- Thomas Paine
region = Western Philosophy
era = 18th-century philosophy
color = #B0C4DE
name = Thomas Paine
birth = January 29, 1737
Thetford, Norfolk, Great Britain
death = death date and age|mf=yes|1809|6|8|1737|1|29
New York, NY, U.S.
school_tradition = Enlightenment, Radicalism,
Classical liberalism, Republicanism
Voltaire, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, John Locke, Religious Society of Friends, Montesquieu
Thomas Jefferson, William Godwin, Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud, Abraham Lincoln, Thomas Edison, Moncure D. Conway, Bertrand Russell, Christopher Hitchens, Robert G. Ingersoll.
Thomas Paine (January 29, 1737 – June 8, 1809) was an English
pamphleteer, revolutionary, radical, inventor, and intellectual. He lived and worked in Britain until age 37, when he emigrated to the British American colonies, in time to participate in the American Revolution. His principal contribution was the powerful, widely-read pamphlet "Common Sense" (1776), advocating colonial America's independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain, and of " The American Crisis" (1776–1783), a pro-revolutionary pamphlet series.
Later, he greatly influenced the
French Revolution. He wrote the " Rights of Man" (1791), a guide to Enlightenment ideas. Despite not speaking French, he was elected to the French National Conventionin 1792. The Girondists regarded him an ally, so, the Montagnards, especially Robespierre, regarded him an enemy. In December of 1793, he was arrested and imprisoned in Paris, then released in 1794. He became notorious because of " The Age of Reason" (1793–94), the book advocating deismand arguing against Christian doctrines. In France, he also wrote the pamphlet " Agrarian Justice" (1795), discussing the origins of property, and introduced the concept of a guaranteed minimum income.
He remained in France during the early
Napoleonic era, but condemned Napoleon's dictatorship, calling him "the completest charlatan that ever existed". [Original source of this quotation is Henry York, LETTERS FROM FRANCE, Two volumes (London, 1804). Thirty three pages of the last letter are devoted to Paine.] In 1802, he returned to America at President Thomas Jefferson's invitation.
Thomas Paine died, at age 72, in No. 59 Grove Street, Greenwich Village, N.Y.C., on June 8, 1809. His burial site is located in
New Rochelle, New York, where he had lived after returning to America in 1802. His remains were later disinterred by an admirer looking to return them to England; his final resting place today is unknown.
Thomas Paine was son of Joseph Paine, a
Quaker, and Frances Paine (née Cocke), an Anglican, in Thetford, a small, market town and coach stage-post, in rural Norfolk.
He attended Thetford Grammar School (1744-1749) that selected pupils on ability, at a time when there was no compulsory education. [http://www.thetgram.norfolk.sch.uk/History.htm School History] Thetford Grammar School, Accessed January 3, 2008,] At age thirteen, he was apprentice to his corset-maker father; in late adolescence, he enlisted and briefly served as a
privateer, ["Rights of Man II" Chapter V ] before returning to Britain in 1759. There, he became a master corset maker, establishing a shop in Sandwich, Kent. On September 27, 1759, Thomas Paine married Mary Lambert. His business collapsed soon after. Mary became pregnant, and, after they moved to Margate, she went into early labour, in which she and their child died. In July 1761, Paine returned to Thetford to work as a supernumeraryofficer. In December 1762, he became an excise officer in Grantham, Lincolnshire; in August 1764, he was transferred to Alford, at a salary of £50 per annum.On August 27, 1765, he was fired as an Excise Officer for "claiming to have inspected goods he did not inspect." On July 31, 1766, he requested his reinstatement from the Board of Excise, which they granted the next dayndash upon vacancy. While awaiting that, he worked as a stay maker in Diss, Norfolk, and later as a servant (per the records, for a Mr Noble, of Goodman's Fields, and for a Mr Gardiner, at Kensington). He also applied to become an ordained minister of the Church of England and, per some accounts, he preached in Moorfields. [cite web
title=The Life of Thomas Paine: With a History of Literary, Political, and Religious Career in America, France, and England (1892)
