- Stress (biological)
Stress is a biological term which refers to the consequences of the failure of a human or animal body to respond appropriately to emotional or physical threats to the organism, whether actual or imagined. ["The Stress of Life", Hans Selye, 1956.] It includes a state of alarm and adrenaline production, short-term resistance as a coping mechanism, and exhaustion. It refers to the inability of a human or animal body to respond. Common stress symptoms include irritability, muscular tension, inability to concentrate and a variety of physical reactions, such as headaches and accelerated heart rate. [ [http://www.ehealthmd.com/library/stress/STR_whatis.html EHealthMD: What is stress] Retrieved September 3, 2008.]
The term "stress" was first used by the
endocrinologist Hans Selyein the 1930s to identify physiological responses in laboratory animals. He later broadened and popularized the concept to include the perceptions and responses of humans trying to adapt to the challenges of everyday life. In Selye's terminology, "stress" refers to the reaction of the organism, and "stressor" to the perceived threat. Stress in certain circumstances may be experienced positively. Eustress, for example, can be an adaptive response prompting the activation of internal resources to meet challenges and achieve goals.
The term is commonly used by laypersons in a metaphorical rather than literal or biological sense, as a catch-all for any perceived difficulties in life. It also became a euphemism, a way of referring to problems and eliciting sympathy without being explicitly confessional, just "stressed out". It covers a huge range of phenomena from mild irritation to the kind of severe problems that might result in a real breakdown of health. In popular usage almost any event or situation between these extremes could be described as stressful. 
General Adaptation Syndrome
Hans Selyeresearched the effects of stress [cite journal |last = Selye | first = Hans | authorlink = Hans Selye | title = Diseases of adaptation | journal = Wisconsin medical journal | issue = 6 | volume = 49 | url = | year = 1950 | pages = 515–6] on rats and other animals by exposing them to unpleasant or harmful stimuli. He found that all animals presented a very similar series of reactions, broken into three stages. In 1936, he described this universal response to the stressors as the general adaptation syndrome, or GAS. [cite journal |last = Seyle | first = Hans | authorlink = Hans Selye | title = A syndrome produced by diverse nocuous agents | journal = Nature | issue = | volume = 138| url = | year = 1936| pages = 32 | doi = 10.1038/138032a0] [ [http://www.chronicfatigue.org/Selye%20large.html "Selye Biologic Reaction to Stress chart"] , "Chronic Fatigue Unmasked", by Dr. Gerald E. Poesnecker, February 1999 (ISBN 0916285618)]
Alarm is the first stage. When the threat or stressor is identified or realized, the body's stress response is a state of alarm. During this stage adrenaline will be produced in order to bring about the
fight-or-flight response. There is also some activation of the HPA axis, producing cortisol. Resistance is the second stage. If the stressor persists, it becomes necessary to attempt some means of coping with the stress. Although the body begins to try to adapt to the strains or demands of the environment, the body cannot keep this up indefinitely, so its resources are gradually depleted. Exhaustion is the third and final stage in the GAS model. At this point, all of the body's resources are eventually depleted and the body is unable to maintain normal function. At this point the initial autonomic nervous systemsymptoms may reappear (sweating, raised heart rate etc.). If stage three is extended, long term damage may result as the capacity of glands, especially the adrenal gland, and the immune system is exhausted and function is impaired resulting in decompensation. The result can manifest itself in obvious illnesses such as ulcers, depression, trouble with the digestive systemor even cardiovascularproblems, along with other mental illnesses.
Lazarus: eustress and distress
Richard Lazaruspublished in 1974 a model dividing stress into eustressand distress. [cite journal |author=Lazarus RS |title=From psychological stress to the emotions: a history of changing outlooks| year=1993| journal=Annual Review of Psychology| volume = 44| pages=1–22| doi=10.1146/annurev.ps.44.020193.000245| pmid=8434890 ] Where stress enhances function (physical or mental, such as through strength trainingor challenging work) it may be considered eustress. Persistent stress that is not resolved through coping or adaptation, deemed distress, may lead to anxietyor withdrawal (depression) behavior. The difference between experiences which result in eustress or distress is determined by the disparity between an experience (real or imagined), personal expectations, and resources to cope with the stress. Alarming experiences, either real or imagined, can trigger a stress response. [cite journal |coauthors = Joels M. & Holsboer F. | last = Ron de Kloet | first = E | date= 2005 |title = Stress and the brain: from adaptation to disease | journal = Nature Reviews Neuroscience | volume = 6 | pages = 463–475 | pmid = 15891777 | issue = 6 |doi = 10.1038/nrn1683] Therefore, Lazarus's model argues that cognitive processes of appraisal are central in determining whether a situation is potentially threatening or harmful.cite book | last = Aldwin | first = Carolyn | title = Stress, Coping, and Development, Second Edition | publisher = The Guilford Press | location = New York | year = 2007 | isbn = 1572308400 ]
Zajonc: emotional reactions precede cognitive reactions
Robert B. Zajonc(1984), somewhat in opposition to the Lazarus model of stress, argued that emotional reactions occur before cognitive reactions, and in fact, may be at odds with cognitive responses. This belief was consonant with the previous James-Lange hypothesis(1890, 1922), which held that the body's emotional reaction to stress occurred prior to and resulted in conscious responses. The debate has underscored the existence of two modes of reactivity, one conscious and under volitional control, and the other automatic and uncontrollable. Scholars such as Aldwin have argued for a simultaneous, parallel processing approach rather than a sequential neurological processing model where emotions come first followed by cognition, or " vice versa".
