- History of mental disorders
The history of mental disorder spans prehistoric times, ancient civilisations, the Middle Ages, the early modern period, the enlightenment and modern times.
There is limited evidence by which to judge the existence or nature of mental disorder prior to written records.
Evolutionary psychologysuggests that some of the underlying geneticdispositions, psychological mechanisms and social demands were present, although some disorders may have developed from a mismatch between ancestral environments and modern conditions. Some related behavioral abnormalities have been found in non-human great apes.Brüne M, Brüne-Cohrs U, McGrew WC, Preuschoft S. (2006) "Psychopathology in great apes: concepts, treatment options and possible homologies to human psychiatric disorders." Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 30(8):1246-59. PMID 17141312]
There is evidence from
neolithictimes of the practice of trepanation(cutting large holes into the skull), possibly as an attempt to cure ailments which may have included mental disorders. [cite book |author=Brothwell, Don R. |year=1963 |title=Digging up Bones; the Excavation, Treatment and Study of Human Skeletal Remains |location=London |publisher=British Museum (Natural History) |oclc=14615536 |pages=126]
Egyptian and Mesopotamian
Limited notes in an
ancient Egyptian document known as the Ebers papyrusappear to describe disordered states of concentrationand attention, and emotional distress in the heart or mind. Some of these have been interpreted as indicating what would later be termed hysteriaand melancholy. Somatic treatments typically included applying bodily fluids while reciting magical spells. Hallucinogensmay have been used as part of healing rituals. Religious temples may have been used as therapeutic retreats, possibly for the induction of receptive states to facilitate sleep and the interpreting of dreams. [Nasser, M. (1987) [http://pb.rcpsych.org/cgi/reprint/11/12/420.pdf Psychiatry in Ancient Egypt] Bulletin Of The Royal College Of Psychiatrists, Vol 11, December.]
Hinduscriptures known as Ramayanaand Mahabharatacontain fictional descriptions of depression and anxiety states. Mental disorders were generally thought to reflect abstract metaphysical entities, supernatural agents, sorcery or witchcraft. A work known as the Caraka Samhitafrom circa 600 BC, part of the Hindu Ayurveda("knowledge of life"), saw ill health as resulting from an imbalance among three kinds of bodily fluids or forces ( doshas). Different personality types were also described, with different propensities to worries or difficulties. Suggested causes included inappropriate diet; disrespect towards the gods, teachers or others; mental shock due to excessive fear or joy; and faulty bodily activity. Treatments included the use of herbs and ointments, charms and prayers, moral or emotional persuasion, and shocking the person. [Bhugra, D. (1992) [http://hpy.sagepub.com/cgi/content/refs/3/10/167 Psychiatry in ancient Indian texts: a review] History of Psychiatry, Vol. 3, No. 10, 167-186 DOI: 10.1177/0957154X9200301002]
Mental disorders were treated mainly under
Traditional Chinese Medicineby herbs, acupunctureor "emotional therapy". The Inner Canon of the Yellow Emperor described symptoms, mechanisms and therapies for mental illness, emphasizing connections between bodily organs and emotions. Conditions were thought to comprise five stages or elements and imbalance between Yinand Yang. [Zou Yizhuang M.D, Ph.D (2005) [http://www.cma-mh.org/english/articlecontent.asp?articleId=27355 History of Chinese Psychiatry] Chinese Society of Psychiatry 2005-2-20 Retrieved on Aug-09-2008]
Hebrew and Israelite
The ancient nation of Israel was formed by people with origins in Mesopotamia and Egypt. The concept of a single
God, as gradually articulated in Judaism, led to the view that mental disorder was not a problem like any other, caused by one of the gods, but rather caused by problems in the relationship between the individual and God. Passages of the Hebrew Bible/ Old Testamenthave been interpreted as describing mood disorders in figures such as Job, King Sauland in the psalms of David.
