- USS Iowa (BB-61)
USS "Iowa" (BB-61) ("The Big Stick") was the
lead shipof her class of battleship, and was the fourth ship of in the United States Navyto be named in honor of the 29th state. "Iowa" is the only ship of the class to have served a combat tour in the Atlantic Oceanduring World War II.
During World War II, "Iowa" served in the Atlantic fleet as a countermeasure against the German battleship "Tirpitz". When transferred to the Pacific fleet in 1944, "Iowa" shelled beachheads at
Kwajaleinand Eniwetokin advance of Allied amphibious landings and screened aircraft carriers operating in the Marshall Islands. During the Korean War, "Iowa" was involved in raids up and down the North Korean coast, after which she was decommissioned into the United States Navy reserve fleets, better known as the "mothball fleet". She was reactivated in 1984 as part of the 600-ship Navyplan, and operated in both the Atlantic and Pacific fleets to counter the recently expanded Soviet Navy. In April 1989 an explosion of undetermined origin wrecked her #2 gun turret, killing 47 sailors.
"Iowa" was decommissioned for the last time in 1990, and was initially struck from the
Naval Vessel Registerin 1995; however, she was reinstated in 1999 to allow her sister ship "New Jersey" to be donated to her namesake state for use as a museum. "Iowa" is currently berthed with the Suisun Bayreserve fleet near San Francisco, California, and is awaiting donation to a not-for-profit entity for use as a museum ship. At present, "Iowa" is the only member of her class not open to the public.
"Iowa" was the lead ship of her class of "
fast battleship" designs planned in 1938 by the Preliminary Design Branch at the Bureau of Construction and Repair. She was launched on 27 August 1942, sponsored by Ilo Wallace(wife of Vice President Henry Wallace), and commissioned on 22 February 1943 with Captain John L. McCreain command.cite DANFS | author = Naval Historical Center | title = Iowa | url = http://www.hazegray.org/danfs/battlesh/bb61.htm | short = on ] She was the first ship of her class of battleship to be commissioned by the United States. [http://www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/BB61.htm "Iowa"] . Naval Vessel Register. The Department of Defense. Retrieved on 6 September 2008.]
"Iowa"’s main battery consisted of nine
16 inch (406 mm)/50 caliber Mark 7 naval guns, which could fire convert|2700|lb|kg armor-piercing shells some convert|24|nmi|km|0. Her secondary battery consisted of twenty 5 inch (127 mm)/38 caliber guns in twin turrets, which could fire at targets up to convert|9|mi|km|0 away. With the advent of air power and the need to gain and maintain air superioritycame a need to protect the growing fleet of Allied aircraft carriers; to this end, "Iowa" was fitted with an array of Oerlikon 20 mm and Bofors 40 mm anti-aircraft guns to defend Allied carriers from enemy airstrikes. When reactivated in 1984 "Iowa" had her remaining 20 mm and 40 mm Anti-Aircraft guns removed, and was outfitted with Phalanx CIWSmounts for protection against enemy missiles and aircraft, and Armored Box Launchers and Quad Cell Launchers designed to fire Tomahawk missiles and Harpoon missiles, respectively.cite book | last =Johnston | first = Ian | coauthors = McAuley, Rob | title =The Battleships | publisher =Channel 4 | date =2002 | location = London | pages =p. 120 | isbn = 0752261886 | oclc = 59495980 ]
World War II (1943–1945)
Shakedown and service with the Atlantic Fleet
On 24 February 1943, "Iowa" put to sea for
sea trialshakedown in the Chesapeake Bayand along the Atlantic coast. She got underway on 27 August 1943 for Argentia, Newfoundland to counter the threat of German battleship"Tirpitz" which was reportedly operating in Norwegian waters before returning to the United States 25 October for two weeks of maintenance at the Norfolk Navy Yard.cite web |url=http://www.ussiowa.org/general/html/detail.htm |title=USS IOWA(BB-61) Detailed History |accessdate=2008-08-09 |work=USS Iowa Veterans Association |publisher=The Veteran's Association of the USS IOWA (BB-61) |date= ]
After refueling and gathering her escorts, "Iowa" carried President
Franklin D. Roosevelt, Secretary of State Cordell Hull, and other World War II military brass to Casablanca, French Moroccoon the first leg of the journey to the Tehran Conference. Among the vessels escorting "Iowa" on the journey was the "Fletcher"-class destroyer USS|William D. Porter|DD-579. "William D. Porter" had already been involved in a major mishap when her anchor tore the railing and lifeboat mounts off of a docked sister destroyer while backing up the night before. The poor performance continued the next day when a depth chargefrom the deck of "Porter" fell into the rough sea and exploded, causing "Iowa" and the other escort ships to take evasive maneuvers under the assumption that the task force had come under torpedoattack by a German U-boat.cite web |url=http://www.ussiowa.org/general/html/willie_d.htm |title=The Ill-Fated USS William D. Porter |accessdate=2008-08-09 |work=Kit Bonner, The Retired Officer Magazine, March 1994 |publisher=The Veteran's Association of the USS IOWA (BB-61) |date= ]
On 14 November, at Roosevelt's request, "Iowa" conducted an anti-aircraft drill to demonstrate her ability to defend herself from enemy aircraft. The drill began with the release of a number of
balloons for use as AA-targets, most of which were shot by AA gunners aboard "Iowa", however a few of the balloons had drifted toward "William D. Porter". "Porter" went to battle stations and began shooting down the balloons "Iowa" had missed, and with the other escort ships demonstrated a torpedo drill by simulating a launch at "Iowa"; however this drill abruptly turned serious when the #3 torpedo aboard "William D. Porter" discharged from its tube and headed toward "Iowa".
