- American Forces Network
Service (AFRTS) for its entertainment and command internal information networks worldwide.
American Forces Network (AFN) is the operational arm of the Armed Forces Radio and Television Service (AFRTS), an agency of the
American Forces Information Service(AFIS), and is under the operational control of the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defensefor Public Affairs(OASD-PA). Editorial control is by the Department of Defense, whereas the British Forces Broadcasting Service (BFBS) for example is independent of the Ministry of Defence and the British armed forces.
This broadcasting service employs primarily military broadcasters, but there are some civilians employed as engineers or operations personnel. Service personnel hold a broadcasting occupational specialties for their military branch. Since 1991, all of AFN's military personnel receive primary training at the
Defense Information School(DINFOS) at Fort George G. Meadein Maryland. Prior to 1991, DINFOS was located at Fort Benjamin Harrisonin Indianapolis, Indiana. In 1991, Fort Benjamin Harrison was largely closed as a function of the 1991 Base Closure and Realignment Commission. Additional/Advanced training is also available at Fort George G. Meade. Some of AFN's broadcasters have previous commercial broadcastingexperience prior to enlisting in the military, but it is not a prerequisite for enlistment in the military as a broadcaster. During their training, the broadcasters are taught to use state-of-the-art audio and visual editing equipment similar to their civilian counterparts.
The current head of AFN is
History of Armed Forces Network
The Armed Forces Network can trace its origins back to 1942, when the War Department established the Armed Forces Radio Service (AFRS). A
televisionservice was first introduced in 1954 with a "pilot" station at Limestone AFB, Maine and AFRS became the Armed Forces Radio and Television Service (AFRTS). All of the Armed Forces broadcasting affiliates worldwide merged under the AFN banner on 1 January 1998.
The Origins of AFN
In the years just preceding
World War IIthere were several radio stations based in American military bases, but none were officially recognized until 1942. The success of these individual radio stations helped pave the way for the AFN. As such, there was no single station that could be called the "first" to sign on as an AFN station. About two months before formal establishment of AFN, however, a station called "PCAN" began regular broadcast information service in the Panama Canal Zone, primarily for troops on jungle bivouac. The station, located at Fort Clayton, was later to become part of AFRS, first simply as "Armed Forces Network" located at Albrook Field.
World War II
The U.S. Army began broadcasting from
Londonduring World War II, using equipment and studio facilities borrowed from the British Broadcasting Corporation(BBC).
The first transmission to U.S. troops began at 5:45 p.m. on July 4, 1943 and included less than five hours of recorded shows, a
BBC newsand sports broadcast. That day, Corporal Syl Binkinbecame the first U.S. Military broadcaster heard over the air. The signal was sent from London via telephone lines to five regional transmitters to reach U.S. troops in the United Kingdomas they made preparations for the inevitable invasion of Nazi-occupied Europe.
Fearing competition for civilian audiences the BBC initially tried to impose restrictions on AFN broadcasts within Britain (transmissions were only allowed from American Bases outside London and were limited to 50 watts of transmission power) and a minimum quota of British produced programming had to be carried. Nevertheless AFN programmes were widely enjoyed by the British civilian listeners who could receive them and once AFN operations transferred to continental Europe (shortly after D-day) AFN were able to broadcast with little restriction with programmes available to civilian audiences across most of Europe (including Britain) after dark.
D-Dayapproached, the network joined with the BBC and the Canadian Broadcasting Corporationto develop programs especially for the Allied Expeditionary Forces. Mobile stations, complete with personnel, broadcasting equipment, and a record library were deployed to broadcast music and news to troops in the field. The mobile stations reported on front line activities and fed the news reports back to studio locations in London.
Although the network's administrative headquarters remained in London, its operational headquarters soon moved to AFN
As Allied forces continued to push German soldiers back into their homeland, AFN moved east as well. The liberation of most of Western Europe saw AFN stations serving the forces liberating
Biarritz, Cannes, Le Havre, Marseille, Nice, Paris, and Reims.
