Infobox German Bundesland
Name = Schleswig-Holstein
state_coa = Coat of arms of Schleswig-Holstein.svg
flag2 = Flag of Schleswig-Holstein (state).svg
capital = Kiel
area = 15763.18
population = 2837021
pop_ref = [cite web |url=http://www.statistik-portal.de/Statistik-Portal/de_zs01_shs.asp |title= State population |work= Portal of the Federal Statistics Office Germany |accessdate=2007-04-25]
pop_date = 2007-09-30
GDP = 69
GDP_year = 2005
GDP_percent = 3.1
Website = [http://www.schleswig-holstein.de/ schleswig-holstein.de]
leader = Peter Harry Carstensen
leader_party = CDU
ruling_party1 = CDU
ruling_party2 = SPD
votes = 4
NUTS = DEF
iso region = DE-SHAudio|De-Schleswig-Holstein.ogg|Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 "Bundesländer" in
Historically, the name can also refer to a larger region, containing both present-day Schleswig-Holstein and the former
South Jutland Countyin Denmark.
Schleswig-Holstein lies on the base of
Jutland Peninsulabetween the Baltic Seaand the North Sea.
Duchyof Holsteinconstitutes the southern part of Schleswig-Holstein, whereas Southern Schleswigconstitutes the northern part. Furthermore , the Duchy of Lauenburg and the former Free and Hanseatic City of Lübeckin the southeast of the state are part of today's Schleswig-Holstein.
The former Duchy of
Schleswig( _da. Slesvig) or Southern Jutland( _da. Sønderjylland) has been divided between Denmarkand Germany since 1920. Northern Schleswig, today part of the Danish Region Syddanmark, earlier South Jutland County, was ceded to Denmark after a referendumfollowing Germany's defeat in World War I.
Schleswig-Holstein borders on Denmark in the north, the
North Seain the west, the Baltic Seaand Mecklenburg-Vorpommernin the east, and Lower Saxonyand Hamburgin the south. Kielis the capital of the Bundesland.
In the western part of the state there are lowlands with virtually no hills. The
North Frisian Islands, as well as almost all of Schleswig-Holstein's North Sea coast, form Schleswig-Holstein's Mud Flats National Park (Nationalpark Schleswig-Holsteinisches Wattenmeer) which is the largest national park in Central Europe and is unique. Germany's only high-sea island Heligolandis situated further out in the North Sea. The Baltic Sea coast in the east of Schleswig-Holstein is marked by bays, fjordsand cliff lines. There are rolling hills (the highest elevation is the Bungsberg at 168 metres) and many lakes, especially in the eastern part of Holstein called the " Holsteinische Schweiz" ("Holsatian Switzerland") and the former Duchy of Lauenburg. Fehmarnis the only island off the eastern coast. The longest river besides the Elbeis the Eider; the most important waterway is the Kiel Canalwhich connects the North Sea and Baltic Sea.
List of places in Schleswig-Holstein.Schleswig-Holstein is divided into eleven "Kreise" (sg. Kreis; district):
# Lauenburg (formally: Herzogtum Lauenburg)
Furthermore, there are four urban districts that do not belong to any district:
# KI -
# HL - Hansestadt
# NMS -
# FL -
The official language is German.
Low German, Danish, and North Frisian enjoy legal protection or state promotion. Historically, Low German, Danish and Frisian were spoken. Low German is still used in many parts of the state and a pidgin of Low and standardised German is used in most areas, while Danish is used by the Danes in Southern Schleswig, and Frisian by the North Frisians of the North Sea Coast and the Northern Frisian Islands. The North Frisian dialect called Heligolandic("Halunder") is spoken on the island of Heligoland. High German was introduced in the 16th century, mainly for official purposes, but is today the predominant language.
Schleswig-Holstein combines Dansk and German aspects of culture. The castles and manors in the countryside are the best example for this tradition. The most important festivals are the
Schleswig-Holstein Musik Festival, an annual classic music festival all over the state, and the Nordische Filmtage, an annual film festival for movies from Scandinavian countries, held in Lübeck. The annual Wacken Open Airfestival is considered to be the largest heavy metal festival in the world. The state's most important museum of cultural history is in Gottorpcastle in Schleswig. The old city of Lübeckis a world heritage site.