"William D. Porter" attempted to signal "Iowa" about the incoming torpedo, but owing to
radio silencewas forced to use a blinker light, and while relaying the message to "Iowa" the destroyer misidentified the direction of the torpedo and then relayed the wrong message. [The incorrect message informed "Iowa" that "William D. Porter" was backing up rather than informing "Iowa" that a torpedo was in the water. cite web |url=http://www.ussiowa.org/general/html/willie_d.htm |title=The Ill-Fated USS William D. Porter |accessdate=2008-08-09 |work=Kit Bonner, The Retired Officer Magazine, March 1994 |publisher=The Veteran's Association of the USS IOWA (BB-61) |date= ] In desperation the destroyer finally broke radio silence, and using codewords, relayed a warning message to "Iowa" regarding the incoming torpedo. After confirming the identity of the destroyer, "Iowa" turned hard to avoid being hit by the torpedo. Roosevelt, meanwhile, had learned of the incoming torpedo threat and asked his secret serviceattendee to move his wheel chairto the side of the battleship. Not long afterward the torpedo detonated in the wake of the battleship. "Iowa" was unhurt and trained her main guns on "William D. Porter" out of concern that the smaller ship may have been involved in some sort of assassinationplot. [ This was later proved false, but as a result of this friendly fire incident, ships would routinely greet the destroyer with the hail "Don't shoot! We're Republicans!" cite web |url=http://www.ussiowa.org/general/html/willie_d.htm |title=The Ill-Fated USS William D. Porter |accessdate=2008-08-09 |work=Kit Bonner, The Retired Officer Magazine, March 1994 |publisher=The Veteran's Association of the USS IOWA (BB-61) |date= ]
"Iowa" would later complete her Presidential escort mission 16 December by returning the President to the United States. Roosevelt addressed the crew of "Iowa" prior to leaving the battleship, at which time he said, "...from all I have seen and all I have heard, the "Iowa" is a 'happy ship,' and having served with the Navy for many years, I know—and you know—what that means." He also touched on the progress made at the conference before concluding his address with "...good luck, and remember that I am with you in spirit, each and every one of you," before leaving. [cite speech | title = Remarks on Leaving the U.S.S. Iowa | author = Franklin D. Roosevelt | authorlink = Franklin D. Roosevelt | date = 1943-12-16 | location = Aboard the battleship USS "Iowa" (BB-61) | url = http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=16352 | accessdate = 2008-08-08]
Service with Battleship Division 7, Admiral Lee
flagshipof Battleship Division 7, "Iowa" departed the United States 2 January 1944 for the Pacific Ocean, transiting the Panama Canalon 7 January in advance of her combat debut in the campaign for the Marshall Islands. From 29 January to 3 February, she supported carrier air strikes made by Rear Admiral Frederick C. Sherman's Task Group 38.3 against Kwajaleinand EniwetokAtolls. Her next assignment was to support air strikes against the major Japanese naval and logistics base at Truk, Caroline Islands. "Iowa", in company with other ships, was detached from the support group on 16 February 1944 to conduct an anti-shipping sweep around Truk, with the objective of destroying enemy naval vessels escaping to the north. On 21 February, she was underway with the Fast Carrier Task Force(TF 58 or TF 38, depending on whether it was part of the 5th Fleet or the 3rd Fleet) while it conducted the first strikes against Saipan, Tinian, Rota, and Guamin the Mariana Islands. During this action, "Iowa" helped sink the Japanese light cruiser "Katori".
On 18 March 1944, "Iowa", flying the flag of Vice Admiral
Willis A. Lee(Commander Battleships, Pacific), joined in the bombardment of Mili Atollin the Marshall Islands. Although struck by two Japanese 4.7 inch projectiles during the action, "Iowa" suffered negligible damage. She then rejoined Task Force 58 on 30 March, and supported air strikes against the Palau Islandsand Woleaiof the Carolines which continued for several days.
From 22 April to 28 April 1944, "Iowa" supported air raids on Hollandia (now known as Jayapura),
Aitape, and WakdeIslands to support Army forces on Aitape, Tanahmerah Bay, and Humboldt Bay in New Guinea. She then joined the Task Force's second strike on Truk, on 29 April and 30 April, and bombarded Japanese facilities on Ponapein the Carolines on 1 May.
In the opening phases of the
Mariana and Palau Islands campaign, "Iowa" protected the American carriers during air strikes on the islands of Saipan, Tinian, Guam, Rota, and Pagan on 12 June. "Iowa" was then detached to bombard enemy installations on Saipan and Tinian on 13 June and 14 June, which resulted in the destruction of a Japanese ammunition dump. On 19 June, in an engagement known as the Battle of the Philippine Sea, "Iowa", as part of the battle line of TF 58, helped repel four massive air raids launched by the Japanese Middle Fleet. This resulted in the almost complete destruction of Japanese carrier-based air-forces, with "Iowa" claiming the destruction of three enemy aircraft. "Iowa" then joined in the pursuit of the fleeing enemy Fleet, shooting down one torpedo planeand assisting in splashing another.