Post war contraction and expansion
On December 31, 1945, AFN London signed off the air, and in 1948 AFN closed all its stations in France. This started the cycle of AFN stations where they would be built up during wartime then torn down or moved after the war was over. Of the 300 stations in operation worldwide in 1945, only 60 remained in 1949.
After World War II
A large number of AFN stations continued broadcasting from American bases in Europe (particularly Germany) after World War II. (Eight remain on-air today. See German Wikipedia).During the 1950s and 60's civilian audiences in Europe widely listened to AFN, as American music was very popular but rarely played on most European broadcasting stations (which at the time were largely state operated). This was particularly the case in Communist bloc countries, where (despite the language barrier) it was seen as an alternative way of maintaining contact with the west, and had the added bonus of not being subjected to
radio jammingunlike such stations as Radio Free Europewhich carried News in Eastern European languages.
When war broke out in
Korea, Army broadcasters set up in Seoul, in the Banto Hotel (the old American Embassy Hotel). When the Chinese entered Seoul in December, 1950, the crew moved to a mobile unit that was just completed and retreated to Daegu, South Korea. Due to the large number of American troops in Korea, a number of stations were also started. Mobile units followed combat units to provide news and entertainment on the radio. By the time the 1953 armistice was signed, these mobile units became buildings with transmitters, and a network, American Forces Korea Network, was born.
Canadian and American television personality Jim Perry began his broadcasting career fresh out of high school with the Armed Forces Korea Network, under his birthname of Jim Dooley, spending one year in Korea before moving on to the
University of Pennsylvaniato advance his education.
An AFRTS radio station, and later a television station, became operational in
Tehranin the late 1950s. The office and the equipment were stationed in Saltanat-abadarea of Tehran. Its listeners (and viewers) were American military personnel stationed in Iran as part of ARMISHand MAAGprograms, as well as non-military Iranians and foreigners residing in Iran. The AFRTS ceased to operate on the eve of the Iran Revolutionof 1979.
As the American military presence in
Vietnamincreased, AFRTS opened radio and later television stations there. During the Vietnam War, the first broadcasts were beamed to the ground from fully equipped flying studios operated by the United States Navy.
AFRTS stations in Vietnam were initially known by the name "AFRS" (Armed Forces Radio Saigon), but as the number of stations quickly expanded throughout South Vietnam became known as "AFVN" (American Forces Vietnam Network) and had several stations including
Nha Trang, Pleiku, Da Nang, with the headquarters station in Saigon.
In Vietnam, AFVN had a number of war related casualties. The station staff at Hue had been captured and spent time as prisoners of war. At the height of American involvement in the war, Armed Forces Vietnam Network served over 500,000 fighting men and women at one time. AFVN developed a program along the lines of "G.I. Jive" from World War II. A number of local
disc jockeyshelped make hour-long music programs for broadcast. Perhaps the best known program became the morning "Dawn Buster" program, (the brainchild of Chief Petty Officer Bryant Arbuckle in 1962) thanks to the popularity of the sign-on slogan "Gooooood Morning, Vietnam" (which was initiated by Adrian Cronauerand later became the basis for the film " Good Morning Vietnam" starring Robin Williams). Among the notable people who were AFVN disc jockeys were Cronauer and Pat Sajak. Beginning in 1971 AFVN began to close some stations in Vietnam. The last station to close was in Saigonin 1973.
In Thailand, the Department of Defense began the planning for the Armed Forces Thailand Network in 1964 with Project Lamplighter. By late 1966, implementation of the network began by the US Air Force with stations on the air at Korat, U-Tapao, Ubon, Udon, Tahkli, and Nahkon Phanom (NKP). In addition, there were more than 20 satellite stations that rebroadcast one or more of the primary stations and that included one or more clandestine locations in Laos.