The term "Holstein" derives from
Old Saxon, "Holseta Land," meaning "the land of those who dwell in the wood" ("Holz" means woodin modern Standardised German). Originally, it referred to the central of the three Saxon tribes north of the Elberiver, Tedmarsgoi, Holcetae, and Sturmarii. The area of the "Holcetae" was between the Störriver and Hamburg, and after Christianizationtheir main church was in Schenefeld.
The term "Schleswig" takes its name from the city of Schleswig. The name derives from the
Schlei inletin the east and "vik" meaning inlet or settlement in Old Saxonand Old Norse. The name is similar to the place-names ending in the "-wick" element along the Northumberlandcoast in the United Kingdom.
Duchyof Schleswig or Southern Jutland was originally an integral part of Denmark, but was in medievaltimes established as a fiefunder the Kingdom of Denmark, with the same relation to the Danish Crown as for example Brandenburgor Bavaria vis-à-visthe Holy Roman Emperor. Saxon Holstein became a part of the Holy Roman Empireafter Charlemagne's Saxon campaigns in the late eighth century. Around 1100 the Duke of Saxonygave Holstein, as it was his own country, to Count Adolf Iof Schauenburg.
Schleswig and Holstein have at different times belonged in part or completely to either Denmark or Germany, or have been virtually independent of both nations. The exception is that Schleswig had never been part of Germany until the
Second War of Schleswigin 1864. For many centuries, the King of Denmarkwas both a Danish Duke of Schleswig and a German Duke of Holstein, the Duke of Saxony. Essentially, Schleswig was either integrated into Denmark or was a Danish fief, and Holstein was a German fief and once a sovereign statelong ago. Both were for several centuries ruled by the kings of Denmark. In 1721 all of Schleswig was united as a single duchy under the king of Denmark, and the great powers of Europe confirmed in an international treatythat all future kings of Denmark should automatically become dukes of Schleswig, and consequently Schleswig would always follow the same line of succession as the one chosen in the Kingdom of Denmark.
The German national awakening following the
Napoleonic Warsled to a strong popular movement in Holstein and Southern Schleswig for unification with a new Prussian-dominated Germany. However, this development was paralleled by an equally strong Danish national awakening in Denmark and northern Schleswig. It called for the complete reintegration of Schleswig into the Kingdom of Denmark and demanded an end to discrimination against Danesin Schleswig. The ensuing conflict is sometimes called the Schleswig-Holstein Question. In 1848 King Frederick VII of Denmarkdeclared that he would grant Denmark a liberal constitution and the immediate goal for the Danish national movement was to ensure that this constitution would not only give rights to all Danes, i.e., not only in the Kingdom of Denmark, but also to Danes (and Germans) living in Schleswig. Furthermore, they demanded protection for the Danish language in Schleswig since the dominant language in almost a quarter of Schleswig had changed from Danish to German since the beginning of the 19th century.
constitutionfor Holstein was not seriously considered in Copenhagen, since it was a well-known fact that the political éliteof Holstein had been far more conservative than Copenhagen's. This proved to be true, as the politicians of Holstein demanded that the Constitution of Denmarkbe scrapped — not only in Schleswig but also in Denmark. They also demanded that Schleswig immediately follow Holstein and become a member of the German Confederation, and eventually a part of the new united Germany. These demands were rejected and in 1848 the Germans of Holstein and Southern Schleswig rebelled. This was the beginning of the First War of Schleswig(1848–51) which ended in a Danish victory at Idstedt. Elements of this period were fictionalized in " Royal Flash", the second of George MacDonald Fraser's Flashmannovels.