Throughout July, "Iowa" remained off the Marianas supporting air strikes on the Palaus and landings on Guam. After a month's rest, "Iowa" sailed from Eniwetok as part of the Third Fleet, and helped support the landings on Peleliu on 17 September. She then protected the carriers during air strikes against the Central Philippines to neutralize enemy air power for the long awaited invasion of the
Philippines. On 10 October, "Iowa" arrived off Okinawafor a series of air strikes on the Ryukyu Islandsand Formosa. She then supported air strikes against Luzonon 18 October and continued this duty during General Douglas MacArthur's landing on Leyte on 20 October.
In a last-ditch attempt to halt the United States campaign to recapture the Philippines, the
Imperial Japanese Navystruck back with Shō-Gō 1, a three-pronged attack aimed at the destruction of American amphibious forces in Leyte Gulf. The planned called for Vice-Admiral Jisaburō Ozawato take the surviving Japanese carriers and use them as bait to draw US carriers of TF 38 away from the Philippine beacheads, allowing Imperial Japanese Admirals Takeo Kurita, Kiyohide Shima, and Shōji Nishimurato take surface task forces through the San Bernardino Straitand Surigao Strait, where they would roundezvous and attack the US beacheads. [Fuller, 1956] [Morison, 1956] "Iowa" accompanied TF 38 during attacks against the Japanese Central Force under the command of Admiral Kurita as it steamed through the Sibuyan Seatoward San Bernardino Strait. The reported results of these attacks and the apparent retreat of the Japanese Central Force led Admiral William "Bull" Halsey to believe that this force had been ruined as an effective fighting group; as a result, "Iowa", with TF 38, steamed after the Japanese Northern Force off Cape Engaño, Luzon. On 25 October 1944, when the ships of the Northern Force were almost within range of "Iowa"'s guns, word arrived that the Japanese Central Force was attacking a group of American escort carriers off Samar. This threat to the American beachheads forced TF 38 to reverse course and steam to support the vulnerable escort-carrier fleet. However, the fierce resistance put up by the US 7th Fleet in the Battle off Samarhad already caused the Japanese to retire and "Iowa" was denied a surface action. Following the Battle of Leyte Gulf, "Iowa" remained in the waters off the Philippines screening carriers during strikes against Luzon and Formosa. She sailed for the West Coast late in December 1944.
On 18 December 1944 the ships of Task Force 38 unexpectedly found themselves in a fight for their lives when
Typhoon Cobraovertook the force—7 fleet carriers, 6 light carriers, 8 battleships, 15 cruisers, and about 50 destroyers—during their attempt to refuel at sea. At the time the ships were operating about convert|300|mi|km|-2 east of Luzon in the Philippine Sea.cite web | title = Typhoons and Hurricanes: Pacific Typhoon, 18 December 1944 | url = http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq102-4.htm | work = |publisher= United States Navy | accessdate=2006-01-08] The carriers had just completed three days of heavy raids against Japanese airfields, suppressing enemy aircraft during the American amphibious operations against Mindoroin the Philippines. The task force rendezvoused with Captain Jasper T. Acuff and his fueling group on 17 December with the intention of refueling all ships in the task force and replacing lost aircraft.cite web | title = Third Fleet in Typhoon Cobra, December 1944 | url = http://web.archive.org/web/20051018002436/http://www.compass.dircon.co.uk/cobra2.htm | work = History of US Naval Operations in World War II |publisher= Samuel Eliot Morison | accessdate=2006-01-08] Although the sea had been growing rougher all day, the nearby cyclonic disturbance gave relatively little warning of its approach. On 18 December, the small but violent typhoon overtook the Task Force while many of the ships were attempting to refuel. Many of the vessels were caught near the center of the storm and buffeted by extreme seas and hurricane force winds. Three destroyers, "Hull" (DD-350), "Monaghan" (DD-354), and "Spence" (DD-512), capsized and sank with nearly all hands, while a cruiser, five aircraft carriers, and three destroyers suffered serious damage. Approximately 790 officers and men were lost or killed, with another 80 injured. Fires occurred in three carriers when planes broke loose in their hangars and some 146 planes on various ships were lost or damaged beyond economical repair by fires, impact damage, or by being swept overboard. "Iowa" reported zero injured sailors as a result of the typhoon, [cite web | title = Pacific Typhoon, 18 December: Personnel Casualties Suffered by Third Fleet, 17–18 December 1944, Compiled from Official Sources | url = http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq102-4c.htm | work = |publisher= United States Navy | accessdate=2006-01-08] but suffered a loss of one of her float planes, and damage to one of her shafts. The damaged shaft required "Iowa" to return to the US, and "Iowa" arrived San Francisco, California, on 15 January 1945, for repairs and an overhaul. During the course of the overhaul "Iowa" had her bridge area enclosed, and was outfitted with new search radars and fire-control systems.