Greek and Roman
ancient Greekscholars proposed that disease was caused by an imbalance in four humoursof the body. Hippocrates(460-377 BC), influenced by humoral theory, proposed a triad of mental disorders termed melancholia, maniaand phrenitis(an acute mental disorder accompanied by fever). He also spoke of other disorders such as phobia, and is credited with being the first physician to reject supernatural or divine explanations of illness. He believed that disease was the product of environmental factors, diet and living habits, not a punishment inflicted by the gods, and that the appropriate treatment depended on which bodily fluid, or humour, had caused the problemFact|date=September 2008. However, he also objected to speculation about the aetiology of madness (for example that it was seated in the heartand diaphragmor " phren") and favoured instead close behavioural observation. Plato(427-347 BC) argued that there were two types of mental illness: "divinely inspired" mental illness that gave the person prophetic powers, and a second type that was caused by a physical disease.cite book |author=Ackerknecht, EH |title=A Short History of Psychiatry |publisher=Hafner |location=New York, NY, USA |year=1959 |pages= |isbn= |oclc= |doi= |accessdate=] Aristotle(384-322 BC), who studied under Plato, abandoned the divinely-caused mental illness theory, and proposed instead that all mental illness was caused by physical problems.
In ancient Greece and Rome, madness was associated stereotypically with aimless wandering and violence. However,
Socratesconsidered positive aspects including prophesying (a ‘manic art’); mystical initiations and rituals; poetic inspiration; and the madness of lovers. Now often seen as the very epitome of rational thought and as the founder of philosophy, Socrates freely admitted to experiencing what are now called "command hallucinations" (then called his ‘daemon’). Pythagorasalso heard voices.Pilgrim D. (2007) The survival of psychiatric diagnosis. Soc Sci Med. 2007 Aug;65(3):536-47. PMID 17470381]
Through long contact with Greek culture, and their eventual conquest of Greece, the Romans absorbed many Greek (and other) ideas on medicine. [von Staden, "Liminal Perils: Early Roman Receptions of Greek Medicine," in "Tradition, Transmission, Transformation", ed. F. Jamil Ragep and Sally P. Ragep with Steven Livesey (Leiden: Brill, 1996), pp. 369-418.] The humoral theory fell out of favor in some quarters. The Greek physician
Asclepiades(c. 124 – 40 BC), who practiced in Rome, discarded it and advocated humane treatments, and had insane persons freed from confinement and treated them with natural therapy, such as diet and massages. Arateus(ca AD 30-90) argued that it is hard to pinpoint where a mental illness comes from. However, Galen(AD 129 –ca. 200), practicing in Greece and Rome, revived humoral theory.Davison, K. (2006) [http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1476179306700246 Historical aspects of mood disorders.] Psychiatry, Vol 5, Issue 4, 1 April, P 115-118] Galen, however, adopted a single symptom approach rather than broad diagnostic categories, for example studying separate states of sadness, excitement, confusion and memory loss.
Playwrights such as
Homer, Sophoclesand Euripidesdescribed madmen driven insane by the Gods, imbalanced humors or circumstances. As well as the triad (of which mania was often used as an overarching term for insanity) there were a variable and overlapping range of terms for such things as delusion, eccentricity, frenzy, and lunacy. Physician Celsus argued that insanity is really present when a continuous dementia begins due to the mind being at the mercy of imaginings. He suggested that people must heal their own souls through philosophy and personal strength. He described common practices of dietetics, bloodletting, drugs, talking therapy, incubationin temples, exorcism, incantationsand amulets, as well as restraints and "tortures" to restore rationality, including starvation, being terrified suddenly, agitation of the spirit, and stoningand beating. Most, however, did not receive medical treatment but stayed with family or wandered the streets, vulnerable to assault and derision. Accounts of delusions from the time included people who thought themselves to be famous actors or speakers, animals, inanimate objects, or one of the gods. Some were arrested for political reasons, such as Jesus ben Ananiaswho was eventually released as a madman after showing no concern for his own fate during torture. It has been argued that Jesus of Nazarethwas widely considered a dangerous madman, due partly to antisocial and disruptive outbursts including physical aggression, grandiose and nonsensical claims, and terse responses to official questioning - and may have been mocked as a king and crucifiedfor that reason. [Meggitt, J.J. (2007) [http://jnt.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/29/4/379 The Madness of King Jesus: Why was Jesus Put to Death, but his Followers were not?] Journal for the Study of the New Testament 29; 379 DOI: 10.1177/0142064X07078990]
