Swedish ethnic group

Swedish ethnic group

Infobox Ethnic group
group=Swedes "(Svenskar)"


caption= Gustav VasaCarl LinnaeusJ. J. BerzeliusAlfred Nobel
Selma LagerlöfAnn-MargretBjörn UlvaeusMarkus Näslund

poptime= 16 million (est.)
regions=flagcountry|Sweden:nbsp|67,850,000 (est.) [ [http://www.scb.se/templates/Product____25785.asp Befolkningsstatistik - Statistik från SCB ] ] [Estimated from those who were "not" part of the 16.7% or 1.53 million who had at least one parent born abroad or were themselves born abroad. It should be noted that at least a small number of those people born abroad may include Finland Swedes or other ethnic Swedes not from Sweden and that a large number of those may consider themselves Swedish. SCB. [http://www.scb.se/statistik/BE/BE0101/2006A01/Be0101KomJmfBef_2006.xls Sveriges befolkning, kommunala jämförelsetal, 31/12/2006] 31 December 2006. (In Swedish). Retrieved 6 March 2008.] Of the 2004 population, 1.1 million, or 12%, were foreign-born. The Swedish Integration Board (2006). "Pocket Facts: Statistics on Integration". Integrationsverket, 2006. ISBN 9189609301. Available online in [http://www.integrationsverket.se/upload/Publikationer/Pocketfacts.pdf pdf format] . Retrieved 10 March 2008.]
Other significant population centers:

region1 = flagcountry|USA
pop1 = 4,500,000 [US Census Bureau [http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=01000US&-qr_name=ACS_2004_EST_G00_DP2&-ds_name=ACS_2004_EST_G00_&-_lang=en&-_sse=on] ]
region2 = flagcountry|Canada
pop2 = 500,000
region3 = flagcountry|Finland
pop3 = 9,000 (Swedish citizens)
290,000 (Finland Swedes or Swedish-speaking Finns)
region4 = flagcountry|Brazil
pop4 = 250,000
region5 = flagcountry|Argentina
pop5 = 175,000
region6 = flagcountry|Australia
pop6 = 30,375 [ [http://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/ABSNavigation/prenav/ViewData?action=404&documentproductno=0&documenttype=Details&order=1&tabname=Details&areacode=0&issue=2006&producttype=Census%20Tables&javascript=true&textversion=false&navmapdisplayed=true&breadcrumb=TLPD&&collection=Census&period=2006&productlabel=Ancestry%20(full%20classification%20list)%20by%20Sex&producttype=Census%20Tables&method=Place%20of%20Usual%20Residence&topic=Ancestry& 2006 Australian Census] Reports 30,375 people of Swedish Ancestry]
region7 = flagcountry|United Kingdom
pop7 = Est 100,000
region8 = flagcountry|Norway
pop8 = 100,000
region9 = flagcountry|Germany
pop9 = 50,000
region10 = flagcountry|Spain
pop10 = 65,000 (2008) [ [http://www.swedenabroad.com/Page____10008.aspx Svenska ambassaden i Madrid - Swedish Embassy, Madrid] "omkring 65 000 svenskar bor i landet mer eller mindre permanent."]
region11 = flagcountry|Estonia
pop11 = 50,000 (2006) [ [http://www.cso.ie/statistics/placebirthagegroup.htm CSO Ireland - 2006 Census] ]
pop10 = 50,000 (2006)Fact|date=July 2007
region12 = flagcountry|Denmark
pop12 = 21,000 [ [http://www.joshuaproject.net/countries.php?rog3=DA Joshua project-Ethnic groups of Denmark] ]
region13 = Other regions
pop13 = 400,000
langs=Swedish
Related languages include Norwegian, Danish, Icelandic, Faroese, and to a lesser extent, all Germanic languages
rels= Historically Norse paganism, Christianity (Mainly Lutheranism) and more recently Secularism. Also see Religion in Sweden.
related=Danes, Norwegians, Germans, Icelanders, Faroese, Finns and to a lesser extent, all Germanic ethnic groups

Swedish people (Swedish: "svenskar") are a Nordic ethnic group indigenous to Sweden, [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sw.html CIA World Factbook - Sweden: People] ] defined by a common Swedish culture, speaking the Swedish language and/or being of Swedish descent. [citation |author=Angela Brittingham |author2=G. Patricia de la Cruz | url=http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/c2kbr-35.pdf |title=Ancestry: 2000 |year=2004|publisher=US Census Bureau]

Geography

The largest area inhabited by Swedes, as well as the earliest known original area inhabited by their linguistic ancestors, is in the country of Sweden, situated on the eastern side of the Scandinavian Peninsula and the islands adjacent to it, situated west of the Baltic Sea in northern Europe. The Swedish-speaking people living in near-coastal areas on the north-eastern and eastern side of the Baltic Sea also have a long history of continuous settlement, which in some of these areas possibly started about a millennium ago. These people include the Swedes in mainland Finland - speaking Swedish dialect commonly referred as Finland Swedish (östsvenska mål) and the almost exclusively Swedish population of the Åland Islands speaking in a manner closer to the adjacent dialects in Sweden than to adjacent dialects of Finland Swedish. Smaller groups of historical descendants of 18th-20th century Swedish emigrants who still retain varying aspects of Swedish identity to this day can be found in the Americas (especially Minnesota and Wisconsin, see Swedish Americans) and in Ukraine.