Bombardment of Japan
"Iowa" sailed on 19 March 1945 for Okinawa, arriving on 15 April and relieving her sister ship USS|New Jersey|BB-62. Beginning 24 April, the "Iowa" supported carrier operations which aimed to establish and maintain air superiority for ground forces during their struggle for the island. She then supported air strikes off southern
Kyūshūfrom 25 May to 13 June 1945. "Iowa" then sailed toward northern Honshu and Hokkaido, and participated in strikes on the Japanese home-islands on 14 July and 15 July by bombarding Muroran, Hokkaidō, destroying steel mills and other targets. The city of Hitachi on Honshūwas shelled beginning the night of 17 July and lasting to 18 July. On 29 and 30 July, "Iowa" trained her guns on Kahoolawefor a bombardment. "Iowa" continued to support fast carrier strikes until the cessation of hostilities on 15 August as a result of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. On 27 August, "Iowa" and her sister ship USS|Missouri|BB-63 entered Sagami Bayto oversee the surrender of the Yokosuka naval district.
Tokyo Baywith the occupation forces on 29 August 1945. While in the bay she received a number of sailors from sister ship "Missouri" who were temporarily transferred to "Iowa" for the duration of the surrender ceremony aboard "Missouri".cite DANFS | author = Naval Historical Center | title = Missouri | url = http://history.navy.mil/danfs/m12/missouri-iv.htm | short = on ] After serving as Admiral Halsey's flagship for the surrender ceremony on 2 September 1945, "Iowa" remained in the bay as part of the occupying force. As part of the ongoing Operation Magic Carpet, she received homeward bound GIs and liberated US POWs before departing Tokyo Bay on 20 September, bound for the United States.
Post World War II (1945–1949)
"Iowa" arrived in
Seattle, Washington, 15 October 1945, then sailed for Long Beach, where she engaged in training operations until returning to Japan in 1946 to serve as flagship for the US 5th Fleet. "Iowa" returned to the United States on 25 March 1946 and resumed her role as a training ship. During this time she also embarked Naval Reserve elements and midshipmenfor training in addition to her usual training routine of drills and maneuvers. In October, the "Iowa" underwent a period of overhaul and modernization, which resulted in the addition of the SK-2 Radar and the loss of a number of 20 mm and 40 mm gun mounts. In July, following the Bikini atomic experiments, the battleship USS|Nevada|BB-36 was selected for use as a target for a live fire exercisein which "Iowa" and other sea and air assets of the navy were to sink the battleship. The exercise began with a shelling by a destroyer, heavy cruiser, and "Iowa", and concluded with one aerial torpedo; this caused the "Nevada" to sink approximately 65 miles from Pearl Harbor31 July 1948. [ [http://www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/BB36.htm "Nevada"] . Naval Vessel Register. The Department of Defense. Retrieved on 1 September 2008.] In September 1948, as part of the post World War II draw down of the armed forces, "Iowa" was inactivated at San Francisco and formally decommissioned into the United States Navy reserve fleetson 24 March 1949.
Korean War (1951–1952)
North Koreainvaded South Korea, prompting NATO members, including the United States, to intervene in the name of the United Nations. President Harry S. Trumanwas caught off guard when the invasion struck, but quickly ordered U.S. forces stationed in Japan to transfer to South Korea. Truman also sent U.S. based troops, tanks, fighter and bomber aircraft, and a strong naval force to the area to support South Korea. As part of the naval mobilization, "Iowa" was reactivated 14 July 1951, and formally recommissioned on 25 August, with Captain William R. Smedberg III in command. "Iowa" sailed for Korean waters in March 1952, and on 1 April relieved her sister ship USS|Wisconsin|BB-64 and became the flagship of Vice Admiral Robert Briscoe, Commander of the US 7th Fleet.In her first combat operation of the Korean War, "Iowa" fired her main guns near Wonson-Songjinon 8 April 1952, with the goal of striking North Korean supply lines. In the company of other naval vessels "Iowa" again engaged North-Korean forces the following day, this time against enemy troop concentrations, supply areas, and suspected gun positions in and around Suwon Danand Kojo. In Support of the South Korea's I Corps, the "Iowa" shelled enemy positions on 13 April, killing 100 enemy soldiers, destroying six gun emplacements, and wrecking a division headquarters. The next day she entered Wonsonharbor and shelled warehouses, observation posts and railroad marshaling yards before moving out to rejoin the UN flotilla aiding ground forces around Kosong. On 20 April, in her first combat action above the 38th parallel, "Iowa" shelled railroad lines at Tanchon, where four railroad tunnels were destroyed, before sailing to Chindongand Kosongfor a two day bombardment of North-Korean positions.
On 25 May "Iowa", following her sister ship "Missouri"’s example, arrived in the waters off
Chongjin, a North Korean industrial center about 48 miles from the Russian border. Upon arrival, "Iowa" proceeded to shell the industrial and rail transportation centers in Chongjin, after which she moved south to aid the U.S. X Corps. En-route to U.S. positions, "Iowa" again bombarded Songjin, destroying several railroad tunnels and bridges in the area. On 28 May 1952, "Iowa" rejoined the main body of the U.S. fleet supporting the X Corps, heavily shelling several islands in Wonsan Harbor.