Neurochemistry and physiology
The neurochemistry of the stress response is now believed to be well understood, although much remains to be discovered about how the components of this system interact with one another, in the brain and throughout in the body. In response to a stressor,
corticotropin-releasing hormone(CRH) and arginine-vasopressin(AVP) are secreted into the hypophyseal portal systemand activate neurons of the paraventricular nuclei(PVN) of the hypothalamus. The locus ceruleusand other noradrenergiccell groups of the adrenal medullaand pons, collectively known as the LC/NE system, also become active and use brain epinephrineto execute autonomic and neuroendocrine responses, serving as a global alarm system.Tsigos, C. & Chrousos, G.P. (2002). Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, neuroendocrine factors, and stress. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 53, 865-871.]
autonomic nervous systemprovides the rapid response to stress commonly known as the fight-or-flight response, engaging the sympathetic nervous systemand withdrawing the parasympathetic nervous system, thereby enacting cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, renal, and endocrine changes. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis(HPA), a major part of the neuroendocrine systeminvolving the interactions of the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, and the adrenal glands, is also activated by release of CRH and AVP. This results in release of adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH) from the pituitary into the general bloodstream, which results in secretion of cortisoland other glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex. These corticoids involve the whole body in the organism's response to stress and ultimately contribute to the termination of the response via inhibitory feedback.
Stress can significantly affect many of the body's immune systems, as can an individual's perceptions of, and reactions to, stress. The term
psychoneuroimmunologyis used to describe the interactions between the mental state, nervous and immune systems, as well as research on the interconnections of these systems. Chronic stress has also been shown to impair developmental growth in children by lowering the pituitary gland's production of growth hormone, as in children associated with a home environment involving serious marital discord, alcoholism, or child abuse. [Powell, Brasel, & Blizzard, 1967.]
Both negative and positive stressors can lead to stress. Some common categories and examples of stressors include:sensory input such as
pain, bright light, or environmental issues such as a lack of control over environmental circumstances, such as food, housing, health, freedom, or mobility. Social issues can also cause stress, such as struggles with conspecific or difficult individuals and social defeat, or relationship conflict, deception, or break ups, and major events such as birthand deaths, marriage, and divorce. Life experiences such as poverty, unemployment, depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, heavy drinking, or insufficient sleepcan also cause stress. Students and workers may face stress from exams, project deadlines, and group projects.
Adverse experiences during development (e.g. prenatal exposure to maternal stress, [Davis et al. (June 2007). Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Depression and Cortisol Influences Infant Temperament. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, v46 n6 p737.] [O'connor, Heron, Golding, Beveridge & Glover. (June 2002). Maternal antenatal anxiety and children's behavioural/emotional problems at 4 years. Br J Psychiatry. 180:478-9.] poor attachment histories,cite book | last = Schore | first = Allan | title = Affect Regulation & the Repair of the Self | publisher = W.W. Norton | location = New York | year = 2003 | isbn = 0393704076 ] sexual abuse) [Michael D. DeBellis, George P. Chrousos, Lorah D. Dorn, Lillian Burke, Karin Helmers, Mitchel A. Kling, Penelope K. Trickett, and Frank W. Putnam. Hypothalamic—Pituitary—Adrenal Axis Dysregulation in Sexually Abused Girls] are thought to contribute to deficits in the maturity of an individual's stress response systems. One evaluation of the different stresses in people's lives is the
Holmes and Rahe stress scale.
Responses to stress include adaptation, psychological coping such as
stress management, anxiety, and depression. Over the long term, distress can lead to diminished health or illness; to avoid this, stress must be managed. Stress management encompasses techniques intended to equip a person with effective coping mechanisms for dealing with psychological stress, with stress defined as a person's physiological response to an internal or external stimulus that triggers the fight-or-flight response. Stress management is effective when a person utilizes strategies to cope with or alter stressful situations. There are several ways of coping with stress, such as controlling the source of stress or learning to set limits and to say "No" to some demands that bosses or family members may make.