In April, 1970, a battle-damaged F-4 fighter-bomber, returning from a reconnaissance mission to survey a road being built by the Chinese toward Burma in northwest Laos, crashed into the AFTN station, killing nine of the Air Force broadcasters. This incident was the single worst catastrophe in the history of military broadcasting.
AFTN became the American Forces Thailand Network in the summer of 1969, and continued operations until the spring of 1976 when the remaining US troops in Thailand were withdrawn at the request of the Thai government. More than 600 broadcasters from the Air Force, Navy, and Army had served during the ten years that AFTN operated.
The history of AFTN can be found at the [http://www.aftn.net www.aftn.net] web site along with a memorial to the nine broadcasters who gave their lives in the service of their country.
Radio, and later television, to U.S. troops stationed in the Panama Canal Zone was provided initially by Armed Forces Radio (AFN) at Albrook Field and later as the
Caribbean Forces Networkat Fort Claytonwith translators located on the Atlantic side of the Canal Zone. In the early 1960s with reorganization of the command located in the Canal Zone, CFN became the Southern Command Network (SCN). SCN also broadcasted to U.S. troops stationed in Hondurasstarting in 1987. SCN discontinued broadcasting in 1999 just before the turnover of the Canal Zone to the Republic of Panamawhen U.S. troops were removed from that country pursuant to the Torrijos-Carter Treaties.
AFRTS has shifted its emphasis to relaying its broadcasts by satellite; however, there are still a number of
single sideband shortwaveradio relay sites around the world to provide service to ships, including Diego Garcia, Guam, Sigonella in Italy, Puerto Rico, Hawaii, and others.
AFN Television Services
Until the early 1970s, U.S. military television service was provided in
Central Europeby Air Force Television at Ramstein Air Base, Germany. In the early 1970s, AFN assumed this responsibility for the Armed Forces Radio and Television Service (AFRTS). On October 28, 1976, AFN television moved from AFTV's old black and white studios at Ramstein to the network's new color television studios in Frankfurt. In the 1980s the network added affiliates with studio capabilities in Würzburg, Germany, and Soesterberg, the Netherlands. In 2004, AFN Europe headquarters relocated to Coleman Barracks in Mannheim, Germany.
Over-the-air TV for U.S. Forces in the Pacific is currently provided by AFN-Korea, AFN-Japan and AFN-Kwajalein. All local operations merged under the AFN banner effective January 1, 1998.
AFN-Korea, formerly American Forces Korea Network (AFKN), is the largest of AFN's Pacific TV operations. AFKN began TV operations on September 15, 1957, and consists of an originating studio at
Yongsan Garrison, Seoul and six relay transmitters throughout the peninsula. AFKN's first live television newscast aired on January 4, 1959. Until December 2007, the channel was widely available to non-military audiences on cable television, but following complaints from US companies trying to sell programs in South Korea, USFK requested that the Korean Broadcasting Commission direct the removal of Pacific Prime from the Korean cable lineups. [http://www.stripes.com/article.asp?section=104&article=57598&archive=true]
AFN-Japan, formerly the
Far East Network(FEN), has one full-power VHFterrestrial TV outlet. Located on Okinawaatop the Rycom Plaza Housing area in the central part of the island, AFN-Okinawa's (U.S. channel 8) TV signal serves Marines, Airmen, Sailors, Soldiers, and their families stationed on-island. AFN-Japan also operates three low-power UHF terrestrial transmitters at Marine Corps Air Station Iwakuni, Commander U.S Fleet Activities Sasebo, and Misawa Air Base. TV viewers on military bases in the Tokyoand Kanto Plain area of Japan can view AFN via contractor-operated base cable TVservices, or through AFN Direct-To-Home (DTH) dishes if they reside off-base.
AFN-Japan's radio services consist of AM and FM stereo operations at
Yokota Air Base(810 AM & cable FM), MCAS Iwakuni (1575 AM), FLTACTS Sasebo (1575 AM), Okinawa (89.1 FM & 648 AM) and Misawa Air Base (1575 AM).
