who conducted unofficial negotiations with terrorists, stated that the hostage takers were not going to use their bombs to kill the people and destroy the building during Moscow theater hostage crisis. [ [http://2004.novayagazeta.ru/nomer/2004/02n/n02n-s13.shtml Ïðåçèäåíòñêèå Âûáîðû — Íàø Ïîñëåäíèé Øàíñ Óçíàòü Ïðàâäó ] ]

According to Anna Politkovskaya, most of the "Islamic terrorism cases" were fabricated by the government, and the confessions have been obtained through the torture of innocent suspects. "The plight of those sentenced for Islamic terrorism today is the same as that of the political prisoners of the Gulag Archipelago... Russia continues to be infected by Stalinism", she said. [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/03/31/AR2006033101584.html Stalinism Forever - by Anna Politkovskaya - The Washington Post] ]

Alleged involvement in terrorist acts

Former FSB officer Aleksander Litvinenko and investigator Mikhail Trepashkin alleged that Moscow theater hostage crisis was directed by a Chechen FSB agent. [cite web
last = Lazaredes
first = Nick
title = Terrorism takes front stage — Russia’s theatre siege
work =
publisher = SBS
date = 04 June 2003
url = http://news.sbs.com.au/dateline/index.php?page=archive&daysum=2003-06-04#
accessdate = 2006-11-28
] ru iconcite web
title = М. Трепашкин: «Создана очень серьезная группа»
publisher = Chechen Press State News Agency
date = 1 December 2006
url = http://www.chechenpress.info/events/2006/12/01/03.shtml
accessdate = 2006-12-01
] Yulia Latynina and other journalists also accused the FSB of staging many smaller terrorism acts, such as market place bombing in the city of Astrakhan, bus stops bombings in the city of Voronezh, and the blowing up the Moscow-Grozny train, [http://2006.novayagazeta.ru/nomer/2006/24n/n24n-s06.shtml Special services stage undermining activities] - by Yulia Latynina, Novaya Gazeta, 03 April, 2006.] [http://2005.novayagazeta.ru/nomer/2005/83n/n83n-s10.shtml The marketplace was blown up by photorobots] by Vjacheslav Izmailov, Novaya Gazeta, 07 November, 2005.] whereas innocent people were convicted or killed. Journalist Boris Stomakhin claimed that a bombing in Moscow metro in 2004 [http://www.rferl.org/reports/corruptionwatch/2004/03/8-120304.asp The Moscow metro bombing] - by Roman Kupchinsky, RFE/RL Reports, 12 March, 2004] was probably organized by FSB agents rather than by the unknown man who called the Kavkaz Center and claimed his responsibility. [http://zaborisa.marsho.net/?pg=7&item=35 Pay back for genocide (Russian)] - by Boris Stomakhin] Stomakin was arrested and imprisoned for writing this and other articles. [http://www.article19.org/pdfs/publications/russia-journalist-stomakhin-conviction.pdf ARTICLE 19’S Statement on the conviction of Russian newspaper editor Boris Stomakhin] , 23 November 200]

Many journalists and workers of international NGOs were reported to be kidnapped by FSB-affiliated forces in Chechnya who pretended to be Chechen terrorists: Andrei Babitsky from Radio Free Europe, Arjan Erkel and Kenneth Glack from Doctors Without Borders, and others. [http://2005.novayagazeta.ru/nomer/2005/06n/n06n-s02.shtml Special services of delivery (Russian)] - by Vyacheslav Ismailov, Novaya Gazeta 27 January, 2005]

Alleged involvement in organized crime

Former FSB officer Aleksander Litvinenko accused FSB personnel of involvement in organized crime, such as drug trafficking and contract killings. A. Litvinenko and A. Goldfarb. "Gang from Lubyanka" ru icon GRANI, New York, 2002. ISBN 0-9723878-0-3. [http://www.compromat.ru/main/fsb/litvinenkolpg.htm Full book in Russian] ] It was noted that FSB, far from being a reliable instrument in the fight against organized crime, is institutionally a part of the problem, due not only to its co-optation and penetration by criminal elements, but to its own absence of a legal bureaucratic culture and use of crime as an instrument of state policy. [http://www.afpc.org/pubs/crimrev.htm Russia's Great Criminal Revolution: The Role of the Security Services] - by J. M. Waller and V. J. Yasmann, Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, Vol. 11, No. 4, December 1995.]

International affairs

FSB collaborates very closely with secret police services from some former Soviet Republics, especially Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. [http://2006.novayagazeta.ru/nomer/2006/14n/n14n-s18.shtml Special services of the former Soviet Union work in Russian Federation (Russian)] - by Andrei Soldatov and Irina Dorogan, Novaya Gazeta, 27 February, 2006.] [http://2006.novayagazeta.ru/nomer/2006/22n/n22n-s15.shtml Special services of Russian Federation work in the former Soviet Union (Russian)] - by Andrei Soldatov and Irina Dorogan, Novaya Gazeta, 27 March, 2006.] The FSB is accused of working to undermine governments of Baltic states and Georgia. [http://www.kommersant.com/page.asp?idr=1&id=703046 Moscow Accused of Backing Georgian Revolt] - by Olga Allenova and Vladimir Novikov, Kommersant, Sep. 07, 2006.] During the 2006 Georgian-Russian espionage controversy, several Russian GRU officers were accused by Georgian authorities of preparations to commit sabotage and terrorist acts.Fact|date=August 2007