History and usage
The term "stress" had none of its current general senses before the 1950s. As a semi-psychological term referring to hardship or coercion, it dated from the 14th century. It is a form of the
Middle English"destresse", derived via Old Frenchfrom the Latin"stringere" – to draw tight.Keil, R.M.K. (2004) [http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bsc/jan/2004/00000045/00000006/art00013 Coping and stress: a conceptual analysis] Journal of Advanced Nursing, 45(6), 659–665] It had long been in use in physics to refer to the internal distribution of a force exerted on a material body, resulting in strain. In the 1920s and 1930s, the term was occasionally being used in psychological circles to refer to a mental strain or unwelcome happening, and by advocates of holistic medicineto refer to a harmful environmental agent that could cause illness. Walter Cannonused it in 1934 to refer to external factors that disrupted what he called " homeostasis".
A new scientific usage developed out of Hans Seyle's reports of his laboratory experiments in the 1930s. Selye started to use the term to refer not just to the agent but to the state of the organism as it responded and adapted to the environment. His theories of a universal non-specific stress response attracted great interest and contention in academic
physiologyand he undertook extensive research programmes and publication efforts.Viner, R. (1999) [http://www.jstor.org/pss/285410 Putting Stress in Life: Hans Selye and the Making of Stress Theory] Social Studies of Science, Vol. 29, No. 3 (Jun., 1999), pp. 391-410] However, while the work attracted continued support from advocates of psychosomatic medicine, many in experimental physiology concluded that his concepts were too vague and unmeasurable. During the 1950s Selye turned away from the laboratory to promote his concept through popular books and lectures tours. The US militarybecame a key center of stress research, attempting to understand and reduce combat neurosisand psychiatric casualties. Seyle wrote for both non-academic physicians and, in an international bestseller titled "Stress of Life", for the general public.
biopsychosocialconcept of stress and adaptation offered the promise of helping everyone achieve health and happiness by successfully responding to changing global challenges and the problems of modern civilisation. He coined the term " eustress" for positive stress, by contrast to distress. He argued that all people have a natural urge and need to work for their own benefit, a message that found favor with industrialists and governments. He also coined the term " stressor" to refer to the causative event or stimulus, as opposed to the resulting state of stress. From the late 1960s, Selye's concept started to be taken up by academic psychologists, who sought to quantify "life stress" by scoring "significant life events", and a large amount of research was undertaken to examine links between stress and disease of all kinds. By the late 1970s stress had become the medical area of greatest concern to the general population, and more basic research was called for to better address the issue. There was renewed laboratory research into the neuroendocrine, molecularand immunologicalbases of stress, conceived as a useful heuristicnot necessarily tied to Selye's original hypotheses. By the 1990s, "stress" had become an integral part of modern scientific understanding in all areas of physiology and human functioning, and one of the great metaphors of Western life. Focus grew on stress in certain settings, such as workplace stress. Stress managementtechniques were developed.
Its psychological uses are frequently
metaphoricalrather than literal, used as a catch-all for perceived difficulties in life. It also became a euphemism, a way of referring to problems and eliciting sympathywithout being explicitly confessional, just "stressed out". It covers a huge range of phenomena from mild irritationto the kind of severe problems that might result in a real breakdown of health. In popular usage almost any event or situation between these extremes could be described as stressful. The most extreme events and reactions may elicit the diagnosis of Posttraumatic stress disorder(PTSD), an anxiety disorder that can develop after exposure to one or more terrifying events that threatened or caused grave physical harm. PTSD is a severe and ongoing emotional reaction to an extreme psychological trauma; as such, it is often associated with soldiers, police officers, and other emergency personnel. This stressor may involve viewing someone's actual death, a threat to the patient's or someone else's life, serious physical injury, or threat to physical or psychological integrity, overwhelming usual psychological defenses coping. In some cases it can also be from profound psychological and emotional trauma, apart from any actual physical harm. Often, however, the two are combined.
*Petersen, C., Maier, S.F., Seligman, M.E.P. (1995). Learned Helplessness: A Theory for the Age of Personal Control. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-504467-3
*Seligman, M.E.P. (1975). Helplessness: On Depression, Development, and Death. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-2328-X
*Seligman, M.E.P. (1990). Learned Optimism. New York: Knopf. (Reissue edition, 1998, Free Press, ISBN 0-671-01911-2).
*Holmes, T.H. and Rahe, R.H. (1967). The social readjustments rating scales. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 11:213-218.
* [http://www.stress.org/topic-definition-stress.htm The American Institute of Stress]
* [http://www.umassmed.edu/Content.aspx?id=41254 University of Massachusetts Medical School Stress Reduction Program]
* [http://osha.europa.eu/publications/reports/203/index.htm "Research on Work-Related Stress"] ,
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work(EU-OSHA)
* [http://osha.europa.eu/publications/magazine/5/index.htm "Working on Stress"] ,
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work(EU-OSHA)
* [http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?chanID=sa006&articleID=00083A00-318C-1F30-9AD380A84189F2D7 "Taming Stress"] , "Scientific American", September 2003
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.