Throughout June, "Iowa" trained her guns on targets at
Mayang-do, Tanchon, Chongjin, Chodo-Soktoand ports of Hungnamand Wonsan in support of the UN and South Korean Forces. On 9 June, a helicopter from "Iowa" rescued a downed pilot from the carrier USS|Princeton|CV-37. At the time, "Princeton" was operating with TF 77, and with other carriers in the task force were involved in a bombing campaign against North Korean supply lines, troop concentrations, and infrastructure; additionally, the carriers were flying close air support missions for ground forces fighting against the North Korean forces. [cite DANFS | author = Naval Historical Center | title = Princeton | url = http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/p12/princeton-v.htm | short = on ] In July "Iowa" received a new skipper, Captain Joshua W. Cooper, who assumed command of the battleship for the remainder of her Korean War tour.
On 20 August, "Iowa" took aboard nine wounded men from the "Gleaves"-class
destroyerUSS|Thompson|DD-627 after "Thompson" was hit by a Chinese artillery battery while shelling enemy positions at Sŏngjin. At the time "Iowa" was operating 16 miles (30 km) south of Sŏngjin, and after receiving the wounded destroyermen "Iowa" covered "Thompson" as she retreated into safer waters. [cite DANFS | author = Naval Historical Center | title = Thompson | url = http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/t5/thompson-ii.htm | short = on ]
On 23 September,
General Mark Wayne Clark, the Commander-In-Chief of United Nations Forces in Korea, came aboard "Iowa". During his time aboard the battleship Clark observed "Iowa" in action as her guns shelled Wonsan area for a third time, accounting for the destruction of a major enemy ammunition dump. On 25 September, "Iowa" fired her guns at an enemy railroad and thirty-car train.
In October, "Iowa" was part of the force involved in Operation Decoy, a
feintto draw enemy troops into Kojo and bring them within striking distance of the battleships big guns. On 16 October, during the operation, "Iowa" provided anti-aircraft support to USS|Mount McKinley|AGC-7, an amphibious force command ship.
Post Korean War (1953–1957)
"Iowa" embarked midshipmen for at sea training to Northern Europe in July 1953, and shortly afterwards took part in Operation "Mariner," a major NATO exercise, serving as flagship of Vice Admiral
Edmund T. Wooldridge, commanding the Second Fleet. Upon completion of this exercise, until the fall of 1954, "Iowa" operated in the Virginia Capesarea. In September 1954, she became the flagship of Rear Admiral R. E. Libby, Commander, Battleship Cruiser Force, United States Atlantic Fleet.
From January to April 1955, "Iowa" made an extended cruise to the
Mediterranean Seaas the flagship of the Commander, Sixth Fleet. "Iowa" departed on a midshipman training cruise 1 June 1955 and upon her return, she entered Norfolk for a four-month overhaul. Following the overhaul, "Iowa" continued intermittent training cruises and operational exercises, until 4 January 1957 when she departed Norfolk for duty with the Sixth Fleet in the Mediterranean. Upon completion of this deployment, "Iowa" embarked midshipmen for a South American training cruise and joined in the International Naval Reviewoff Hampton Roads, Virginia, on 13 June 1957.
On 3 September 1957, "Iowa" sailed for Scotland for NATO
Operation Strikeback. She returned to Norfolk on 28 September 1957, and departed Hampton Roads for the Philadelphia Naval Shipyardon 22 October 1957. She was decommissioned 24 February 1958 and entered the Atlantic Reserve Fleet at Philadelphia.
As part of President
Ronald Reagan’s and Secretary of the Navy John F. Lehman’s effort to create an expanded 600-ship Navy, "Iowa" was reactivated and moved under tow to Avondale Shipyardsnear New Orleans, Louisianafor refitting and equipment modernization in advance of her planned recommissioning. During the refit, "Iowa" had all of her remaining Oerlikon 20 mm and Bofors 40 mm anti-aircraft guns removed, due to their ineffectiveness against modern jet fighters and anti-ship missiles. Additionally, the two 5 inch gun mounts located at mid-ship and in the afton the port and starboardside of the battleship were removed.cite web | title = BB-61 IOWA-class | format = specifications | url = http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ship/bb-61.htm | publisher = Federation of American Scientists| date = 2000-10-21| accessdate=2006-11-26 ]
The "Iowa" was then towed to
Ingalls shipbuilding, Pascagoula, Mississippi, where over the next several months the battleship was upgraded with the most advanced weaponry available. Among the new weapons systems installed were four MK 141 quad cell launchers for 16 AGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missiles, eight Armored Box Launcher (ABL) mounts for 32 BGM-109 Tomahawk missiles, and a quartet of Phalanx Close In Weapon System (CIWS) gatling guns for defense against enemy anti-ship missiles and enemy aircraft. "Iowa" was the first battleship to receive the RQ-2 Pioneer Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, a remotely controlled drone that replaced the helicopters previously used to spot for her nine 16 in/50 Mark 7 guns,cite web | title = The Warfighter's Encyclopedia: Aircraft — RQ-2 Pioneer | url = https://wrc.navair-rdte.navy.mil/warfighter_enc/aircraft/UAVs/pioneer.htm] cite web |url=http://www.fas.org/irp/program/collect/pioneer.htm |title=Pioneer Short Range (SR) UAV |accessdate=2007-03-02 |last=Pike |first=John |date=2000-03-05 |publisher=Federation of American Scientists] and "Iowa" could carry up to eight of the UAVs at a time.cite web|title = USS Missouri (BB-63) Frequently Asked Questions |work= USS Missouri (BB-63) Frequently Asked Questions | url = http://www.factplace.com/mightymo.htm#Ship FactPlace.com |publisher= Ben M. Schorr |accessdate=2006-12-16] Also included in her modernization were upgrades to radarand fire control systems for her guns and missiles, and improved electronic warfarecapabilities. Armed as such, "Iowa" was formally recommissioned on 28 April 1984, ahead of schedule, within her budget at a cost of $500 million, and under the command of Captain Gerald E. Gneckow. In order to expedite the schedule, many necessary repairs to "Iowa's" engines and guns were not completed and the mandatory US Navy Board of Inspection and Survey(InSurv) inspection was skipped. [Thompson, p. 26. Although "Iowa" was refurbished within budget, the final price tag was $50 million above the originally projected cost, mainly because of overtime pay for the ship's contractors.]