Chairman of the United Nations Special Commission Richard Butler found than many Russian state-controlled companies were involved in the Oil-for-Food Programme-related fraud. As a part of this affair, former FSB Director Yevgeny Primakov had received large kickbacks from Saddam Hussein according to Butler. [ [http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F30C1FFE3B550C728CDDA10894D1494D81&n=Top%2fReference%2fTimes%20Topics%2fPeople%2fH%2fHussein%2c%20Saddam Arms Aide Who Quit Assails U.N. on Iraq - New York Times ] ] The KGB, FSB and Russian government had very close relationships with Saddam Hussein and Iraqi Intelligence Service Mukhabarat according to Yossef Bodansky, the Director of Research of the International Strategic Studies Association.

ee also

*Chronology of Soviet secret police agencies
*Terrorism in Russia
*Numbers station, shortwave radio stations of uncertain origin thought to broadcast coded messages
*Spetsnaz, Russian special forces
*GRU, Russia's military intelligence agency
*OMON, special units of Russian police
*SVR, Russia's primary foreign intelligence agency
*Federal Protective Service, government protection agency
*FSK, KGB successor (1991—1995), then reorganized into the FSB
*KGB, main predecessor to the FSB
*FAPSI, Russia's main electronic and signals intelligence agency
*SORM, law that allows the FSB to monitor communications
*Active measures, a form of Soviet political warfare
*Russian apartment bombings, 1999
*Three Whales Corruption Scandal, 2000
*Alexander Litvinenko poisoning, 2006


Further reading

*Yuri Felshtinsky, Alexander Litvinenko, and Geoffrey Andrews. "Blowing up Russia : Terror from within." 2002. ISBN 1-56171-938-2
*Yevgenia Albats and Catherine A. Fitzpatrick. "The State Within a State: The KGB and Its Hold on Russia--Past, Present, and Future." 1994. ISBN 0-374-52738-5.
* David Satter. "Darkness at Dawn: The Rise of the Russian Criminal State." Yale University Press. 2003. ISBN 0-300-09892-8.

External links

* [http://www.fsb.ru/ Official website of the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation] ru icon


* [http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+ru0205) Federal Security Service (FSB)] Library of Congress Country Studies (Data as of July 1996)
* [http://www.axisglobe.com/article.asp?article=215 Russian Security Services] AXIS Information and Analysis (AIA)
* [http://www.fas.org/irp/world/russia/fsb/index.html Federal Security Service (FSB)] FAS Intelligence Resource Program
* [http://kozlowsk.club.fr/russian.html Power Ministries / Intelligence - Russian Federation] Post-Soviet Newsletter
* [http://www.agentura.ru/english/dosie/fsb/ Federal Security Service (FSB)] Agentura.Ru
* [http://www.globalsecurity.org/intell/world/russia/fsb.htm Federal Security Service (FSB)] GlobalSecurity
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/6169414.stm Federal Security Service (FSB)] BBC News


* [http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,13509-2065309,00.html Poison pins, rocks and fake logs: the secret arsenal of a long, silent war] by Jeremy Page, The Times, March 02, 2006
* [http://www.yabloko.ru/Publ/Raby/rab.html Slaves of KGB. 20th Century. The religion of betrayal (Рабы ГБ. XX век. Религия предательства)] , Moscow, 1999. ru icon
* [http://www.agentura.ru/english/experts/safranchuk/ Funding for the Russian secret services] Agentura.Ru
* [http://www.axisglobe.com/article.asp?article=252 Russian Secret Services' Links With Al-Qaeda] AXIS Information and Analysis (AIA)
* [http://studies.agentura.ru/english/listing/terrorismprevention/ Terrorism prevention in Russia: one year after Beslan] Agentura.Ru
* [http://www.agentura.ru/english/press/about/jointprojects/mn/sutyagin/ Spy Scare - from Oleksy to Sutyagin. How failed KGB/SVR agents served on the jury in the trial of Igor Sutyagin] Agentura.Ru
* [http://cicentre.com/disinformation.htm Crash Course in KGB/SVR/FSB Disinformation and Active Measures] CI Centre
* [http://cicentre.com/Documents/DOC_Kalugin_Nov_00_Speech.htm "The Triumph of the KGB" - by Oleg Kalugin] CI Centre
* [http://www.rferl.org/featuresarticle/2006/10/d08564ab-85e6-4375-94ac-921638eab299.html Russia: High-Profile Killings, Attempted Killings In The Post-Soviet Period] , "Radio Free Europe", October 19, 2006
* [http://www.themoscowtimes.com/stories/2008/02/08/001-print.html Putin Made Good on Promise to FSB.] By Francesca Mereu The Moscow Times Friday, February 8, 2008. Page 1.
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7257310.stm KGB old boys tightening grip on Russia] BBC 22 February 2008
* [http://www.moscowtimes.ru/article/1016/42/368975.htm FSB Blues] by Yulia Latynina The Moscow Times 16 July 2008

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