Persia, Arabia and the Muslim Empire
Persianand Arabicscholars were heavily involved in translating, analysing and synthesising Greek texts and concepts. As the Muslim worldexpanded, these were integrated with religious thought. Over time, new ideas and concepts were developed. Arab texts contained full discussions of melancholia. Mania and various other disorders and phenomena including hallucinations and delusions were also described. Mental disorder was generally thought to be due to reason having gone astray or been lost entirely, and links were made to the brain in various ways, as well as to spiritual/mystical meaning.Hanafy A. Youssef, Fatma A. Youssef (Edited by: T. R. Dening) (1996), [http://hpy.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/7/25/055 Evidence for the existence of schizophrenia in medieval Islamic society] , "History of Psychiatry" 7: 55-62  .] Al-Balkhi wrote about fear and anxiety, anger and aggression, sadness and depression, and obsessions. Al-Tabari wrote about the need for wise counselling, smartness and gaining trust. Al-Razi (Rhazes) suggested the benefits of hopeful comments and sudden emotional shocks, and addressed psychological, moral & religious problems of the spirit. Al-Farabi(Alpharabius) wrote about the therapeutic effect of music on the soul. Al-Ghazaliargued that spiritual diseases were dangerous and result from ignorance and deviation from God. Ibn-Sina (Avicenna) took a combined physiological and psychological approach, addressing conditions such as hallucinations, insomnia, vertigo, melancholia and mania. He speculated about physiological influences on the brain and mental disorders, as well as about psychological interventions. Al-Majusi (Haly Abbas) described diseases in terms of the brain, including sleeping sickness, loss of memory, hypochondria and love sickness.Amber Haque (2004), [http://www.springerlink.com/content/q8732105007l7752/ Psychology from Islamic Perspective: Contributions of Early Muslim Scholars and Challenges to Contemporary Muslim Psychologists] , "Journal of Religion and Health" 43 (4): 357-377  ] Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi(Abulcasis) may have addressed mental disorder related to injury in his pioneering work in neurosurgery, and Averroesdescribed Parkinson's disease.Martin-Araguz, A.; Bustamante-Martinez, C.; Fernandez-Armayor, Ajo V.; Moreno-Martinez, J. M. (2002). Neuroscience in al-Andalus and its influence on medieval scholastic medicine, "Revista de neurología" 34 (9), p. 877-892. PMID 12134355] Unhammad proposed nine categories of mental disorder.Millon, T. (2004) [http://books.google.com/books?id=nfvaX3eyYjEC&printsec=frontcover Masters of the Mind: Exploring the Story of Mental Illness from Ancient Times to the New Millennium] John Wiley & Sons ISBN 0471679615 Page 38]
Islam, the mentally disordered were considered incapable yet deserving of humane treatment and protection. For example, Sura 4:5 of the Qur'anstates "Do not give your property which God assigned you to manage to the insane: but feed and cloth the insane with this property and tell splendid words to him"A. Vanzan Paladin (1998), [http://www.springerlink.com/content/xl164885210377m1/ Ethics and neurology in the islamic world. Continuity and change] , "Italian Journal of Neurological Science" 19: 255-258  , Springer-Verlag.] Mental disorder was said to be caused by possession by a djin(genie), which could be either good or demon-like. There were sometimes beatings to exorcise djin, or alternatively over-zealous attempts at cures. BBC News (1999) [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/321622.stm Religion tackles mental illness] ] Islamic views often merged with local traditions. In Moroccothe traditional Berber peoplewere animistsand the concept of sorcerywas integral to the understanding of mental disorder; it was mixed with the Islamic concepts of djin and often treated by religious scholars combining the roles of holy man, sage, seerand sorcerer. [Stein, D. (2000) [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/utils/fref.fcgi?PrId=3494&itool=AbstractPlus-nondef&uid=11192655&db=pubmed&url=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=11192655 Views of mental illness in Morocco: Western medicine meets the traditional symbolic] CMAJ. 2000 November 28; 163(11): 1468–1470.]