In 1863 conflict broke out again as King
Frederick VII of Denmarkdied leaving no heir. According to the line of successionof Denmark and Schleswig, the crowns of both Denmark and Schleswig would now pass to Duke Christian of Glücksburg(the future King Christian IX); the crown of Holstein was considered to be more problematic. This decision was challenged by a rival pro-German branch of the Danish royal family, the House of Augustenburg(Danish: Augustenborg) who demanded, as in 1848, the crowns of both Schleswig and Holstein. The passing of a common constitution for Denmark and Schleswig in November 1863 then gave Otto von Bismarcka chance to intervene and Prussia and Austria declared war on Denmark. This was the Second War of Schleswigwhich ended in a Danish defeat. British attempts to mediate failed, and Denmark lost Schleswig, Holstein, and Lauenburg to Prussia and Austria.
Following the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, section five of the Peace of Prague stated that the people in northern Schleswig should be granted the right to a
referendumon whether they would remain under Prussian rule or return to Danish rule. This promise was never fulfilled by Prussia.
Following the defeat of Germany in
World War I, the Allied powers arranged a referendum in northern and central Schleswig. In northern Schleswig ( 10 February 1920) 75% voted for reunificationwith Denmark and 25% voted for Germany. In central Schleswig ( 14 March 1920) the results were reversed; 80% voted for Germany and just 20% for Denmark, primarily in Flensburg. No vote ever took place in the southern third of Schleswig. On 15 June 1920, northern Schleswig officially returned to Danish rule. The Danish/German border was the only one of the borders imposed on Germany by the Treaty of Versaillesafter World War I which was never challenged by Adolf Hitler.
Second World War, the Prussian province Schleswig-Holstein came under British occupation. On August 23, 1946, the Military Government abolished the province and reconstituted it as a separate "Land" [Ordinance No. 46, PDFlink| [http://www.lwl.org/westfaelische-geschichte/que/normal/que1167.pdf "Abolition of the Provinces in the British Zone of the Former State of Prussia and Reconstitution thereof as Separate Länder"] |218 KiB ] .
coat of armsshows the symbols of the two duchies united in Schleswig-Holstein, i.e., the two lions for Schleswig and the leaf of a nettle for Holstein. Supposedly, Otto von Bismarckdecreed that the two lions were to face the nettle because of the discomfort to their bottoms which would have resulted if the lions faced away from it.
The motto of Schleswig-Holstein is "Up ewich ungedeelt" (
Middle Low German: "Forever undivided", modern High German: "Auf ewig ungeteilt"). It goes back to the Treaty of Ribein 1460. See History of Schleswig-Holstein.
The anthem is usually referred to with its first line "Schleswig-Holstein meerumschlungen" (i.e., "Schleswig-Holstein embraced by the seas") from 1844.
List of Minister-presidents of Schleswig-Holstein
Kai-Uwe von Hassel(CDU)
Gerhard Stoltenberg(CDU), see List of Honorary Citizens of Schleswig-Holstein
# 2005– :
Peter Harry Carstensen(CDU)
2005 state election
Schleswig-Holstein state election, 2005"
A state election was held on
February 20 2005. Although the SPD-Green coalition, led by Heide Simonis, no longer commanded a majority of the Landtag, the SSW announced that, although it would not enter an official coalition, it saw more common ground with the SPD than the CDU.Premier Heide Simonis proceeded to form a Red-Green coalition with the assumption of SSW backing.
March 17 2005, Simonis failed to win a Landtag vote for the premiership, with the secret ballot tying 34–34. It is not known who the abstainer was, but this prevented the formation of a Red-Green coalition. The SPD was forced to negotiate a grand coalitionwith the CDU, acceding to the CDU's demand that CDU leader Peter Harry Carstensenreplace Simonis as Minister-president.
History of Schleswig-Holstein
First War of Schleswig
Second War of Schleswig
Coat of arms of Schleswig
* [http://www.schleswig-holstein.de/ Official government portal]
* [http://www.numismondo.com/pm/sch/ Schleswig-Holstein Plebiscite Paper Money] - 1919, 1920 Issues
* [http://www.liedertafel.business.t-online.de/Schleswig_Holstein.htm Schleswig-Holstein, meerumschlungen (the anthem)]
* [http://www.schleswig-holstein-360.de 360º Panoramas of Schleswig-Holstein]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.