publisher=Thomas Paine National Historical Association. ] In 1767, he was appointed to a position in Grampound, Cornwall; subsequently, he was asked to leave this post to await a vacancy, thus, he became a schoolteacher in London. On February 19, 1768, he was appointed to
Lewes, East Sussex, living above the fifteenth-century Bull House, the tobacco shop of Samuel Olliveand Esther Ollive. There, Paine first became involved in civic matters, when Samuel Ollive introduced him to the Society of Twelve, a local, élite intellectual group that met semestrally, to discuss town politics. He also was in the influential Vestrychurch group that collected taxes and tithes to distribute among the poor. On March 26, 1771, at age 34, he married Elizabeth Ollive, his landlord's daughter. From 1772 to 1773, Paine joined excise officers asking Parliament for better pay and working conditions, publishing, in summer of 1772, "The Case of the Officers of Excise", a twenty-one-page article, and his first political work, spending the London winter distributing the 4,000 copies printed to the Parliament and others. In spring of 1774, he was fired from the excise service for being absent from his post without permission; his tobacco shop failed, too. On April 14, to avoid debtor's prison, he sold his household possessions to pay debts. On June 4, he formally separated from wife Elizabeth and moved to London, where, in September, a friend introduced him to Benjamin Franklin, who counselled emigration to British colonial America, and gave him a letter of recommendation. In October, Thomas Paine emigrated from England to America, arriving in Philadelphia on November 30, 1774. He barely survived the transatlantic voyage, because the ship's potable water was bad, and typhoid feverhad killed five passengers. On arriving to Philadelphia, he was too sick to debark. Benjamin Franklin's physician, there to welcome Paine to America, had him carried off ship; Paine took six weeks to recover his health. Moreover, Thomas Paine was an inventor, who received a European patent for a single-span iron bridge; developed a smoke-less candle, [ [http://www.ushistory.org/Paine/index.htm Thomas Paine] , www.ushistory.org, Independence Hall Association. Accessed online November 4, 2006.] [ [http://www.galha.org/ptt/leaflet/paine.html Leaflet number 4: The Adventures of Thomas Paine] , The Pink Triangle Trust. Accessed online November 4, 2006.] and worked with inventor John Fitch in developing steam engines. Mechanical aptitude and intellectual originality made him saint of Thomas Edison's devotion.
Thomas Paine has a claim to the title "The Father of the American Revolution" because of "Common Sense", the pro-independence
monographpamphlet he anonymously published on January 10, 1776; it quickly spread among the literate, and, in three months, 120,000 copies sold throughout the American British colonies (with only two million free inhabitants), making it a best-selling work in eighteenth-century America. [ cite web|url=http://find.galegroup.com/gvrl/infomark.do?&contentSet=EBKS&type=retrieve&tabID=T001&prodId=GVRL&docId=CX3454901190&source=gale&userGroupName=rich30969&version=1.0 |accessdate=2007-04-10 |last=Oliphant |first=John |coauthors=Encyclopedia of the American Revolution: Library of Military History |work="Paine,Thomas" |publisher=Charles Scribner's Sons (accessed via Gale Virtual Library) |title=?] Paine's original title for the pamphlet was "Plain Truth"; Paine's friend, pro-independence advocate Benjamin Rush, suggested "Common Sense" instead.
The strength of "Common Sense" was not in the originality of its ideas, but rather in the simplicity of its style.Eric Foner. "Paine, Thomas"; "
American National Biography Online", February 2000.] Paine was a pioneer in a new style of political writing suitable to the kind of democratic society he envisioned. "Common Sense" rendered complex ideas intelligible to average readers, with clear, concise writing unlike the formal, learned style favored by many of Paine's contemporaries. Many were shocked by Paine's undisguised hostility to the British monarchy; the pamphlet labeled King George III as "the Royal Brute of Great Britain". [Merrill Jensen, "The Founding of a Nation: A History of the American Revolution, 1763–1776" (New York: Oxford University Press, 1968), 668.]