AFN-Kwajalein at the Reagan Missile Test Range on
Kwajalein Atollis the only civilian-run affiliate in AFN, broadcasting on U.S. channel 13 for military personnel and civilian contractor employees and their families. AFN-Kwajalein's signal is beamed by microwave to the nearby atoll of Roi Namur and rebroadcast on channel 8.
With the availability of AFN's DTH service, terrestrial over-the-air TV broadcasts at all AFN outlets are slated for deactivation in the near future.
In January 1991, the network dispatched news teams and technicians to
Kuwaitand Saudi Arabiafor Operations Desert Shieldand Desert Storm. These broadcasters reported to families of soldiers deployed from Europe, and staffed a number of the U.S. radio stations making up the Armed Forces Desert Network. The first song on the air was Rock the Casbahby The Clash.
Operation Iraqi Freedom
Broadcasting "from a secret location" in Iraq, radio's "most heavily armed staff" continues the AFN tradition of going where the troops go with AFN-Iraq, Freedom Radio. AFN-Iraq began broadcasting in December of 2003 on the
FMband shortly after the fall of Saddam. The first song on the air was "Freedom" by Paul McCartney. Within a short period of time, Freedom Radio was broadcasting on multiple FM channels from as far south as Basra to as far north as Mosul.
AFN-Iraq, Freedom Radio began as a joint effort between the Air Force, the Marines, and the Army. The very first unit to operate the station was the 222nd Broadcast Operations Detachment, an Army Reserve unit out of Southern California. "Always There and On The Air" was the phrase that started it all, even though there were only 8 hours of live radio to kick things off.
After an introduction from Lt. Gen.
Ricardo Sanchez, the Commander of Coalition Ground Forces in Iraq, Air Force Master Sergeant Erik Brazones was the first DJ on the air. When the 222nd BOD took the reins of the radio operations, the first two regular radio shows were "Niki Cage in the morning" and "Abbey in the Afternoon".
Operation Enduring Freedom
AFN Afghanistan operates out of a building on
Bagram Air Base. Its radio frequency throughout Afghanistan is 94.1 and 91.5 in Manas and is called Freedom Radio. Its first radio transmission was at 0630 on Friday, 21 July 2006. Beyond radio AFN Afghanistan also does television news. It produces a daily 5 minute newscast which is called Freedom Watch Afghanistan and airs on the Pentagon Channel. All of its products can be seen on its [http://www.defenselink.mil/afn-afghanistan/afnmedia.htm website] which launced on June 4th 2008.
The station is typically staffed with Air Force broadcasters but also slots Army and Marine broadcasters as well. The print Magazine, called Freedom Watch Magazine, are on the same floor as the broadcast operations. For support there is usually a 4 man team of engineers to handle all transmission, decoder, and satellite issues.
Operations in Western Europe
AFN in Germany and SEB (Southern European Broadcasting) in
Italyprovided broadcasting to U.S. troops in Western Europe throughout the Cold War. The U.S. defense drawdown began in earnest after the Gulf War, and impacted AFN stations across Europe, as many stations were consolidated or deactivated with the closing of bases. In Europe, AFN is still on the air from Tuzla, Bosnia and Taszár, Hungaryto inform and entertain U.S. forces.
AFN went on the air May 29 with service at the
Tiranaairport in Albaniawith satellite decoders and large screen televisions placed in high traffic areas. At the same time, the AFN also advanced into the Yugoslav province of Kosovoalong with NATO.
AFN viewers abroad witnessed live television coverage of the terrorist attacks on
The Pentagonand World Trade Centeron September 11, 2001.
During military operations in Afghanistan and AFN-Iraq provided non-stop coverage of the campaigns. AFN broadcast personnel from Europe deployed with the troops to cover events. Today AFN has a staffed affiliate in Iraq, AFN-
Wherever large numbers of US troops are deployed, the AFN sets up operation, providing news and entertainment from home. Today AFN has several satellites and uses advanced
digital compressiontechnology to broadcast TV and radio to 177 countries and territories, as well as on board U.S. Navy vessels.
