A state is a political association with effective
sovereigntyover a geographic areaand representing a population. These may be nation states, sub-national states or multinational states. A state usually includes the set of institutions that claim the authorityto make the rules that govern the exercise of coercive violence for the people of the society in that territory, though its status as a state often depends in part on being recognized by a number of other states as having internal and external sovereigntyover it. In sociology, the state is normally identified with these institutions: in Max Weber's influential definition, it is that organization that "(successfully) claims a monopoly on the legitimate use of physical forcewithin a given territory," which may include the armed forces, civil serviceor state bureaucracy, courts, and police. Recently much debate has surrounded the issue of State-buildingwith competing schools of thought on how to support the emergence of capable states.
Although the term often includes broadly all institutions of
governmentor rule—ancient and modern—the modern state system bears a number of characteristics that were first consolidated beginning in earnest in the 15th century, when the term "state" also acquired its current meaning. Thus the word is often used in a strict sense to refer only to modern political systems.
Within a federal system, the term state also refers to political units, not completely sovereign themselves; however, these systems are subject to the authority of a
constitutiondefining a federal union which is partially or co-sovereign with them.
In casual usage, the terms "country," "nation," and "state" are often used as if they were
synonymous; but in a more strict usage they can be distinguished:
Country" denotes a geographical area.
Nation" denotes a people who are believed to or deemed to share common customs, origins, and history. However, the adjectives "national" and "international" also refer to matters pertaining to what are strictly "states", as in "national capital", "international law".
* "State" refers to the set of governing and supportive institutions that have
sovereigntyover a definite territoryand population.
The word "state" and its cognates in other
European languages ("stato" in Italian, "état" in French, "Staat" in German and "estado" in Spanish and Portuguese) ultimately derive from the LatinSTATVS, meaning "condition" or "status". ["state." Online Etymology Dictionary. Douglas Harper, Historian. 26 February 2007. [Dictionary.com http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/state] .] With the revival of the Roman lawin the 14th century in Europe, this Latin term was used to refer to the legal standing of persons (such as the various " estates of the realm" - noble, common, and clerical), and in particular the special status of the king. The word was also associated with Roman ideas (dating back to Cicero) about the "status rei publicae", the "condition of the republic." In time, the word lost its reference to particular social groups and became associated with the legal order of the entire society and the apparatus of its enforcement.Skinner, Quentin. 1989. [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0521359783&id=1QrSKH_Q5M8C&pg=RA1-PA6&lpg=RA1-PA6&ots=Nn0ouzVO1R&dq=Skinner+Political+Innovation+Conceptual+Change&sig=660qldsyiEPiohCBXir3QqAwCWE#PRA1-PA90,M1 The State] . In Political Innovation and Conceptual Change, edited by T. Ball, J. Farr and R. L. Hanson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0521359783&id=1QrSKH_Q5M8C&pg=RA1-PA6&lpg=RA1-PA6&ots=Nn0ouzVO1R&dq=Skinner+Political+Innovation+Conceptual+Change&sig=660qldsyiEPiohCBXir3QqAwCWE#PRA1-PA90,M1 ISBN 0521359783] ]
In other languages meaning can be different. Polish 'państwo' can be derived from the word 'pan'=lord, the one who has power ('Lord Jesus'='Pan Jezus'). 'Państwo' therefore denotes a state, when someone is governing (is in charge). The word 'państwo' also suggest some kind of social organisation, as its second meaning in Polish relates to "family" (państwo Smith = the Smiths).
It has also been claimed that the word "state" originates from the medieval "state" or regal chair upon which the
head of state(usually a monarch) would sit. By process of metonymy, the word state became used to refer to both the head of state and the power entity he represented (though the former meaning has fallen out of use).Fact|date=February 2007 Two quotations which reference these different meanings, both commonly, though probably apocryphally, attributed to King Louis XIV of France, are "L'État, c'est moi" ("I am the State") and "Je m'en vais, mais l'État demeurera toujours." ("I am going away, but the State will always remain"). A similar association of terms can today be seen in the practice of referring to government buildings as having authority, for example "The White Housetoday released a press statement...".
Empirical and juridical senses of the word state
The word "state" has both an
empiricaland a juridical sense, i.e., entities can be states either " de facto" or " de jure" or both.Jackson, Robert H., and Carl G. Rosberg. 1982. [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0043-8871%28198210%2935%3A1%3C1%3AWAWSPT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-K Why Africa's Weak States Persist: The Empirical and The Juridical in Statehood] . World Politics 35 (1):1-24. [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0043-8871%28198210%2935%3A1%3C1%3AWAWSPT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-K] ]
Empirically (or de facto), an entity is a state if, as in
Max Weber's influential definition, it is that organizationthat has a 'monopoly on legitimate violence' over a specific territory.Weber, Max. 1994. The Profession and Vocation of Politics. In [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0521397197&id=6uA68XdxBv4C&pg=PA394&lpg=PA394 Political Writings] . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0521397197&id=6uA68XdxBv4C&pg=PA394&lpg=PA394 ISBN 0521397197] .] Such an entity imposes its own legal order over a territory, even if it is not legally recognized as a state by other states (e.g., the Somali region of Somaliland).