The first psychiatric hospital ward was founded in
Baghdadin 705, and insane asylums were built in Fesin the early 8th century, Cairoin 800 and in Damascusand Aleppoin 1270. Insane patients were benevolently treated using baths, drugs, music and activities.Ibrahim B. Syed PhD, [http://www.ishim.net/ishimj/2/01.pdf Islamic Medicine: 1000 years ahead of its times] , "Journal of the Islamic Medical Association", 2002 (2), p. 2-9  .] In the centuries to come, The Muslim world would eventually serve as a critical way stationof knowledge for Renaissance Europe, through the Latin translations of many scientific Islamic texts. Ibn-Sina's (Avicenna's) Canon of Medicinebecame the standard of medical science in Europe for centuries, together with works of Hippocrates and Galen. [S Safavi-Abbasi, LBC Brasiliense, RK Workman (2007), [http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/563098_1 The fate of medical knowledge and the neurosciences during the time of Genghis Khan and the Mongolian Empire] , "Neurosurgical Focus" 23 (1), E13, p. 3.]
Conceptions of madness in the Middle Ages in Europe were a mixture of the
divine, diabolical, magicaland transcendental. Theories of the four humors (black bile, yellow bile, phlegm, and blood) were applied, sometimes separately (a matter of "physic") and sometimes combined with theories of evil spirits (a matter of "faith"). Arnaldus de Villanova(1235-1313) combined "evil spirit" and Galen-oriented "four humours" theories and promoted trepanning as a cure to let demons and excess humours escape. Other bodily remedies in general use included purges, bloodlettingand whipping. Madness was often seen as a moral issue, either a punishment for sin or a test of faith and character. Christiantheology endorsed various therapies, including fasting and prayer for those estranged from God and exorcismof those possessed by the devil.Laffey, P. (2003) Psychiatric therapy in Georgian Britain. "Psychological Medicine", Oct;33(7):1285-97 PMID 14580082] Thus, although mental disorder was often thought to be due to sin, other more mundane causes were also explored, including intemperate diet and alcohol, overwork, and grief.Kroll J., & Bachrach, B. (1984). Sin and mental illness in the Middle Ages. "Psychological Medicine, 14", 507-514. PMID 6387755] The Franciscan monk Bartholomeus Anglicus(ca. 1203 - 1272) described a condition which resembles depression in his encyclopedia, "De Proprietatibis Rerum", and he suggested that music would help. A semi-official tract called the Praerogativa regis distinguished between the "natural born idiot" and the " lunatic". The latter term was applied to those with periods of mental disorder; deriving from either Roman mythology describing people "moonstruck" by the goddess LunaReaume G. (2002) Lunatic to patient to person: nomenclature in psychiatric history and the influence of patients' activism in North America. Int J Law Psychiatry. Jul-Aug;25(4):405-26. PMID 12613052 doi:10.1016/S0160-2527(02)00130-9] or theories of a influence of the moon.Delgado, J.M., Doherty, A.M.S., Ceballos, R.M., Erkert, H.G. (2000). [http://redalyc.uaemex.mx/redalyc/pdf/582/58262305.pdf Moon Cycle Effects on Humans: Myth or Reality?] "Salud Mental, 23", 33-39.] [Online Etymology Dictionary [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=lunatic Lunatic (Adj)] ]
Episodes of mass
dancing maniaare reported from the middle ages, "which gave to the individuals affected all the appearance of insanity". [Hecker, J. F. C. translated by Babington, B.G. [http://history-world.org/Dancing%20In%20The%20Middle%20Ages.htm Dancing Mania Of The Middle Ages] History World International] This was one kind of mass delusionor mass hysteria/panic that have occured around the world through the millenia. [Robert Bartholomew and Erich Goode (2000) [http://www.csicop.org/si/2000-05/delusions.html Mass Delusions and Hysterias Highlights from the Past Millennium] Skeptical Inquirer Magazine, May/June]
The care of lunatics was primarily the responsibility of the family. In England, if the family were unable or unwilling, an assessment was made by crown representatives in consultation with a local jury and all interested parties, including the subject himself or herself. The process was confined to those with