Before 1809, the kingdom of Sweden had also included Finland, Northern Estonia, a small section of Northern Germany and Poland, as well as some areas of Norway and Denmark (see History of Sweden). Since there was no separate Finnish nationality at those times, it is not unusual that sources predating 1809 refer both to Swedes and Finns as "Swedes". This is particularly the case with New Sweden, where some of the "Swedish" settlers were actually of Finnish origin.

Origin

The ancient Germanic tribe of the Suiones, sometimes called Svear in academic works, were at the roots of Swedish statehood and contemporary with the Geats and the Daner in Scandinavia. Notably, in modern Scandinavian languages, with the exception of Icelandic, there is a distinction between "svenskar" and "svear" (as between "danskar" and "Daner"), since the latter term does not include the Geats and the Gotlanders and whose descendants became a part of the Swedish ethnicity.

According to recent genetic analysis, both mtDNA and Y chromosome polymorphisms showed a noticeable genetic affinity between Swedes and central Europeans, especially Germans (conclusions also valid for Norwegians). [http://hpgl.stanford.edu/publications/EJHG_2002_v10_521-529.pdf] For the global genetic make-up of the Swedish people and other peoples (see also [ [http://www.scs.uiuc.edu/~mcdonald/WorldHaplogroupsMaps.pdf scs.uiuc.edu] ] and [ [https://www5.nationalgeographic.com/genographic/atlas.html nationalgeographic.com] ] ). Another detailed nuclear genetic study has also implied that Swedes may have a recent common origin with Finns. [ [http://www.ajhg.org/AJHG/fulltext/S0002-9297(07)60270-5 Redirection page ] ]

English texts

In English texts, the concept of "ethnic Swedes" may or may not be used for the following:
* People of Swedish heritage in Sweden or elsewhere, typically immigrants to the Americas (usually called 'Swedish Americans' sv svenskamerikaner)
* Swedish speakers outside Sweden

Ethnic Swedes and Swedish speakers outside of Sweden

In Finland

The Swedes or "Finland-Swedes" form an ethnic minority group in Finland ["...Finland has a Swedish-speaking minority that meets the four major criteria of ethnicity, i.e. self-identification of ethnicity, language, social structure and ancestry (Allardt and Starck, 1981; Bhopal, 1997).] of about 265,000, comprising 5.10% of the population of mainland Finland, or 5.50 % [http://www.stat.fi/tk/tp/tasku/taskue_vaesto.html] if the 26,000 inhabitants of Åland are included (there are also about 60,000 Swedish-speaking Finns currently resident in Sweden). There are also 9,000 Swedish citizens living in Finland.

In Estonia and Ukraine

The presence of Swedish speaking permanent residents in what is now Estonia (Estonia-Swedes) was first documented in the 14th century, and possibly dates back to the Viking Age. There were an estimated 12,000 Swedes resident in Estonia in 1563 . Estonia was under Swedish rule 1558–1710, after which the territory was ceded to Russia in the 1721 Treaty of Nystad. In 1781, 1,300 Estonia-Swedes of the island of Hiiumaa ("Dagö") were forced to move to New Russia (today Ukraine) by Catherine II of Russia, where they formed "Gammalsvenskby" (Old Swedish Village). According to the 1934 census there were 7,641 Estonia-Swedes (Swedish speaking, 0.7% of the population in Estonia), making Swedes the third largest national minority in Estonia, after Russians and Germans. During World War II almost the entire community of Estonia-Swedes fled to Sweden. Today there are, at most, a few hundred Estonia-Swedes living in Estonia and a few hundred in Ukraine, with the estimates varying widely depending on who identifies, or can be identified, as a Swede. Many of them are living in northwestern mainland Estonia and on adjacent islands and on the island of Ruhnu ("Runö") in the Gulf of Riga.

The majority of the 'Estonia-Swedes' who reside in Estonia and most 'Ukraine-Swedes' do not speak Swedish any more, but may be considered ethnic Swedes. In a nationalist context, the ethnic Swedes living outside Sweden are sometimes called 'East-Swedes' (in Swedish: "östsvenskar"), to distinguish them from the ethnic Swedes living in Sweden proper, called "rikssvenskar" or "västsvenskar" ('Western-Swedes'), reflecting irredentist sentiments.

Other

The Varangians, Vikings mostly from Sweden, were instrumental in the formation of the first Russian state. Swedish soldiers taken prisoner during the Great Northern War were sent in considerable numbers to Siberia. They numbered perhaps 25 % of the population of Tobolsk, the capital of Siberia, and some settled permanently.

There are numerous ethnic Swedes in places like the US and Canada (Swedish Americans, Swedish Canadians), descendants of 19th and 20th century immigrants, including some who still speak Swedish. There are also Swedes located in St Petersburg Russia.

ee also

*Culture of Sweden
*List of Swedes
*Estonian Swedes
*Finland Swedes
*Swedish Canadian
*Swedish American
*Swedish Australian
*British Swedish
*Swedish settlement in Argentina
*List of ethnic groups
*European ethnic groups

References

External links

* [http://www.fika.de/typical-swede.htm A Typical Swede] (humorous article, with some gross stereotypes and inaccuracies, but also some truths)
* [http://international.monster.com/workabroad/articles/swedenguide/ The Global Etiquette Guide: Sweden]
* [http://www.visitsweden.com/Default____34593.aspx VisitSweden] - Sweden's official website for tourism and travel information en icon


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