"Common Sense" was immensely popular, but how many people were converted to the cause of independence by the pamphlet is unknown.Jensen, "Founding of a Nation", 669.] Paine's arguments were rarely cited in public calls for independence, which suggests that "Common Sense" may have had a more limited impact on the public's thinking about independence than is sometimes believed. [Pauline Maier, "American Scripture: Making the Declaration of Independence" (New York: Knopf, 1997), 90-91.] The pamphlet probably had little direct influence on the Continental Congress's decision to issue a Declaration of Independence, since that body was more concerned with how declaring independence would affect the war effort. [Jack N. Rakove, "The Beginnings of National Politics: An Interpretive History of the Continental Congress" (New York: Knopf, 1979), 89.] Paine's great contribution was in initiating a public debate about independence, which had previously been rather muted.
Loyalists vigorously attacked "Common Sense"; one attack, titled "Plain Truth" (1776), by Marylander James Chalmers, said Paine was a political quack [cite web|url=http://www.earlyamerica.com/review/fall96/loyalists.html|accessdate=2007-10-03|last=New |first=M. Christopher |publisher="Archiving Early America" |title="James Chalmers and Plain Truth A Loyalist Answers Thomas Paine"] and warned that without monarchy, the government would "degenerate into democracy". Even some American revolutionaries objected to "Common Sense"; late in life
John Adamscalled it a "crapulous mass". Adams disagreed with the type of radical democracy promoted by Paine, and published " Thoughts on Government" in 1776 to advocate a more conservative approach to republicanism.
In the early months of the war Paine published "The Crisis" pamphlet series, to inspire the colonists in their resistance to the British army. To inspire the enlisted men, General
George Washingtonhad "The American Crisis" read aloud to them. [cite web|url=http://www.indiana.edu/~liblilly/history/american-crisis.html|accessdate=2007-11-15|publisher=Indiana University|title=Thomas Paine. The American Crisis. Philadelphia, Styner and Cist, 1776-77.] The first "Crisis" pamphlet begins:
These are the times that try men's souls: The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country; but he that stands it now, deserves the love and thanks of man and woman. Tyranny, like hell, is not easily conquered; yet we have this consolation with us, that the harder the conflict, the more glorious the triumph. What we obtain too cheap, we esteem too lightly: it is dearness only that gives every thing its value.
In 1778, he alluded to continuing secret negotiation with France in his pamphlets, the resultant scandal cost him expulsion from the Committee on Foreign Affairs, however, in 1781, he accompanied
John Laurenson his mission to France. Eventually, after much pleading from Paine, New York State recognised his political services with an estate, at New Rochelle, and money from Pennsylvania and from the Congress, at Washington's suggestion. In the Revolutionary War, he served as an aide to General Nathanael Greene. His later years established him as "a missionary of world revolution".
Rights of Man
James Gillraycaricatured Paine tightening the stays of Britannia; protruding from his coat pocket is a measuring tape inscribed "Rights of Man".]
Returning to London, Paine wrote "Rights of Man" completing the work on January 29, 1791. On January 31, he gave the manuscript to publisher Joseph Johnson for publication on February 22. Meanwhile, government agents visited him, and, sensing dangerous political controversy, he reneged on his promise to sell the book on publication day; Paine quickly negotiated with publisher J.S. Jordan, then went to Paris, per
William Blake's advice, leaving three good friends, William Godwin, Thomas Brand Hollis, and Thomas Holcroft, charged with concluding publication. The book appeared on March 13, three weeks later than scheduled.
The "Rights of Man" was an abstract political tract supporting the
French Revolution, replying to " Reflections on the Revolution in France", by Edmund Burke. The seditious bookndash greatly critical of monarchies and European social institutionsndash sold well, but the British government tried Paine "in absentia".
In summer of 1792, he answered the sedition and libel charges thus: "If, to expose the fraud and imposition of monarchy . . . to promote universal peace, civilization, and commerce, and to break the chains of political superstition, and raise degraded man to his proper rank; if these things be libellous . . . let the name of libeller be engraved on my tomb". [ Thomas Paine, Letter Addressed To The Addressers On The Late Proclamation, in Michael Foot, Isaac Kramnick (ed.), The Thomas Paine Reader, p. 374 ] In February 1792, in the second edition of the "Rights of Man", he proposed the reformation of England, including a progressive income tax.