Juridically (or de jure), an entity is a state in
international lawif it is recognized as such by other states, even if it does not actually have a monopoly on the legitimate use of force over a territory. Only an entity juridically recognized as a state can enter into many kinds of international agreements and be represented in a variety of legal forums, such as the United Nations.
States, government types, and political systems
The concept of the state can be distinguished from two related concepts with which it is sometimes confused: the concept of a
form of governmentor regime, such as democracyor dictatorship, and the concept of a political system. The form of governmentidentifies only one aspect of the state, namely, the way in which the highest political offices are filled and their relationship to each other and to society. It does not include other aspects of the state that may be very important in its everyday functioning, such as the quality of its bureaucracy. For example, two democratic states may be quite different if one has a capable, well-trained bureaucracyor civil servicewhile the other does not. Thus generally speaking the term "state" refers to the instruments of political power, while the terms regimeor form of governmentrefers more to the way in which such instruments can be accessed and employed.Bobbio, Norberto. 1989. [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0816618135&id=4AE8ur83g8AC&pg=PP1&lpg=PP1&ots=8883y8Du41&dq=Bobbio+Democracy+and+Dictatorship&sig=kfL3Vpo83GuEdGmhXJMmTIbBNnw Democracy and Dictatorship: The Nature and Limits of State Power] . Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0816618135&id=4AE8ur83g8AC&pg=PP1&lpg=PP1&ots=8883y8Du41&dq=Bobbio+Democracy+and+Dictatorship&sig=kfL3Vpo83GuEdGmhXJMmTIbBNnw ISBN 0816618135] .]
Some scholars have suggested that the term "state" is too imprecise and loaded to be used productively in sociology and political science, and ought to be replaced by the more comprehensive term "political system." The "political system" refers to the ensemble of all
social structures that function to produce collectively binding decisions in a society. In modern times, these would include the political regime, political parties, and various sorts of organizations. The term " political system" thus denotes a broader concept than the state.Easton, David. 1990. The Analysis of Political Structure. New York: Routledge.]
The historical development of the state
The earliest forms of the state emerged whenever it became possible to centralize power in a durable way. Agriculture and writing are almost everywhere associated with this process. Agriculture allowed for the production and storing of a surplus. This in turn allowed and encouraged the emergence of a class of people who controlled and protected the agricultural stores and thus did not have to spend most of their time providing for their own subsistence. In addition, writing (or the equivalent of writing, like
Inca quipus) because it made possible the centralization of vital information.Giddens, Anthony. 1987. [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0520060393&id=wJu1Z4cTdsIC&pg=PA121&lpg=PA121&dq=Giddens+Contemporary+Critique+of+Historical+Materialism+the+Nation+State+and+Violence&sig=OwPRjSxlp6Hng4YHp74wHYWSaGQ#PPP1,M1A Contemporary Critique of Historical Materialism. 3 vols. Vol. II: The Nation-State and Violence] . Cambridge: Polity Press. [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0520060393&id=wJu1Z4cTdsIC&pg=PA121&lpg=PA121&dq=Giddens+Contemporary+Critique+of+Historical+Materialism+the+Nation+State+and+Violence&sig=OwPRjSxlp6Hng4YHp74wHYWSaGQ#PPP1,M1 ISBN 0520060393] . See [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0520060393&id=wJu1Z4cTdsIC&pg=PA121&lpg=PA121&dq=Giddens+Contemporary+Critique+of+Historical+Materialism+the+Nation+State+and+Violence&sig=OwPRjSxlp6Hng4YHp74wHYWSaGQ#PPP7,M1 chapter 2] .]
Some political philosophers believe the origins of the state lie ultimately in the tribal culture which developed with human sentience, the template for which was the alleged primal "alpha-male" microsocieties of our earlier ancestors, which were based on the coercion of the weak by the strong. Fact|date=July 2007 However anthropologists point out that extant band- and tribe-level societies are notable for their "lack" of centralized authority, and that highly stratified societies--i.e., states--constitute a relatively recent break with the course of human history. [Boehm, Christopher. 1999. [http://www.google.co.nz/books?id=ljxS8gUlgqgC|Hierarchy in the Forest] . Cambridge: Harvard University Press. [http://www.google.co.nz/books?id=ljxS8gUlgqgC|ISBN 0674006917] .]
The state in classical antiquity
The history of the state in the West usually begins with
classical antiquity. During that period, the state took a variety of forms, none of them very much like the modern state. There were monarchies whose power (like that of the Egyptian Pharaoh) was based on the religious function of the king and his control of a centralized army. There were also large, quasi-bureaucratized empires, like the Roman empire, which depended less on the religious function of the ruler and more on effective military and legal organizations and the cohesion of an aristocracy.