Shakedown and NATO exercises (1984–1989)
From April to August 1984, "Iowa" underwent refresher training and naval gunfire support qualifications in the Atlantic Ocean, then spent the rest of 1984 on a shakedown cruise in the area around
Central America. During this cruise she aided in several humanitarian operations, such as those conducted in Costa Ricaand Honduras[All Hands, October 1985, pg 40] before returning to the United States in April 1985 for a period of routine maintenance.
In August 1985, "Iowa" joined 160 other ships for Exercise Ocean Safari, a NATO naval exercise aimed at testing NATO's ability to control sea lanes and thereby maintain free passage of shipping. Owing to bad weather, "Iowa" and the other ships were forced to ride out rough seas, but "Iowa" made use of the rough seas to practice hiding herself from enemy forces. While serving with the exercising force "Iowa" crossed the
Arctic Circle. [All Hands, January 1986, pg.20] In October, "Iowa" took part in Baltic Operations, and fired her phalanx guns, 5 inch guns, and 16 inch guns in the Baltic Seaon 17 October while operating with U.S. and other allied ships. [All Hands, May 1986, pg 30] After the conclusion of the Baltic operations "Iowa" returned to the United States.
Beginning on 17 March 1986, "Iowa" underwent her overdue InSurv inspection. Conducted under the supervision of Rear Admiral
John D. Bulkeley, the ship failed the inspection. During the inspection, the ship was unable to achieve its top speed of 33 knots during a full-power engine run. Bulkely, reportedly extremely angry with the numerous safety and maintenance failings discovered during the inspection, recommended that Gneckow and several other of the ship's officers be charged with dereliction of duty. Bulkeley personally recommended to the Chief of Naval Operationsand Lehman that "Iowa" be taken out of service immediately. Lehman did not take the ship out of service, but instructed the leaders of the Atlantic Fleet to ensure that "Iowa's" deficiencies were corrected. [Thompson, p. 26–27. The problems discovered during Bulkeley's inspection included hydraulic fluidleaks in all three main gun turrets, totalling 55 gallons per turret per week, Cosmoline (anticorrosion lubricant) which had not been removed from all the guns, detoriated bilge piping, frequent shorts in the electrical wiring, pump failures, unrepaired soft patches on high-pressure steam lines, and frozen valves in the ship's firefighting system. Main Turret Three leaked so much oil, hydraulic fluid, and water that the crew referred to it as the "rain forest."]
A month after the InSurv, "Iowa" failed an Operation Propulsion Program Evaluation (OPPE). A short time later, however, the ship retook and passed the OPPE. [Thompson, p. 27.]
After the OPPE evaluations, "Iowa" returned to the waters around Central America, conducting drills and exercises while providing a military presence to friendly nations. On 4 July 1986, President
Ronald Reaganand First Lady Nancy Reaganboarded "Iowa" for the International Naval Review, which was held in the Hudson River. [All Hands, September 1986] That same month Larry Seaquist assumed command of the battleship and her crew. [Thompson, p. 28 gives 25 April as the date of the change of command]
On 17 August, "Iowa" set sail for the North Atlantic and in September participated in Exercise Northern Wedding by ferrying Marines ashore and assisting helicopter gunships. During the exercise "Iowa" fired her main guns at
Cape Wrathrange in Scotland in support of a simulated amphibious assault5 and 6 September, firing a total of nineteen 16 in shells and thirty-two 5 in shells during a ten hour period. As with Exercise Ocean Safari, "Iowa" operated in rough seas and adverse weather conditions. During the live fire exercise a small number of Marines assigned to "Iowa" were put ashore to monitor the fall of shot and advise the battleship of gunnery corrections. [All Hands, January 1987] At the conclusion of the exercise "Iowa" visited ports in England and Germany before returning to the United States in October.