real estateor personal estate, but it encompassed poor as well as rich and took into account psychological and social issues. Most of those considered lunatics at the time probably had more support and involvement from the community than people diagnosed with mental disorders today. [Roffe, D. & Roffe, C. (1995) [http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/311/7021/1708 Madness and care in the community: a medieval perspective] BMJ 1995;311:1708-1712 (23 December)] As in other eras, visions were generally interpreted as meaningful spiritual and visionaryinsights; some may have been causally related to mental disorders, but since hallucinationswere culturally supported they may not have had the same connections as today. [Kroll J, Bachrach B. (1982) Visions and psychopathology in the Middle Ages. J Nerv Ment Dis. Jan;170(1):41-9. PMID 7033474]
16th to 18th centuries
Some people with mental disorders may have been victims of the
witch-huntsthat spread in waves in early modern Europe. [Schoeneman TJ. (1977) The role of mental illness in the European witch hunts of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries: an assessment. J Hist Behav Sci. Oct;13(4):337-51. PMID 336681] However, those judged insane were increasingly admitted to local workhouses and jails (particularly the " pauperinsane") or sometimes to private madhouses.Wright, D. (1997) [http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=2872487 Getting out of the asylum: Understanding the confinement of the insane in the nineteenth century] Social History of Medicine 10(1):137-155; doi:10.1093/shm/10.1.137] Restraints and forcible confinement were used for those thought dangerously disturbed or potentially violent to themselves, others or property. Madness was commonly depicted in literary works, such as the plays of Shakespeare. [ Dalby JT. (1997) Elizabethan madness: On London's stage. "Psychological Reports" 81, 1331-1343 PMID 9461770] [Stompe T, Ritter K, Friedmann A. (2006) "The representation of madness in William Shakespeare's characters" Wien Klin Wochenschr. Aug;118(15-16):488-95. PMID 16957981]
By the end of the 17th century and into the
enlightenment, madness was increasingly seen as an organic physical phenomenon, no longer involving the soul or moral responsibility. The mentally ill were typically viewed as wild animals. Harsh treatment and restraint in chains was seen as therapeutic, helping suppress the animal passions. There was a focus on the management of the environment of madhouses, from diet to exercise regimes to number of visitors. Severe somatic treatments were used, similar to those in medieval times. Treatment in asylums was very poor, often secondary to prisons. The most notorious was Bedlam where at one time spectators could pay a penny to watch the inmates as a form of entertainment. ["Bedlam", Encyclopedia Britannica, retrieved 3 June 2007. [http://www.britannica.com/ebc/article-9014074] ] ["Bedlam", James J. Walsh, Catholic Encyclopedia, retrieved 3 June 2007. [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02387b.htm] ] Concepts based in humoral theory gradually gave way to metaphors and terminology from mechanics and other developing physical sciences. Complex new schemes were developed for the classification of mental disorders, influenced by emerging systems for the biological classificationof organisms and medical classification of diseases.
The term "crazy" (from
Middle Englishmeaning cracked) and insane (from Latininsanus meaning unhealthy) came to mean mental disorder in this period. The term "lunacy", long used to refer to periodic disturbance or epilepsy, came to be synonymous with insanity. "Madness", long in use in root form since at least the early centuries AD, and originally meaning crippled, hurt or foolish, came to mean loss of reason or self-restraint. "Psychosis", from Greek "principle of life/animation", had varied usage referring to a condition of the mind/soul. "Nervous", from an Indo-European root meaning to wind or twist, meant muscleor vigor, was adopted by physiologists to refer to the body's electrochemical signalling process (thus called the nervous system), and was then used to refer to nervous disorders and neurosis. "Obsession", from a Latin root meaning to sit on or sit against, originally meant to besiege or be possessed by an evil spirit, came to mean a fixed idea that could decompose the mind. [ Dalby JT. (1993) Terms of Madness: Historical Linguistics. "Comprehensive Psychiatry" 34,392-395. PMID 8131383 doi: 10.1016/0010-440X(93)90063-A]
Towards the end of the eighteenth century, a
moral treatmentmovement developed, involving more humane and individualized approaches. Notable figures included Vincenzo Chiarugi, the Pussins and Phillipe Pinel, William Tuke, and later Dorothea Dix.