Paine was an enthusiastic supporter of the French Revolution, and was granted, along with
Alexander Hamilton, George Washington, Benjamin Franklinand others, honorary French citizenship. Despite his inability to speak French, he was elected to the National Convention, representing the district of Pas-de-Calais. He voted for the French Republic; but argued against the execution of Louis XVI, saying that he should instead be exiled to the United States: firstly, because of the way royalist France had come to the aid of the American Revolution; and secondly because of a moral objection to capital punishment in general and to revenge killings in particular.
Regarded as an ally of the Girondins, he was seen with increasing disfavour by the Montagnards who were now in power, and in particular by Robespierre. A decree was passed at the end of 1793 excluding foreigners from their places in the Convention (Anacharsis Cloots was also deprived of his place). Paine was arrested and imprisoned in December 1793.
Before his arrest and imprisonment, knowing that he would likely be arrested and executed, Paine wrote the first part of "
The Age of Reason", an assault on organized "revealed" religion combining a compilation of inconsistencies he found in the Bible with his own advocacy of Deism. In his "Autobiographical Interlude," which is found in "The Age of Reason" between the first and second parts, Paine writes, "Thus far I had written on the 28th of December, 1793. In the evening I went to the Hotel Philadelphia . . . About four in the morning I was awakened by a rapping at my chamber door; when I opened it, I saw a guard and the master of the hotel with them. The guard told me they came to put me under arrestation and to demand the key of my papers. I desired them to walk in, and I would dress myself and go with them immediately."
Paine protested and claimed that he was a citizen of America, which was an ally of Revolutionary France, rather than of Great Britain, which was by that time at war with France. However,
Gouverneur Morris, the American ambassador to France, did not press his claim, and Paine later wrote that Morris had connived at his imprisonment. Paine thought that George Washington had abandoned him, and he was to quarrel with Washington for the rest of his life. Years later he wrote a scathing open letter to Washington, accusing him of private betrayal of their friendship and public hypocrisy as general and president, and concluding the letter by saying "the world will be puzzled to decide whether you are an apostate or an impostor; whether you have abandoned good principles or whether you ever had any," [cite web |last=Paine |first=Thomas |title=Letter to George Washington, July 30, 1796: "On Paine's Service to America" |url=http://www.cooperativeindividualism.org/paine_letter_to_washington_01.html |accessdate=2006-11-04] He was also vehemently opposed to Washington owning slaves.
While in prison, Paine escaped execution apparently by chance. A guard walked through the prison placing a chalk mark on the doors of the prisoners who were due to be condemned that day. He placed one on the door of Paine's cell, but did not notice that the door was open. After the door was closed, the mark was hidden inside the cell. Hence, he was overlooked, and survived the few vital days needed to be spared by the fall of Robespierre on 9 Thermidor (July 27, 1794) [citation
title=The Life and Writings of Thomas Paine: Containing a Biography
publisher=Vincent Parke & Co.
accessdate=2008-02-21] . Paine was released in November 1794 largely because of the work of the new American Minister to France,
In 1800, Paine purportedly had a meeting with Napoleon. Napoleon claimed he slept with a copy of "Rights of Man" under his pillow and went so far as to say to Paine that "a statue of gold should be erected to you in every city in the universe." [Huldah T. Gunn, “ [http://www.theosociety.org/pasadena/ub/v12n12p265_thomas-paine.htm Thomas Paine] ,” "Universal Brotherhood" 12.12 (March 1898): 265.] Paine discussed with Napoleon on how best to invade England and in December 1797 wrote two essays in which he promoted the idea to finance 1000 gunboats to carry a French invading army across the English Channel. In 1804 Paine returned to the subject, writing "To the People of England on the Invasion of England" advocating the idea. [ [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/21133 Mark Philp, ‘Paine, Thomas (1737–1809)’, "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography", Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edn, May 2008, accessed July 26, 2008 (subscription required)] ]
On noting Napoleon's progress towards dictatorship, he condemned him as: "the completest charlatan that ever existed". [http://www.thetgram.norfolk.sch.uk/History.htm School History] Thetford Grammar School, Accessed January 3, 2008,] Failed verification|date=August 2008 Thomas Paine remained in France until 1802, returning to to America only at President Jefferson's invitation.