In December "Iowa" became the testbed for the Navy's
RQ-2 Pioneer Unmanned Aerial Vehicle(UAV). The drone was designed to serve as an aerial spotter for the battleship's guns, thereby allowing the guns to be used against an enemy without the need for a airplanes or helicopter spotter. Pioneer passed its tests and made its first deployment that same month aboard "Iowa".cite web | last = Pike | first = John | title = Pioneer Short Range (SR) UAV | url = http://www.fas.org/irp/program/collect/pioneer.htm | publisher = Federation of American Scientists | date = 2000-03-05 | accessdate = 2007-03-02 ]
From January to September 1987 "Iowa" operated in the waters in and around Central America and participated in several exercises until sailing for the
Mediterranean Sea10 September to join the US 6th Fleetbased there. She remained in the Mediterranean Sea until 22 October, when she was detached from the sixth fleet and departed for operations in the North Sea. On 25 November, as part of Operation Earnest Will, "Iowa" transitioned the Suez Canaland set sail for the Persian Gulf, which at the time was one of the battlefields of the Iran–Iraq War. The presence of U.S. Naval vessels in the gulf was in response to a formal petition from Kuwait, [“Kuwaiti Call for Help Led to U.S. Role in Gulf,” Los Angeles Times, 4 July 1988.] whose ships were being attacked by Iranian forces in what would later be called the " Tanker War" phase of the Iran-Iraq War.citation| first = TDP | last = Dugdale-Pointon| date = 27 October 2002| title = Tanker War 1984-1988, | url = http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/wars_tanker.html] "Iowa" and other vessels operating in the gulf were assigned the job of escorting Kuwaiti tankers from Kuwaiti ports to the open sea, but because U.S. law forbade military escorts for civilian ships flying a foreign flag the tankers escorted by the United States were reflagged as U.S. merchant vessels and assigned American names.citation|url=http://www.ccc.nps.navy.mil/research/theses/kelley07.pdf|title=Better Lucky Than Good: Operation Earnest Will as Gunboat Diplomacy|author=Stephen Andrew Kelley|date=June 2007|publisher= Naval Postgraduate School|accessdate=2007-11-09] For the remainder of the year "Iowa" escorted Kuwaiti gas and oil tankers "reflagged" as U.S. merchant ships from the Persian Gulf through the Straits of Hormuz.
On 20 February 1988 "Iowa" departed from the Persian Gulf, transited the Suez Canal, and set sail for the United States, arriving at Norfolk 10 March for routine maintenance. In April she participated in the annual Fleet Week celebrations before returning to Norfolk for an overhaul. On 23 May, Fred Mosally replaced Larry Seaquist as Captain of the "Iowa". [Thompson, p. 33–35. Although most captains of "Iowa", including Gneckow, were promoted to rear admiral upon the completion of their two-year tour as captain of the ship, Seaquist was not promoted. According to Vice Admiral
Joseph Metcalf, III, Seaquist was not promoted because Seaquist was an "iconoclast" and, "The admirals didn't quite understand Larry. He never paid attention to the flag officers' community. It takes politics to become an admiral in the United States Navy. That's a sad commentary, but true, and Larry wasn't a very good politician." Fred Moosally, from Youngstown, Ohiowas nicknamed "the Moose" from his days playing football at the United States Naval Academy. He was the academy's 1965 most valuable player and had played on the same team with Roger Staubach. His class rank upon graduation in 1966 was 812 out of 868. Thompson (p. 35–40) describes Moosally as very-well connected politically with many of the Navy's top admirals, mainly because of tours on the staffs of Metcalf, the CNO, and Admiral Thomas Hayward, and in the Navy's Office of Legislative Affairs.] After completion of the overhaul, Moosally took "Iowa" on a shakdown cruise around Chesapeake Bay on 25 Agust 1988. Encountering difficulty in conning the ship through shallow water, "Iowa", with Moosally at the helm, narrowly missed colliding with the frigates USS "Moinster" and "Farragut" and cruiser "South Carolina" before running aground in soft mud outside the bay's main ship channel near the Thimble Shoals. After one hour, "Iowa" was able to extricate herself without damage and return to port. [Thompson, p. 58–60. According to Thompson, the near-misses with the other navy ships were recorded in "Iowa's" log as attempts to "render honors" to them. Although other US Navy vessels observed "Iowa" grounded in the mud, the incident apparently was not acted upon by Moosally's superiors. Mike Fahey, the ship's executive officer, warned the other officers on "Iowa" to never mention the grounding to anyone, including superior Navy officers.] Throughout August and September, "Iowa" continued with sea trials, then began refresher training in the waters around Florida and Puerto Rico in October, during which the ship passed an OPPE. [Thompson, p. 65–67.]
On 20 January 1989, during a gunnery experiment off
Vieques Island, "Iowa" fired a 16 in shell 23.4 nautical miles, setting a record for the longest 16 in shell ever fired. In February the battleship sailed for New Orleansfor a port visit before departing for Norfolk. On 10 April the battleship was visited by commander of the US 2nd Fleet, and on 13 April sailed to participate in fleet exercise. [Thompson, p. 70–77. The 20 January long-range, experimental shot was not authorized by the Department of the Navy. The shot was planned and directed by "Iowa's" Master Chief Fire Controlman Stephen Skelley and Gunnery Officer Lieutenant Commander Kenneth Michael Costigan using increased powder charges and specially designed shells. The Turret One gun crew leaders, which fired the experimental loads, considered defying the order because of the unauthorized nature and perceived danger of the experiment, but in the end fired their guns. John McEachren, a mid-level civilian employee at the Navy's Sea Systems Command, had improperly authorized the experiment without informing his superiors.]