AFN's television service is broadcast in standard North American
NTSCformat of 525 lines. All programming delivered by satellite is PowerVu encryptedDVB. While programming is provided to AFN by major American TV networks and program syndicators at little to no-cost, for copyrightand licensingreasons it is intended solely for U.S. Forces personnel, authorized Department of Defense civilian employees, State Department diplomatic personnel, and their families overseas.
AFN-TV is available to authorized viewers by "
Direct-To-Home" (DTH) service; with set-top decoders purchased or leased through military exchanges (similar to a membership store), licensed/contracted commercial cable operators, purchased used from other military members (the cheapest option) or terrestrial signal. With the advent of DTH service, AFN plans on phasing-out terrestrial TV broadcasts over the next few years.
While the audience tunes-in to AFN to watch their favorite shows or listen to the latest Stateside hits, entertainment is the "candy coating" used to attract the military viewer/listener; as AFN's primary mission is to provide access for local command information (CI) programs. Spots run in the place of commercials in breaks run the gamut from reminding servicemembers to register to vote, promotions of local command-sponsored recreation events, off-duty educational programs, health and wellness tips, and what's playing at local base movie theaters.
public service announcements, educational featurettes (as in presenting an American state capital), and localized messages from senior leadership in place of normal commercials. Many service members welcome this approach, while others find it troublesome, especially during the airing of the Super Bowl.
The network is allowed to broadcast commercial movie promotion trailers provided by the Army & Air Force Exchange Service (
AAFES) and the Navy Motion Picture Service (NMPS) to promote the latest film releases in base theaters worldwide. They are the only true "commercials" authorized for broadcast.
AFN also offers a variety of heavily censored radio programming over its various frequencies throughout the world. Not only is there local programming (with sailors and soldiers as disc jockeys), but there is satellite programming, as well. Music programming spans Rock, Oldies, R&B and
country music. Ryan Seacrest"AT 40" and the " American Country Countdown" with Kix Brooksare broadcast weekly over AFN Radio. In addition to music, AFN broadcasts syndicated talk radioprograms such as " Car Talk", " Kim Komando", Rush Limbaugh, " The Tom Joyner Morning Show", "The Motley FoolRadio Show", " A Prairie Home Companion", " Dr. Laura", " Sports Overnight America", and other programs from National Public Radioand other sources. Letters From Warby Mark Schultzwas the #1 song on AFN in 2004.
On December 5, 2005, liberal/progressive
Ed Schultzfrom Jones Radio Networkand conservative talk show host Sean Hannitywere added to the radio programs provided by the AFN Broadcast Center to its affiliate stations.
On April 24, 2006, AFN Europe launched AFN The Eagle, a virtually 24-hour-a-day radio service format initially modeled after "
Jack FM" but most recently a "Hot AC" format. This replaced ZFM, which had more of a CHR flavor. When the Eagle was launched AFN Europe took control of what local DJs could play. The Eagle was launched because an army spouse was offended by the Green Day song “American Idiot”.
Altogether, AFN produces 10 general-use streams for AFN stations to use. Of these, seven are music-based, two are sports-based, and one is a general channel (which is also the one heard on shortwave, if the shortwave radio has
Single sideband(also known as SSB) installed). How these stations use these formats is up to them. These formats are:
*Oldies Radio (50's, 60's, and 70's)
*Hot AC (young adult alternative/80's and 90's)
*Z Rock (alternative rock)
*Bright AC (adult contemporary hit radio)
*the Touch (urban adult contemporary)
*Adult Rock and Roll (classic rock)
*Interruptible Voice Channel (mainly NPR programming and sports programming from FOX, ESPN, and the Sporting News; this channel also broadcasts many talk shows, such as Rush Limbaugh and Ed Schultz; it's called "Interruptible" because the channel can be "interrupted" by sports programming)
*ESPN Plus (sports programming from ESPN and the Sporting News)
*FOX Sports Plus (sports programming from FOX)
Like its radio counterpart, AFN TV tries to air programming from a variety of sources to replicate programming on a typical U.S. TV channel; sourcing from U.S. commercial networks (including PBS), and program syndicators at little to no-cost since AFN does not air commercials and in that regards cannot profit from airing shows like stations in the U.S. can. In their place, AFN inserts public service announcements on various subjects; these can be civilian "agency spots" created by
The Ad Council, nationally-recognized religious and public health charities, AFN's own Radio-Television Production Office (RTPO), or announcements by a regional/local AFN affiliate. The most common PSAs shown deal with sexual harassment, public health and safety, force protection/anti-terrorism, pride in service, and messages to the troops.