Perhaps the most important political innovations of classical antiquity came from the Greek city-states and the Roman Republic. The Greek city-states before the 4th century granted citizenship rights to their free population, and in Athens these rights were combined with a directly democratic form of government that was to have a long afterlife in political thought and history.
In contrast, Rome developed from a monarchy into a republic, governed by a senate dominated by the Roman aristocracy. The Roman political system contributed to the development of
law, constitutionalismand to the distinction between the private and the publicspheres.
From the feudal state to the modern state in the West
The story of the development of the specifically modern state in the West typically begins with the dissolution of the western
Roman empire. This led to the fragmentation of the imperial state into the hands of private and decentralized lords whose political, judicial, and military roles corresponded to the organization of economic production. In these conditions, according to Marxists, the economic unit of society corresponded exactly to the state on the local level.
The state-system of
feudalEurope was an unstable configuration of suzerains and anointed kings. A monarch, formally at the head of a hierarchy of sovereigns, was not an absolute power who could rule at will; instead, relations between lords and monarchs were mediated by varying degrees of mutual dependence, which was ensured by the absence of a centralized system of taxation. This reality ensured that each ruler needed to obtain the 'consent' of each estate in the realm. This was not quite a 'state' in the Weberian sense of the term, since the king did not monopolize either the power of lawmaking (which was shared with the church) or the means of violence (which were shared with the nobles).
The formalization of the struggles over taxation between the monarch and other elements of society (especially the nobility and the cities) gave rise to what is now called the
Standestaat, or the state of Estates, characterized by parliaments in which key social groups negotiated with the king about legal and economic matters. These estates of the realmsometimes evolved in the direction of fully-fledged parliaments, but sometimes lost out in their struggles with the monarch, leading to greater centralization of lawmaking and coercive (chiefly military) power in his hands. Beginning in the 15th century, this centralizing process gave rise to the absolutist state.Poggi, G. 1978. The Development of the Modern State: A Sociological Introduction. Stanford: Stanford University Press.]
The modern state
The rise of the "modern state" as a public power constituting the supreme political authority within a defined territory is associated with western Europe's gradual institutional development beginning in earnest in the late 15th century, culminating in the rise of absolutism and
As Europe's dynastic states — England under the Tudors,
Spainunder the Habsburgs, and Franceunder the Bourbons — embarked on a variety of programs designed to increase centralized political and economic control, they increasingly exhibited many of the institutional features that characterize the "modern state." This centralization of power involved the delineation of political boundaries, as European monarchs gradually defeated or co-opted other sources of power, such as the Church and lesser nobility. In place of the fragmented system of feudal rule, with its often indistinct territorial claims, large, unitary states with extensive control over definite territories emerged. This process gave rise to the highly centralized and increasingly bureaucratic forms of absolute monarchical rule of the 17th and 18th centuries, when the principal features of the contemporary state system took form, including the introduction of a standing army, a central taxation system, diplomatic relations with permanent embassies, and the development of state economic policy— mercantilism.
Cultural and national homogenization figured prominently in the rise of the modern state system. Since the absolutist period, states have largely been organized on a
national basis. The concept of a national state, however, is not synonymous with nation-state. Even in the most ethnically homogeneous societies there is not always a complete correspondence between state and nation, hence the active role often taken by the state to promote nationalismthrough emphasis on shared symbols and national identity.Breuilly, John. 1993. [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0719038006&id=6sEVmFtkpngC&pg=PP1&lpg=PP1&ots=jaRrjiINsh&dq=Breuilly+Nationalism+and+the+State&sig=xdUZ4zKU-os0Mx75Wk9gO3LuYhU Nationalism and the State] . New York: St. Martin's Press. [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0719038006&id=6sEVmFtkpngC&pg=PP1&lpg=PP1&ots=jaRrjiINsh&dq=Breuilly+Nationalism+and+the+State&sig=xdUZ4zKU-os0Mx75Wk9gO3LuYhU ISBN SBN0719038006] .]
It is in this period that the term "the state" is first introduced into political discourse in more or less its current meaning. Although
Niccolò Machiavelliis often credited with first using the term to refer to a territorial sovereign government in the modern sense in " The Prince", published in 1532, it is not until the time of the British thinkers Thomas Hobbesand John Lockeand the French thinker Jean Bodinthat the concept in its current meaning is fully developed.
Today, most Western states more or less fit the influential definition of the state in
Max Weber's " Politics as a Vocation". According to Weber, the modern state monopolizes the means of legitimate physical violence over a well-defined territory. Moreover, the legitimacy of this monopoly itself is of a very special kind, "rational-legal" legitimacy, based on impersonal rules that constrain the power of state elites.
However, in some other parts of the world states do not fit Weber's definition as well. They may not have a complete monopoly over the means of legitimate physical violence over a definite territory, or their legitimacy may not be adequately described as rational-legal. But they are still recognizably distinct from feudal and absolutist states in the extent of their bureaucratization and their reliance on
nationalismas a principle of legitimation.