The 19th century, in the context of
industrializationand population growth, saw a massive expansion of the number and size of insane asylums in every Western country, a process called "the great confinement" or the "asylum era". Laws were introduced to compel authorities to deal with those judged insane by family members and hospital superintendents. Although originally based on the concepts and structures of moral treatment, they became large impersonal institutions overburdened with large numbers of people with a complex mix of mental and socioeconomic problems.
Although reports of numerous mental disorders and irrational, unintelligible, or uncontrolled behavior are common in the historical record back to ancient times, clear descriptions of some
syndromes, such as the condition that would later be termed schizophrenia, have been identified as relatively rare prior to the 1800s, although interpretations of the evidence and its implications are inconsistent.cite journal |author=Heinrichs RW |title=Historical origins of schizophrenia: two early madmen and their illness |journal=J Hist Behav Sci |volume=39 |issue=4 |pages=349–63 |year=2003 |pmid=14601041 |doi=10.1002/jhbs.10152]
Numerous different classification schemes and diagnostic terms were developed by different authorities, taking an increasingly anatomical-clinical descriptive approach. The term "
psychiatry" was coined as the medical specialty became more academically established. Asylum superintendents, later to be psychiatrists, were generally called "alienists" because they were thought to deal with people alienatedfrom society; they adopted largely isolated and managerial roles in the asylums while milder "neurotic" conditions were dealt with by neurologists and general physicians, although there was overlap for conditions such as neurasthenia. [American Neurological Association [http://www.aneuroa.org/html/c19html/setup19.htm Neurology and Psychiatry: Together and Separate] Retrieved on 07-24-2008]
United Statesit was proposed that black slaves who tried to escape were suffering from a mental disorder termed drapetomania. It was then argued in scientific journals that mental disorders were rare under conditions of slavery but became more common following emancipation, and later that mental illness in African Americanswas due to evolutionary factors or various negative characteristics, and that they were not suitable for therapeutic intervention. [Harris, H.W., Felder, D., Clark, M.O. (2004) [http://www.ap.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/28/3/226 A Psychiatric Residency Curriculum on the Care of African American Patients] Academic Psychiatry 28:226-239, September]
By the 1870s in North America, officials who ran Lunatic Asylums renamed them Insane Asylums. By the late 19th century, the term "asylum" had lost its original meaning as a place of refuge, retreat or
safety, and was associated with abuses that had been widely publicized in the media, including by ex-patient organization the Alleged Lunatics' Friend Societyand ex-patients like Elizabeth Packard.
The turn of the 20th century saw the development of
psychoanalysis, which came to the fore later. Kraepelin's classification gained popularity, including the separation of mood disorders from what would later be termed schizophrenia.
Asylum superintendents sought to improve the image and medical status of their profession. Asylum "inmates" were increasingly referred to as "patients" and asylums renamed as hospitals. Referring to people as having a "mental illness" dates from this period in the early 1900s.
United States, a "mental hygiene" movement, originally defined in the 19th century, gained momentum and aimed to "prevent the disease of insanity" through public healthmethods and clinics.Mandell, W. (2007) [http://www.jhsph.edu/dept/mh/about/origins.html Origins of Mental Health: The Realization of an Idea] . Johns Hopkins University website. Retrieved August 9, 2008.] The term mental healthbecame more popular, however. Clinical psychologyand social workdeveloped as professionsalongside psychiatry. Theories of eugenicsled to compulsory sterilizationmovements in many countries around the world for several decades, often encompassing patients in public mental institutions. [Kavles, D. (1999) [http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/319/7207/435 Eugenics and human rights] BMJ 1999;319:435-438 ] World War Isaw a massive increase of conditions that came to be termed " shell shock".