AFN uses the
NTSCtelevision systems standard to broadcast its programming.
There are 8 TV streams that are produced by AFN. All of them can be picked up via satellite by military audiences. These streams are:
*AFN Prime. Formerly AFN Atlantic and AFN Pacific. The standard AFN feed airs current
sitcoms, dramas, syndicated "judge" shows, talk shows, game shows, and reality shows popular in the United States, with a time delay from 24 hours to a week behind the United States airdates. In addition, popular US soap operas such as " Guiding Light", " General Hospital" and " Passions" are aired by AFN on a one-week tape delay. This stream is divided into three feeds (AFN Prime Atlantic, AFN Prime Freedom (Middle East), and AFN Prime Pacific); the difference between the three is that they are time-shifted so that programs air later on AFN Prime Pacific then they are on AFN Prime Atlantic, with AFN Freedom in between. Many regional feeds (such as AFN-Europe, AFN-Iraq, and AFN-Korea) are based on AFN Prime and add local programming to it; thus, in a way, AFN Prime mimics the regular network TV concept. AFN Prime Pacific footage of the Late Show with David Lettermanand of The Oprah Winfrey Showare used by Brazilian cable channel GNTfor rebroadcasting of the programs in the country, usually with a one-week delay behind the original U.S. air date.
*AFN Spectrum. AFN Spectrum is more of a conservative culture-oriented channel with programming from cable networks and classic TV series. In a way, it mimics the "superstation" concept from cablecasters Turner Broadcasting System (TBS) and WGN-Chicago. However their lineup has begun to add more conventional programming to the schedule, like
American Idol, " Everybody Hates Chris", " Men In Trees", " The Simple Life" and " Ugly Betty", as some of the public television and classic fare that made up Spectrum is being reduced but remain the primary constant on the channel.
*AFN Xtra. A young-adult oriented channel, with non-offensive shows from Comedy Central, MTV, and more. It is AFN's exclusive home for UFC and WWE programming, including all Pay-Per-View events. AFN Xtra also shows sports programming on the weekends and for eight hours a day on the weekdays.
*AFN News. AFN News is a rolling-news channel providing news from all major news outlets. Newscasts, such as the "
NBC Nightly News"," Fox News", " ABC World News Tonight", and " CBS Evening News", were all scheduled to air in the mornings so viewers could watch the headlines live, but now they air on a tape delay in the regular early evening slot, back to back.
*AFN Family. AFN Family is a general entertainment channel providing programming for families.
*AFN Movie. AFN Movie is a channel showcasing movies as well as film-oriented programming.
*AFN Sports. AFN Sports is a rolling-sports channel, providing sports news and programming, including
ESPN's " SportsCenter".
Pentagon Channel. This is the only AFN channel that is available in the USA to the general public. It airs military news and information programming 24 hours a day.
Frequencies and transmitters
Table of AFN-transmitters in Germany. Table may be incorrect and incomplete. Please correct and expand if necessary.
The AFN transmitters in Germany are operated by different authorities but most are operated directly by the U.S. military. Some are the property of
Deutsche Telekom, while others are controlled by German public broadcasting corporations.