Since Weber, an extensive literature on the processes by which the "modern state" emerged from the feudal state has been generated. Marxist scholars, for example, assert that the formation of modern states can be explained primarily in terms of the interests and struggles of
social classes.Anderson, Perry. 1979. [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN086091710X&id=EhtMbM1Z8BkC&pg=PP1&lpg=PP1&ots=kKEFE8hSdz&dq=Perry+Anderson+Lineages+of+the+Absolutist+State&sig=6wtAz_EZf89y2x2Y6bZB3Rgkh6Y Lineages of the absolutist state] . London: Verso. [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN086091710X&id=EhtMbM1Z8BkC&pg=PP1&lpg=PP1&ots=kKEFE8hSdz&dq=Perry+Anderson+Lineages+of+the+Absolutist+State&sig=6wtAz_EZf89y2x2Y6bZB3Rgkh6Y ISBN 086091710X] .]
Scholars working in the broad Weberian tradition, by contrast, have often emphasized the institution-building effects of
war. For example, Charles Tillyhas argued that the revenue-gathering imperatives forced on nascent states by geopolitical competition and constant warfare were mostly responsible for the development of the centralized, territorial bureaucracies that characterize modern states in Europe. States that were able to develop centralized tax-gathering bureaucracies and to field mass armies survived into the modern era; states that were not able to do so did not.Tilly, Charles. 1992. [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN1557863687&id=w4zjW_RjNb0C&pg=PA1&lpg=PA1&ots=uKjqZcZf6T&dq=Coercion,+Capital,+and+European+States&sig=UjCM07nwXyw8otUoSLTmdiKYUs4 Coercion, Capital, and European States, AD 990-1992] . Cambridge, Massachusetts: B. Blackwell. [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN1557863687&id=w4zjW_RjNb0C&pg=PA1&lpg=PA1&ots=uKjqZcZf6T&dq=Coercion,+Capital,+and+European+States&sig=UjCM07nwXyw8otUoSLTmdiKYUs4 ISBN 1557863687] .]
State and civil society
The modern state is both separate from and connected to
civil society. The nature of this connection has been the subject of considerable attention in both analyses of state development and normative theories of the state. Earlier thinkers, such as Thomas Hobbesemphasized the supremacy of the state over society. Later thinkers, by contrast, beginning with G. W. F. Hegel, have tended to emphasize the points of contact between them. Jürgen Habermas, for example, has argued that civil society forms a public sphere, that is, a site of extra-institutional engagement with matters of public interest autonomous from the state and yet necessarily connected with it.
Some Marxist theorists, such as
Antonio Gramsci, have questioned the distinction between the state and civil society altogether, arguing that the former is integrated into many parts of the latter. Others, such as Louis Althusser, maintain that civil organizations such as churches, schools, and even trade unions are part of an 'ideological state apparatus.' In this sense, the state can fund a number of groups within society that, while autonomous in principle, are dependent on state support.
Given the role that many social groups have in the development of public policy and the extensive connections between state bureaucracies and other institutions, it has become increasingly difficult to identify the boundaries of the state.
Privatization, nationalization, and the creation of new regulatory bodies also change the boundaries of the state in relation to society. Often the nature of quasi-autonomous organizations is unclear, generating debate among political scientists on whether they are part of the state or civil society. Some political scientists thus prefer to speak of policy networks and decentralized governance in modern societies rather than of state bureaucracies and direct state control over policy. [Kjaer, Anne Mette. 2004. [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0745629792 Governance] . London: Verso. [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0745629792 ISBN 0745629792] ] Alfred Stepan also introduced the idea of `political society' those organisations that move periodically between the state and non-state sectors (such as Political Parties). Whaites has argued that in developing countries there are dangers inherent in promoting strong civil society where states are weak, risks that should be considered and mitigated by those funding civil society or advocating its role as an alternative source of service provision [Alan Whaites. 1998. Viewpoint NGOs, civil society and the state: avoiding theoretical extremes in real world issues [http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a713661019~db=all~order=page Development in Practice] ] .
The state and the international system
Since the late 19th century the entirety of the world's inhabitable land has been parceled up into states with more or less definite borders claimed by various states. Earlier, quite large land areas had been either unclaimed or uninhabited, or inhabited by
nomadic peoples who were not organized as states. Currently more than 200 states comprise the international community, with the vast majority of them represented in the United Nations.
These states form what
International relationstheorists call a system, where each state takes into account the behavior of other states when making their own calculations. From this point of view, states embedded in an international system face internal and external security and legitimation dilemmas. Recently the notion of an "international community" has been developed to refer to a group of states who have established , procedures, and institutions for the conduct of their relations. In this way the foundation has been laid for international law, diplomacy, formal regimes, and organizations.