Paine returned to America in the early stages of the
Second Great Awakeningand a time of great political partisanship. The "Age of Reason" gave ample excuse for the religiously devout to dislike him, and the Federalists attacked him for his ideas of government stated in "Common Sense," for his association with the French Revolution, and for his friendship with President Jefferson. Also still fresh in the minds of the public was his "Letter to Washington," published six years before his return.
Paine died at the age of 72, at 59 Grove Street in
Greenwich Village, New York Cityon the morning of June 8, 1809. Although the original building is no longer there, the present building has a plaque noting that Paine died at this location. At the time of his death, most American newspapers reprinted the obituary notice from the " New York Citizen," which read in part: "He had lived long, did some good and much harm." Only six mourners came to his funeral, two of whom were black, most likely freedmen. The great orator and writer Robert G. Ingersollwrote:
Thomas Paine had passed the legendary limit of life. One by one most of his old friends and acquaintances had deserted him. Maligned on every side, execrated, shunned and abhorred – his virtues denounced as vices – his services forgotten – his character blackened, he preserved the poise and balance of his soul. He was a victim of the people, but his convictions remained unshaken. He was still a soldier in the army of freedom, and still tried to enlighten and civilize those who were impatiently waiting for his death, Even those who loved their enemies hated him, their friend – the friend of the whole world – with all their hearts. On the 8th of June, 1809, death came – Death, almost his only friend. At his funeral no pomp, no pageantry, no civic procession, no military display. In a carriage, a woman and her son who had lived on the bounty of the dead – on horseback, a Quaker, the humanity of whose heart dominated the creed of his head – and, following on foot, two negroes filled with gratitude – constituted the funeral cortege of Thomas Paine. [
Robert G. Ingersoll, Thomas Paine, written 1870, published "New Dresden Edition, XI, 321", 1892. Accessed [http://www.thomaspaine.org/bio/ingersoll1892.html online] at thomaspaine.org, February 17, 2007.]
"In the summer of 1803 the political atmosphere was in a tempestuous condition, owing to the widespread accusation that Aaron Burr had intrigued with the Federalists against Jefferson to gain the presidency. There was a Society in New York called "Republican Greens," who, on Independence Day, had for a toast "Thomas Paine, the Man of the People", and who seem to have had a piece of music called the "Rights of Man". Paine was also apparently the hero of that day at White Plains, where a vast crowd assembled".
A few years later, the agrarian radical
William Cobbettdug up and shipped his bones back to England. The plan was to give Paine a heroic reburial on his native soil, but the bones were still among Cobbett's effects when he died over twenty years later. There is no confirmed story about what happened to them after that, although down the years various people have claimed to own parts of Paine's remains, such as his skull and right hand. [cite web
title=The Paine Monument at Last Finds a Home
publisher=The New York Times
date=October 15, 1905
accessdate=2008-02-23] [cite web
title=Rehabilitating Thomas Paine, Bit by Bony Bit
publisher=The New York Times
Thomas Paine developed his
natural justicebeliefs in childhood, while listening to a mob jeering and attacking the town folk being punished in the Thetford stocks.Fact|date=February 2007 Also, he might have been influenced by his Quaker father. [Claeys, Gregory. "Thomas Paine: Social and Political Thought". 1989, p. 20.] In " The Age of Reason"ndash the treatise supporting deismndash he says:
The religion that approaches the nearest of all others to true deism, in the moral and benign part thereof, is that professed by the Quakers . . . though I revere their philanthropy, I cannot help smiling at [their] conceit; . . . if the taste of a Quaker [had] been consulted at the Creation, what a silent and drab-colored Creation it would have been! Not a flower would have blossomed its gaieties, nor a bird been permitted to sing.
He was an early advocate of
republicanismand liberalism, dismissing monarchy, and viewing government as a necessary evil. He opposed slavery, proposed universal, free public education, a guaranteed minimum income, and other ideas then considered radical.
In the second part of "The Age of Reason", about his sickness in prison, he says: ". . . I was seized with a fever, that, in its progress, had every symptom of becoming mortal, and from the effects of which I am not recovered. It was then that I remembered, with renewed satisfaction, and congratulated myself most sincerely, on having written the former part of 'The Age of Reason'". This quotation encapsulates its gist:
The opinions I have advanced . . . are the effect of the most clear and long-established conviction that the Bible and the Testament are impositions upon the world, that the fall of man, the account of Jesus Christ being the Son of God, and of his dying to appease the wrath of God, and of salvation, by that strange means, are all fabulous inventions, dishonorable to the wisdom and power of the Almighty; that the only true religion is Deism, by which I then meant, and mean now, the belief of one God, and an imitation of his moral character, or the practice of what are called moral virtuesndash and that it was upon this only (so far as religion is concerned) that I rested all my hopes of happiness hereafter. So say I nowndash and so help me God.