Radio:AFN Rota Radio - The Eagle
Naval Station Rota(5.0 W)
Television:AFN Prime Atlantic/AFN Benelux (NTSC)
SHAPE, Casteau(4.5 kW)
Everberg, Kortenberg (900 W)
Kleine Brogel, Peer (200 W)
*104.2 FM: SHAPE, Casteau (4 kW)
*107.7 FM: Florennes (100 W)
AFN Benelux - The Eagle
*106.5 FM: SHAPE, Casteau (200 W)
**AFN Livorno (The Eagle)
**AFN Livorno-Power 107
**AFN Naples-The Eagle Napoli-Camaldoli
**AFN Vicenza-The Eagle
**AFN Vicenza-The Eagle
**AFN Vicenza-The Eagle
**AFN The Eagle San Vito
**AFN The Eagle
**AFN Sigonella-The Eagle
**AFN Vicenza-The Eagle Monte Rubbio
**AFN Vicenza-The Eagle
**AFN Livorno-Power 107
**Power Network (AFN)
**AFN Naples Power 107 Napoli-Camaldoli
**AFN Vicenza Power 107
**AFN Vicenza Power 107
**AFN Vicenza Power 107
**AFN Power 107 San Vito
**AFN Power 107
**AFN Livorno Power 107 Livorno-Castellaccio
**AFN Vicenza Power 107 Monte Rubbio
**AFN Vicenza Power 107
**AFN Livorno-The Beach (The Eagle)
[http://www.fmdx.altervista.org/articles.php?lng=it&pg=1467 http://www.fmdx.altervista.org/articles.php?lng=it&pg=1467] it icon]
*648 kHz AM
Camp Kinser: Urasoe, Okinawa. 10 kilowatts(kW).
*810 kHz AM
Yokota Air Base: Western Tokyo. 50 kW transmitted from Wakō, Saitama. Serves the Greater Tokyo Area.
*1575 kHz AM
Marine Corps Air Station Iwakuni: Iwakuni, Yamaguchi. 1 kW.
Misawa Air Base: Misawa, Aomori. 600W.
United States Fleet Activities Sasebo: Sasebo, Nagasaki. 250W.
*89.1 MHz FM
Kadena Air Base: Kadena, Okinawa. 20 kW.
*US Television channel 11
Camp Foster: Tokyo.
Source: [Broadcasting Stations in Japan. AFN. "Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia" (Japanese ed.) 2008-02-15 browsed on 2008-02-23. [http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/AFN#.E5.9C.A8.E6.97.A5.E7.B1.B3.E8.BB.8D.E3.81.AB.E3.81.82.E3.82.8B.E6.94.BE.E9.80.81.E5.B1.80] ]
British Forces Broadcasting Service
Canadian Forces Radio and Television
Israel Army Radio
* Patrick Morley: "'This Is the American Forces Network': The Anglo-American Battle of the Air Waves in World War II". Praeger Publishing (2001).
* Trent Christman: "Brass Button Broadcasters: A Lighthearted Look at Fifty Years of Military Broadcasting". Turner Publishing (1992).
* "History of AFRTS: The first 50 years". U.S. Government Printing Office (1993).
* [http://www.myafn.net Armed Forces Network]
* [http://www.afrts.osd.mil/ American Forces Radio and Television Service]
* [http://www.afnkorea.net AFN Korea]
* [http://www.defenselink.mil/afn-afghanistan/afnmedia.htm AFN Afghanistan]
* [http://www.afneurope.net AFN Europe]
* [http://www.yokota.af.mil/afn AFN Tokyo]
* [http://www.cfas.navy.mil/Ogz/AFN/AFN.htm AFN Sasebo]
* [http://www.iwakuni.usmc.mil/NewWebsite/AirStation/AFN/AFN.html AFN Iwakuni]
* [http://www.army.mod.uk/garrisonradio/ British Army Garrison Radio (GR)]
* [http://catnyp.nypl.org/record=b2182433 Armed Forces Radio Service collection of broadcast recordings] , at the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts
* [http://www.scncz.com Southern Command Network Panama]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.