The state and
In the late 20th century, the
globalizationof the world economy, the mobility of people and capital, and the rise of many international institutions all combined to circumscribe the freedom of action of states. These constraints on the state's freedom of action are accompanied in some areas, notably Western Europe, with projects for interstate integrationsuch as the European Union. However, the state remains the basic political unit of the world, as it has been since the 16th century. The state is therefore considered the most central concept in the study of politics, and its definition is the subject of intense scholarly debate.
The state and international law
By modern practice and the law of
international relations, a state's sovereignty is conditional upon the diplomatic recognitionof the state's claim to statehood. Degrees of recognition and sovereignty may vary. However, any degree of recognition, even recognition by a majority of the states in the international system, is not binding on third-party states.
The legal criteria for statehood are not obvious. Often, the laws are surpassed by political circumstances. However, one of the documents often quoted on the matter is the
Montevideo Conventionfrom 1933, the first article of which states:
:The state as a person of international law should possess the following qualifications: (a) a permanent population; (b) a defined territory; (c) government; and (d) capacity to enter into relations with the other states.
Contemporary approaches to the study of the state
There are three main traditions within
political scienceand sociologythat shape 'theories of the state': the pluralist, the Marxist, and the institutionalist. In addition, anarchists present a tradition which is similar to, but different from, the Marxian one.
Each of these theories has been employed to gain understanding on the state, while recognizing its complexity. Several issues underlie this complexity. First, the boundaries of the state sector are not clearly defined, while they change constantly. Second, the state is not only the site of conflict between different organizations, but also internal conflict and conflict within organizations. Some scholars speak of the 'state's interest,' but there are often various interests within different parts of the state that are neither solely state-centered nor solely society-centered, but develop between different groups in civil society and different state actors.
Pluralism has been very popular in the United States. In fact, it might be seen as the dominant vision of politics in that country.
Within this tradition,
Robert Dahlsees the state as either (1) a neutral arena for settling disputes among contending interests or (2) a collection of agencies which themselves act as simply another set of interest groups. With power diffused across society among many competing groups, state policy is a product of recurrent bargaining. Although pluralism recognizes the existence of inequality, it asserts that all groups have an opportunity to pressure the state. The pluralist approach suggests that the modern democratic state's actions are the result of pressures applied by a variety of organized interests. Dahl called this kind of state a polyarchy. [Robert Dahl. 1973. [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0135969816&id=9XY5gFcp6n0C&q=Dahl+Modern+Political+Analysis&dq=Dahl+Modern+Political+Analysis&pgis=1 Modern Political Analysis] . Prentice Hall. [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0135969816&id=9XY5gFcp6n0C&q=Dahl+Modern+Political+Analysis&dq=Dahl+Modern+Political+Analysis&pgis=1 ISBN 0135969816] ]
In some ways, the development of the pluralist school is a response to the "
power elite" theory presented in 1956 by the sociologist C. Wright Millsconcerning the U.S. and furthered by research by G. William Domhoff, among others. In that theory, the most powerful elements of the political, military, and economic parts of U.S. society are united at the top of the political system, acting to serve their common interests. The "masses" were left out of the political process. In context, it might said that Mills saw the U.S. elite as in part being very similar to that of the Soviet Union, then the major geopolitical rival of the U.S. One response was the sociologist Arnold M. Rose's publication of "The Power Structure: Political Process in American Society" in 1967. He argued that the distribution of power in the U.S. was more diffuse and pluralistic in nature.
The importance of democratic elections of political leaders in the U.S. (and not the Soviet Union) provides evidence in favor of the pluralist perspective for that country. We might reconcile power elite theory with pluralism in terms of
Joseph Schumpeter's theory of democracy. To him, "democracy" involved the (non-elite) masses choosing "which" elite would have the power.
The absence of democratic elections do not rule out pluralism, however. The old
Soviet Unionis sometimes described as being ruled by an elite, which ran society via a bureaucracywhich united the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the military, and Gosplan, the economic planning apparatus. However, bureaucratic rule from above is never perfect. This meant that, so to some extent, Soviet policies reflected a pluralistic competition of interest groupswithin the Party, the military, and Gosplan, including factory managers.
Marxist theories of the state were relatively influential in continental Europe in the 1960s and 1970s. But it is hard to summarize the theory developed by
Karl Marxand Friedrich Engels. After all, the effort by Hal Draperto distill their political thinking in his "Karl Marx's Theory of Revolution" (Monthly Review Press) took several thick volumes. But many have tried.
For Marxist theorists, the role of modern states is determined or related to their role in capitalist societies. They would agree with Weber on the crucial role of coercion in defining the state. (In fact, Weber himself starts his analysis with a quotation from
Leon Trotsky, a Bolshevik leader.) But Marxists reject the mainstream liberal view that the state is an institution established in the collective interest of society as a whole (perhaps by a social contract) to reconcile competing interests in the name of the common good. Contrary to the pluralist vision, the state is not a mere "neutral arena for settling disputes among contending interests" because it leans heavily to support one interest group (the capitalists) alone. Nor does the state usually act as merely a "collection of agencies which themselves act as simply another set of interest groups," again because of the state's systematic bias toward serving capitalist interests.