About religion, "
The Age of Reason" says:
quote|I do not believe in the creed professed by the Jewish church, by the Roman church, by the Greek church, by the Turkish church, by the Protestant church, nor by any church that I know of. My own mind is my own church.
All national institutions of churches, whether Jewish, Christian or Turkish, appear to me no other than human inventions, set up to terrify and enslave mankind, and monopolize power and profit.
He also wrote [http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Thomas_Paine#Sourced "An Essay on the Origin of Free-Masonry" (1803-1805)] , about the Bible being allegorical myth describing astrology:
Nevertheless, he described himself as "Deist", saying:
How different is [Christianity] to the pure and simple profession of Deism! The true Deist has but one Deity, and his religion consists in contemplating the power, wisdom, and benignity of the Deity in his works, and in endeavoring to imitate him in everything moral, scientifical, and mechanical.
Paine was once often credited with writing "African Slavery in America", the first article proposing the emancipation of African slaves and the abolition of slavery. It was published on March 8, 1775 in the "Postscript to the Pennsylvania Journal and Weekly Advertiser" (aka "The Pennsylvania Magazine" and "American Museum"). [Van der Weyde, William M., ed. "The Life and Works of Thomas Paine". New York: Thomas Paine National Historical Society, 1925, p. 19-20.] Citing a lack of evidence that Paine was the author of this anonymously published essay, scholars no longer consider this one of his works.
His last, great pamphlet, "Agrarian Justice", he published in winter of 1795, further developing the ideas in the "Rights of Man", about how land ownership separated the majority of people from their rightful, natural inheritance, and means of independent survival. Contemporarilly, his proposal is deemed a form of basic Income Guarantee. Fact|date=March 2008 The U.S.
Social Security Administrationrecognizes "Agrarian Justice" as the first American proposal for an old-age pension; per "Agrarian Justice":
In advocating the case of the persons thus dispossessed, it is a right, and not a charity . . . [Government must] create a national fund, out of which there shall be paid to every person, when arrived at the age of twenty-one years, the sum of fifteen pounds sterling, as a compensation in part, for the loss of his or her natural inheritance, by the introduction of the system of landed property; And also, the sum of ten pounds per annum, during life, to every person now living, of the age of fifty years, and to all others as they shall arrive at that age.
Thomas Paine's writing greatly influenced his contemporaries and, especially, the American revolutionaries. His books inspired philosophic and working-class radicals in the U.K., and U.S. liberals, libertarians,
democratic socialists, social democrats, anarchists, freethinkers, progressives, and radicals often claim him as intellectual ancestor. Abraham Lincolnand Thomas Edisonrespectfully read his works. [cite web
title=Thomas Paine and The Age of Reason
Transcript of an address delivered February 17, 1957 on radio station WMIE, Miami, Florida. ] Lincoln's law partner, William Herndon, reports that he (Lincoln) wrote a defence of Paine's deism in 1835, and friend Samuel Hill burned it to save Lincoln's political career; [cite web
title=Abraham Lincoln's Religious Views
accessdate=2008-01-09] and of him, Thomas Edison said:
I have always regarded Paine as one of the greatest of all Americans. Never have we had a sounder intelligence in this republic . . . It was my good fortune to encounter Thomas Paine's works in my boyhood . . . it was, indeed, a revelation to me to read that great thinker's views on political and theological subjects. Paine educated me, then, about many matters of which I had never before thought. I remember, very vividly, the flash of enlightenment that shone from Paine's writings, and I recall thinking, at that time, 'What a pity these works are not today the schoolbooks for all children!' My interest in Paine was not satisfied by my first reading of his works. I went back to them time and again, just as I have done since my boyhood days. [Thomas Edison, Introduction to "The Life and Works of Thomas Paine", Citadel Press, New York, 1945 Vol. I, p.vii-ix. [http://www.thomaspaine.org/contents.html Reproduced online] on thomaspaine.org, accessed November 4, 2006.]