NaziGermany, the institutionalized mentally ill were among the earliest targets of sterilization campaigns and covert " euthanasia" programs. [Livingston, K. (2003, Aug) " [http://www.allacademic.com//meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/1/0/7/5/0/pages107506/p107506-2.php Deciding Who Dies: Evaluating the Social Worth of People With Mental Illness during the Holocaust] Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association] It has been estimated that over 200,000 individuals with mental disorders of all kinds were put to death, although their mass murder has received relatively little historical attention. Despite not being formally ordered to take part, psychiatristsand psychiatric institutions were at the center of justifying, planning and carrying out the atrocities at every stage, and "constituted the connection" to the later annihilation of Jewsand other "undesirables" such as homosexualsin the Holocaust. [Rael D Strous (2007) [http://www.annals-general-psychiatry.com/content/6/1/8 Psychiatry during the Nazi era: ethical lessons for the modern professional] Annals of General Psychiatry 2007, 6:8doi:10.1186/1744-859X-6-8]
In other areas of the world, funding was often cut for asylums, especially during periods of economic decline, and during wartime in particular many patients starved to death.Fakhourya, W. & Priebea, S. (2007) [http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1476179307001085 Deinstitutionalization and reinstitutionalization: major changes in the provision of mental healthcare] Psychiatry Volume 6, Issue 8, August, Pages 313-316 doi:10.1016/j.mppsy.2007.05.008] Soldiers received increased psychiatric attention, and
World War IIsaw the development in the US of a new psychiatric manual for categorizing mental disorders, which along with existing systems for collecting census and hospital statistics led to the first Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders(DSM). The International Classification of Diseases(ICD) followed suit with a section on mental disorders.
Previously restricted to the treatment of severely disturbed people in asylums, psychiatrists cultivated clients with a broader range of problems, and between 1917 and 1970 the number practicing outside institutions swelled from 8 percent to 66 percent. [Rosenthal, S. (2008) [http://www.dissidentvoice.org/2008/05/mental-illness-or-social-sickness/ Mental Illness or Social Sickness?] Dissident Voice. May 19th] The term stress, having emerged out of
endocrinologywork in the 1930s, was popularized with an increasingly broad biopsychosocial meaning, and was increasingly linked to mental disorders.Viner, R. (1999) [http://www.jstor.org/pss/285410 Putting Stress in Life: Hans Selye and the Making of Stress Theory] Social Studies of Science, Vol. 29, No. 3 (Jun., 1999), pp. 391-410]
Insulin shock therapy, Electro convulsive therapy, and the " neuroleptic" chlorpromazinecame in to use mid-century.
antipsychiatrymovement came to the fore in the 1960s. Deinstitutionalizationgradually occurred in the West, with isolated psychiatric hospitalsbeing closed down in favor of community mental health services. Inadequate services and continued social exclusion often led to many being homelessor in prison, however. A consumer/survivor movementgained momentum.
Other kinds of
psychiatric medicationgradually came into use, such as "psychic energizers" and lithium. Benzodiazepinesgained widespread use in the 1970s for anxiety and depression, until dependency problems curtailed their popularity. Advances in neuroscienceand geneticsled to new research agendas. Cognitive behavioral therapywas developed.
The DSM and then ICD adopted new criteria-based classification, representing a return to a Kraepelin-like descriptive system. The number of "official" diagnoses saw a large expansion, although
homosexualitywas gradually downgraded and dropped in the face of human rights protests. Different regions sometimes developed alternatives such as the Chinese Classification of Mental Disordersor Latin American Guide for Psychiatric Diagnosis.
Through the 1990s, new SSRI
antidepressantsbecame some of the most widely prescribed drugs in the world.
Outpatient commitment" laws were gradually expanded or introduced in some countries.
Care in the community
Psychiatric survivors movement
Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV(SCID)
Notes & references
go bombers (2004) [http://books.google.com/books?id=nfvaX3eyYjEC&printsec=frontcover Masters of the Mind: Exploring the Story of Mental Illness from Ancient Times to the New Millennium] John Wiley & Sons ISBN 0471679615
* Kent, D. (2003) [http://books.google.com/books?id=wzlJWvCoNKQC&printsec=frontcover Snake Pits, Talking Cures & Magic Bullets: A History of Mental Illness] Twenty-First Century Books. ISBN 0761327045
* Scull, Andrew. [http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/ft9r29p2x5/ Social Order/Mental Disorder: Anglo-American Psychiatry in Historical Perspective] . Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989.
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