In contrast to liberal or pluralist views, the American economist
Paul Sweezyand other Marxian thinkers have pointed out that the main job of the state is to protect capitalist property rights in the means of production. At first, this seems hardly controversial. After all, many economics and politics textbooks refer to the state's crucial role in defending property rights and in enforcing contracts. But the capitalists own a share of the means of production that is far out of proportion to the capitalists' role in the total population. More importantly, in Marxian theory, ownership of the means of production gives that minority social power over those who do not own the means of production (the workers). Because of that power, i.e., the power to exploitand dominatethe working class, the state's defense of them is nothing but the use of coercion to defend capitalism as a class society. [Sweezy, Paul. 1942. The Theory of Capitalist Development. New York: Monthly Review, ch. 13.] Instead of serving the interests of society as a whole, in this view the state serves those of a small minority of the population.
Among Marxists, as with other topics, there are many debates about the nature and role of the capitalist state. One division is between the "instrumentalists" and the "structuralists."
On the first, some contemporary Marxists apply a literal interpretation of the comment by Marx and Frederich Engels in "
The Communist Manifesto" that "The executive of the modern state is but a committee for managing the common affairs of the whole bourgeoisie." In this tradition, Ralph Milibandargued that the ruling class uses the state as its "instrument" (tool) to dominate society in a straightforward way. For Miliband, the state is dominated by an elite that comes from the same background as the capitalist class and therefore shares many of the same goals. State officials therefore share the same interests as owners of capital and are linked to them through a wide array of interpersonal and political ties. [Miliband, Ralph. 1983. Class power and state power. London: Verso.] In many ways, this theory is similar to the "power elite" theory of C. Wright Mills.
Miliband's research is specific to the United Kingdom, where the class system has traditionally been integrated strongly into the educational system (
Eton, Oxbridge, etc.) and social networks. In the United States, the educational system and social networks are more heterogeneous and seem less class-dominated to many. But a social connection between state managers and the capitalist class can be seen in the dependence of the major politicians and their parties on campaign contributions from the rich, on approval from the capitalist-owned media, on advice from corporate-endowed "think tanks," and the like.
In the second view, other Marxist theorists argue that the exact names, biographies, and social roles of those who control the state are irrelevant. Instead, they emphasize the "structural" role of the state's activities. Heavily influenced by the French philosopher
Louis Althusser, Nicos Poulantzas, a Greek neo-Marxist theorist argued that capitalist states do not always act on behalf of the ruling class, and when they do, it is not necessarily the case because state officials consciously strive to do so, but because the structural position of the state is configured in such a way to ensure that the interests of capital are always dominant.
Poulantzas' main contribution to the Marxian literature on the state was the concept of "relative autonomy" of the state: state policies do not correspond exactly to the collective or long-term interests of the capitalist class, but help maintain and preserve capitalism over the long haul. The "power elite," if one exists, may act in ways that go against the wishes of capitalists. While Poulantzas' work on 'state autonomy' has served to sharpen and specify a great deal of Marxist literature on the state, his own framework came under criticism for its "
But this kind of criticism can be answered by considering what happens if state managers "do not" work to favor the operations of capitalism as a class society. [ Fred Block. 1977 "The Ruling Class Does Not Rule." "Socialist Revolution" May-June.] They find that the economy are punished by a
capital strikeor capital flight, encouraging higher unemployment, a decline in tax receipts, and international financial problems. The decline in tax revenues makes it more necessary to borrow from the bourgeoisie. Because the latter will charge high interest rates (especially to a government seen as hostile), the state's financial problems deepen. Such events might be seen in Chilein 1973, under Salvador Allende's Unidad Populargovernment. Added to the relatively "automatic" workings of the economy (under the spur of profit-seeking businesses) are the ways in which an anti-capitalist government provokes anti-government conspiracies, including those by the Central Intelligence Agencyand local political forces, as actually happened in 1973.
Unless they are ready to actually mobilize the working population to revolutionize society and move beyond capitalism, "sober" state managers will pull back from anti-capitalist policies. In any event, they would likely never go so far as to "rock the boat" because of their acceptance of the dominant
ideologyencouraged by the prevailing educational system.
Despite the debates among Marxist theorists of the state, there are also many agreements. It is possible that both "instrumental" and "structural" forces encourage political unity of the state managers with the capitalist class. That is, both the personal influence of capitalists and the societal constraints on state activity play a role.