At war's end, the Congress gave Thomas Paine a farm in New Rochelle, New York, for services rendered. On it are the
Thomas Paine Cottage, the Thomas Paine Historical Society museum, and the man's grave. [cite web
publisher=Thomas Paine National Historical Association
accessdate=2008-01-08] In the U.K., a statue of Thomas Paine (quill pen and inverted copy of "Rights of Man" in hand), stands in King Street, Thetford, Norfolk, his birth place. Moreover, in Thetford, the
Sixth formis named after him. [cite web
title=Thomas Paine Sixth Form
publisher=Rosemary Musker High School
Bronx Community College, there is a bust of Thomas Paine in their Hall of Fame of Great Americans, and there are statues of Paine in Morristown and Bordentown, New Jersey, and in the Parc Montsouris, in Paris. [cite web
title=Photos of Tom Paine and Some of His Writings
accessdate=2008-01-10] [cite web
publisher=Paris Walking Tours
accessdate=2008-01-10] The town of Diss has a Thomas Paine Street. In Paris, there is a plaque in the street where he lived from 1797 to 1802, that says: "Thomas PAINE / 1737–1809 / Englishman by birth / American by adoption / French by decree". [cite web
photograph of the plaque at 10, rue l'Odeon] Yearly, between 4 and July 14, the Lewes Town Council celebrates the life and work of Thomas Paine. [ [http://www.lewes-town.co.uk/listingdets.asp?mode=next&reckount=4&searchwords=&dir=5&typeid=C The Tom Paine Project] , Lewes Town Council. Accessed online November 4, 2006.]
United States Declaration of Independence
United States history
Bill of Rights
Contributions to liberal theory
Founding Fathers of the United States
Bordentown, New Jersey
New Rochelle, New York
* Aldridge, A. Owen, 1959. "Man of Reason: The Life of Thomas Paine." Lippincott. Regarded by British authorities as the standard biography.
* Aldridge, A. Owen, 1984. "Thomas Paine's American Ideology". University Press of Delaware.
Bailyn, Bernard, 1990. "Common Sense", in Bailyn, "Faces of Revolution: Personalities and Themes in the Struggle for American Independence". Alfred A. Knopf.
* Bernstein, R. B. "Review Essay: Rediscovering Thomas Paine." "New York Law School Law Review," 1994ndash valuable blend of historiographical essay and biographical/analytical treatment.
* Butler, Marilyn, 1984. "Burke Paine and Godwin and the Revolution Controversy".
* Gregory Claeys, 1989. "Thomas Paine, Social and Political Thought". Unwin Hyman. Excellent analysis of Paine's thought.
*Conway, Moncure Daniel, 1892. "The Life of Thomas Paine", 2 vols. G.P. Putnam's Sons. [http://www.thomaspaine.org/bio/ConwayLife.html Vol. 1] , [http://www.thomaspaine.org/bio/ConwayLife_2.html Vol. 2] , [http://deila.dickinson.edu/theirownwords/title/0055.htm Facsimile] . Long hailed as the definitive biography, and still valuable.
*Fast, Howard, 1946. "Citizen Tom Paine" (historical novel, though sometimes taken as biography).
*Foner, Eric, 1976. "Tom Paine and Revolutionary America". Oxford University Press. The standard monograph treating Paine's thought and work with regard to America.
*citation|last=Griffiths |first=Trevor|authorlink=Trevor Griffiths|date=2004|title=These Are the Times: A Life of Thomas Paine|publisher=Spokesman Books
* Hawke, David Freeman, 1974. "Paine". Regarded by many American authorities as the standard biography.
*Hitchens, Christopher, 2006. "".
*Ingersoll, Robert G., 1892, " [http://www.thomaspaine.org/bio/ingersoll1892.html Thomas Paine,] " "
North American Review".
*Kates, Gary, 1989, "From Liberalism to Radicalism: Tom Paine's Rights of Man," "Journal of the History of Ideas": 569-87.
*Kaye, Harvey J., 2005. "Thomas Paine and the Promise of America". Hill and Wang.