Of course, no matter how strong this link, the Marx-Engels dictum that "The executive of the modern state is but a committee for managing the common affairs of the whole bourgeoisie" does not say that the executive will always do a "good job" in such management. (As Poulantzas pointed out, the state maintains some autonomy.) First, there is the problem of reconciling the particular interests of individual capitalist organizations with each other. For example, different parts of the media may disagree on the nature of needed government regulations. Further, it is often unclear what the long-run class interests of capitalists are, beyond the simple defense of capitalist property rights. It may be impossible to discover class interests until after the fact, i.e., after a policy has been implemented. Third, state managers may use their administrative power to serve their own interests and even to facilitate their entrance into the capitalist class.
Finally, pressure from working-class organizations (labor unions, social-democratic parties, etc.) or other non-capitalist forces (environmentalists, etc.) may push the state from toeing the capitalist "line" exactly. In the end, these problems imply that the state will always have some autonomy from obeying the exact wishes of the capitalist class.
In this view, the Marxian theory of the state does not really contradict the
pluralistvision of the state as an arena for the contention of many interest groups, including those based in the state itself. Rather, the Marxian proposition is that this multi-sided competition and its results are strongly "biased" in the direction of reproducing the capitalist system over time.
It should be emphasized that all of the Marxist theories of the state discussed above refer only to the "capitalist" state in "normal" times (without civil war and the like). During a period of economic and social crisis, the absolute need to maintain order may raise the power of the military -- and military goals -- in governmental affairs, sometimes even leading to the violation of capitalist property rights.
In a non-capitalist system such as
feudalism, Marxian historians have said that the state did not really exist in the sense that it does today (using Weber's definition). That is, the central state did not monopolize force in a specific geographic area. The feudal king typically had to depend on the military power of his "lieges." This meant that the country was more of an alliance than a unified whole. Further, the difference between the state and civil societywas weak: the feudal lords were not simply involved in "economic" activity (production, sale, etc.) but also "political" activity: they used force against their serfs (to extract rents), while acting as judge, jury, and police.
Getting further beyond capitalism, Marxist theory says that since the state is central to protecting class inequality, it will "wither away" once class inequality of power is abolished. In practice, no self-styled Marxist leader or government has ever made attempts to move toward a society without a state. Of course, that is to be expected. After all, no society has ever completely abolished classes. In addition, no self-described "socialist" country has been able to do without a military defense against capitalist invasion or destabilization. Third, in Marxian theory, impetus for the abolition of the state would not come from the leaders or the government themselves as much as from the working people that they are supposed to represent.
The anarchists share many of the Marxian propositions about the state. But in contrast, anarchists argue that a country's collective interests can be served without having a centralized organization. The maintenance of law and order does not require that there be a sector of society that monopolizes the legitimate use of force. It is possible for society to prosper without a state, even without a long period of classes "withering away." In fact, anarchists see the state as a parasite that can and should be abolished.
Thus, they oppose the state as a matter of principle and reject the Marxian view that it may be needed temporarily as part of a transition to
socialismor communism. They propose different strategies for the elimination of the state. There is a dichotomy of views regarding its replacement. Anarcho-capitalists envision a free marketguided by the invisible handoffering critical or valuable functions traditionally provided by to replace the state; other anarchists (such as Bakuninand Kropotkinin the 19th century) tend to put less emphasis on markets, arguing for a form of socialism without the state. Such socialism would require worker self-management of the means of production and the federation of worker organizations in communes which will then federate into larger units.
Anarchists consider the state to be the institutionalization of domination and privilege. According to key theoristsFact|date=November 2007, the state emerged to ratify and deepen the dominance of the victors of history. Unlike
Marxists, anarchists believe that the state, while reflecting social interests, is not a mere executive committee of the ruling class. In itself, without class rule, it is a position of power over the whole society that can dominate and exploit society. Naturally enough, many fractions of the ruling classes and even the oppressed classes strive to control the state, forming different and ever-changing alliances.Fact|date=November 2007 They also reject the need for a state to serve the collective needs of the people. Hence, they reject not only the current state, but the Marxian idea of the dictatorship of the proletariat). Instead, they see the state as an inherently oppressive force which takes away the ability of people to make decisions about the things that affect their lives.
Both the Marxist and pluralist approaches view the state as reacting to the activities of groups within society, such as classes or interest groups. In this sense, they have both come under criticism for their 'society-centered' understanding of the state by scholars who emphasize the autonomy of the state with respect to social forces.
In particular, the "
new institutionalism," an approach to politics that holds that behavior is fundamentally molded by the institutions in which it is embedded, asserts that the state is not an 'instrument' or an 'arena' and does not 'function' in the interests of a single class. Scholars working within this approach stress the importance of interposing civil society between the economy and the state to explain variation in state forms.
"New institutionalist" writings on the state, such as the works of
Theda Skocpol, suggest that state actors are to an important degree autonomous. In other words, state personnel have interests of their own, which they can and do pursue independently (at times in conflict with) actors in society. Since the state controls the means of coercion, and given the dependence of many groups in civil society on the state for achieving any goals they may espouse, state personnel can to some extent impose their own preferences on civil society. [Rueschemeyer, Dietrich, Theda Skocpol, and Peter B. Evans, eds. 1985. [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0521313139&id=sYgTwHQbNAAC&pg=PP1&lpg=PP1&ots=Jyo8optLgc&dq=Skocpol+Rueschemeyer+Bringing+the+State+Back+In&sig=1m3dvluBo9jULIAoYBzEdhVnIeU Bringing the State Back In] . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0521313139&id=sYgTwHQbNAAC&pg=PP1&lpg=PP1&ots=Jyo8optLgc&dq=Skocpol+Rueschemeyer+Bringing+the+State+Back+In&sig=1m3dvluBo9jULIAoYBzEdhVnIeU ISBN 0521313139] .]
'New institutionalist' writers, claiming allegiance to Weber, often utilize the distinction between 'strong states' and 'weak states,' claiming that the degree of 'relative autonomy' of the state from pressures in society determines the power of the state—a position that has found favor in the field of
international political economy.
The state in modern political thought
The rise of the modern state system was closely related to changes in political thought, especially concerning the changing understanding of legitimate state power. Early modern defenders of absolutism such as
Thomas Hobbesand Jean Bodinundermined the doctrine of the divine right of kingsby arguing that the power of kings should be justified by reference to the people. Hobbes in particular went further and argued that political power should be justified with reference to the individual, not just to the people understood collectively. Both Hobbes and Bodin thought they were defending the power of kings, not advocating democracy, but their arguments about the nature of sovereignty were fiercely resisted by more traditional defenders of the power of kings, like Sir Robert Filmerin England, who thought that such defenses ultimately opened the way to more democratic claims.
These and other early thinkers introduced two important concepts in order to justify sovereign power: the idea of a
state of natureand the idea of a social contract. The first concept describes an imagined situation in which the state - understood as a centralized, coercive power - does not exist, and human beings have all their natural rights and powers; the second describes the conditions under which a voluntary agreement could take human beings out of the state of nature and into a state of civil society. Depending on what they understood human natureto be and the natural rights they thought human beings had in that state, various writers were able to justify more or less extensive forms of the state as a remedy for the problems of the state of nature. Thus, for example, Hobbes, who described the state of nature as a "war of every man, against every man," [Hobbes, Thomas. 1651. [http://oll.libertyfund.org/Texts/Hobbes0123/Leviathan1909/HTMLs/0161_Pt02_Part1.html#LF-BK0161pt01ch13 Leviathan] . Part I, chapter 13.] argued that sovereign power should be almost absolute since almost all sovereign power would be better than such a war, whereas John Locke, who understood the state of nature in more positive terms, thought that state power should be strictly limited. [Locke, John. 1689. [http://oll.libertyfund.org/Home3/HTML.php?recordID=0364#hd_lf128-04_head_025 Two Treatises of Government] . Second Treatise, chapter 2.] Both of them nevertheless understood the powers of the state to be limited by what rational individuals would agree to in a hypothetical or actual social contract.
The idea of the social contract lent itself to more democratic interpretations than Hobbes or Locke would have wanted.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, for example, argued that the only valid social contract would be one were individuals would be subject to laws that only themselves had made and assented to, as in a small direct democracy. Today the tradition of social contract reasoning is alive in the work of John Rawlsand his intellectual heirs, though in a very abstract form. Rawls argued that rational individuals would only agree to social institutions specifying a set of inviolable basic liberties and a certain amount of redistribution to alleviate inequalities for the benefit of the worst off. Lockean state of nature reasoning, by contrast, is more common in the libertariantradition of political thought represented by the work of Robert Nozick. Nozick argued that given the natural rights that human beings would have in a state of nature, the only state that could be justified would be a minimal statewhose sole functions would be to provide protection and enforce agreements.
Some contemporary thinkers, such as
Michel Foucault, have argued that political theory needs to get away from the notion of the state: "We need to cut off the king's head. In political theory that has still to be done." [Foucault, Michel. 2000  . Truth and Power. In [http://www.amazon.com/dp/1565847091 Power] , edited by J. D. Fearon. New York: The New Press, p. 123. [http://www.amazon.com/dp/1565847091 ISBN 1565847091] ] By this he meant that power in the modern world is much more decentralized and uses different instruments than power in the early modern era, so that the notion of a sovereign, centralized state is increasingly out of date.
Others have advocated the consideration of the state within the context of complex underlying elite relationships, themselves shaped by factors that include outside pressures. This work has been prominent in the thinking of
State-buildingtheorists such as Alan Whaites, who focuses on dynamics shaping the nature and capability of states. Whaites' model of state-building offers a conceptualization of why some states work well and others become characterized by patronage, corruption and conflict. [Whaites, Alan, States in Development: Understanding State-building, [http://www.dfid.gov.uk/pubs/files/State-in-Development-Wkg-Paper.pdf] ]
List of countries by date of nationhood
List of sovereign states
The justification of the state
The purpose of government
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