*Keane, John, 1995. "Tom Paine: A Political Life". London. One of the most valuable recent studies.
*Larkin, Edward, 2005. "Thomas Paine and the Literature of Revolution." Cambridge Univ. Press.
*Nelson, Craig, 2006. [http://craignelson.us/tompaine.html "Thomas Paine: Enlightenment, Revolution, and the Birth of Modern Nations] ". Viking. ISBN 0670037885.
*Paine, Thomas (Foner, Eric., editor), 1993. "Writings." Library of America. Authoritative and scholarly edition containing "Common Sense," the essays comprising the "American Crisis" series, "Rights of Man," "The Age of Reason," "Agrarian Justice," and selected briefer writings, with authoritative texts and careful annotation.
*Paine, Thomas (Fomer, Philip S., editor), 1944. "The Complete Writings of Thomas Paine," 2 volumes. Citadel Press. We badly need a complete edition of Paine's writings on the model of Eric Foner's edition for the Library of America, but until that goal is achieved, Philip Foner's two-volume edition is a serviceable substitute. Volume I contains the major works, and volume II contains shorter writings, both published essays and a selection of letters, but confusingly organized; in addition, Foner's attributions of writings to Paine have come in for some criticism in that Foner may have included writings that Paine edited but did not write and omitted some writings that later scholars have attributed to Paine.
*Powell, David, 1985. "Tom Paine, The Greatest Exile". Hutchinson.
*citation|last=Russell|first=Bertrand|authorlink=Bertrand Russell|date=1934|title=The Fate of Thomas Paine
* Vincent, Bernard, 2005. "The Transatlantic Republican: Thomas Paine and the age of revolutions".
*citation|last=Wilensky|first=Mark|date=2008|title=The Elementary Common Sense of Thomas Paine. An Interactive Adaptation for All Ages|publisher=Casemate|isbn=9781932714364
* [http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=1104687536309041716&q=thomas+paine&hl=en Books of Our Time: Thomas Paine and the Promise of America] (video)
* [http://www.thomaspaine.org/contents.html Complete Works of Thomas Paine]
*gutenberg author|id=Thomas_Paine|name=Thomas Paine
* [http://deism.com/paine.htm Deistic and Religious Works of Thomas Paine]
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=6dAXAAAAIAAJ The theological works of Thomas Paine]
* [http://www.thomaspainesociety.org The Thomas Paine Society]
* [http://www.religionpaine.org Essays on the Religious and Political Philosophy of Thomas Paine]
* [http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=2698 Thomas Paine's Memorial]
* [http://www.quotedb.com/authors/thomas-paine Thomas Paine Quotations]
* [http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=1104687536309041716&q=thomas+paine+and+the+promise+of+america Books of Our Time: Thomas Paine and the Promise of America by Harvey Kaye] (video)
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/norfolk/content/articles/2007/03/27/abolition_thomas_paine_20070327_feature.shtml Take a video tour of Thomas Paine's birthplace]
* [http://www.americanaphonic.com/pages/CommonSense.html Common Sense in mp3 audio at Americana Phonic]
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=qEAHAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA1&dq=thomas+paine&as_brr=1 Rights of Man book on Google books (full-view)]
* [http://www.alfordwindmillhotel.co.uk/thomaspaine.htm office location while in Alford]
* [http://www.downtownbordentown.com/history-tp.htm Thomas Paine's time at Bordentown, New Jersey]
* [http://edsitement.neh.gov/view_lesson_plan.asp?id=721 Lesson plan - "Common Sense": The Rhetoric of Popular Democracy]
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=MqAOAAAAIAAJ The theological works of Thomas Paine to which are appended the profession of faith of a savoyard vicar by J.J. Rousseau]
* [http://www.dustylibrary.com/philosophy/25-common-sense-thomas-paine.html "Common Sense"] by Thomas Paine; HTML format, indexed by sectionPersondata
NAME= Paine, Thomas
ALTERNATIVE NAMES=Pain, Thomas
DATE OF BIRTH=January 29, 1737
PLACE OF BIRTH=Thetford,
DATE OF DEATH=June 8, 1809
PLACE OF DEATH=
New York City, USA
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