1989 turret explosion
At 9:55 AM [ [http://www.navy.mil/media/allhands/acrobat/ah198906.pdf All Hands, June 1989] . pg. 4] on 19 April 1989, an explosion ripped through the Number Two 16 inch gun turret, killing 47 crewmen. A gunner in the powder magazine room quickly flooded the #2 powder magazine, likely preventing catastrophic damage to the ship.cite web |url=http://www.ussiowa.org/turret2/news/later/html/memories_vpls.htm |title=Ten years after Iowa tragedy, only evidence left is memories |accessdate=2008-08-24 |work=The Virginia Pilot |publisher=Jack Dorsey |date=2008-08-23 ] At first, the NCIS investigators theorized that one of the dead crewman,
Clayton Hartwig, had detonated an explosive device in a suicide attempt after the end of an alleged homosexualaffair with another sailor.cite web |url=http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ship/weaps/mk-7.htm |title=Mark 7 16-inch/50-caliber gun |accessdate=2008-08-24 |work= |publisher= |date=2008-08-23 ] To support this claim naval officials pointed to several different factors, including Hartwig's life insurance policy, which named Kendall Truitt as the sole beneficiary in the event of his death,cite web |url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3720/is_199907/ai_n8874873/pg_2 |title=Cover-up aboard the USS Iowa |accessdate=2008-08-24 |work=Investigative Reporters and Editors, Inc. The IRE Journal |publisher=B-net |date=July 1999] the presence of unexplained materials inside Turret II, [cite web |url=http://archive.gao.gov/d21t9/143037.pdf |title=Cover-up aboard the USS Iowa |accessdate=2008-08-24 |work=BATTLESHIPS: Issues Arising from the Explosion Aboard the U.S.S. Iowa |work= United States General Accounting Office |publisher=United States Congress |pages=pg. 9 |date=July 1999] and his mental state, which was alleged to be unstable.cite web |url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?sec=health&res=950DE3DF1738F931A25751C1A96F948260 |title=Iowa Captain Doubts Sailor Named by Inquiry Set Blast |accessdate=2008-08-24 |work= |publisher=THE NEW YORK TIMES |date=1989-12-12 ] cite web |url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?sec=health&res=9D0CE0DA1239F934A25753C1A967958260 |title=Suicide ruled out in blast on ship |accessdate=2008-08-24 |work=The New York Times |author=Schmitt, Eric |date=1991-10-17 ]
Although the Navy was satisfied with the investigation and its results,cite web |url=http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ship/weaps/mk-7.htm |title=Mark 7 16-inch/50-caliber gun |accessdate=2008-08-24 |work= |publisher= |date=2008-08-23 ] others were unimpressed with the NCIS investigation, and in October 1991, amid increasing criticism over what was seen as a very poor investigation with little or no real forensic proof, Congress relented and forced the Navy to reopen the investigation. This second investigation, handled by independent investigators, was hampered by the fact that most of original debris from "Iowa" had been cleaned up or otherwise disposed of by the Navy before and after the first investigation, [cite web |url=http://archive.gao.gov/d42t14/141438.pdf |title=Testimony — BATTLESHIPS: Issues Arising from the Explosion Aboard the U.S.S. Iowa |accessdate=2008-08-26 |date= |format=pdf |work=United States General Accounting Office |publisher=United States Congress |pages= pg. 5 ] but the investigation did manage to uncover evidence pointing to an accidental powder explosion rather than an intentional act of sabotage.cite web |url=http://archive.gao.gov/d19t9/144706.pdf |title=U.S.S. IOWA EXPLOSION: Sandia National Laboratories' Final Technical Report |accessdate=2008-08-26 |work=United States General Accounting Office |publisher=United States Congress |pages=pg. 9-21 |date=1991-08-28 ]
While "Iowa" was undergoing modernization, sister ship USS|New Jersey|BB-62 had been dispatched to Lebanon to aid the peacekeeping forces by providing offshore fire support.cite web |url=http://www.cedarland.org/war.html |title=The Lebanese War, Lebanese Civil War (subsection:The Israeli Defense Forces Withdrawal and the Mountain War) |accessdate=2007-05-25 |publisher=cederland.org] Unfortunately, "New Jersey" was at the time the only commissioned battleship anywhere in the world, and in an effort to get another battleship commissioned to relieve "New Jersey", the modernization of "Iowa" was stepped up, leaving her in poor condition when she recommissioned in 1984. In May 1988, Fred Mosally replaced Larry Seaquist as captain of the "Iowa". Unlike Seaquist, who had placed emphasis on the training and manning of guns, Mosally was more concerned with the maintenance of the missiles on "Iowa".cite book |last=Garzke |first=William H. |coauthors=Dulin, Robert O. |title=Battleships |origyear=1995 |url=http://www.combie.net/webharbor/museum/bb61-2.html |accessdate=2008-08-24 |publisher=Naval Institute Press |location=Annapolis, Maryland ] Lastly, the Navy had improperly stored the gunpowder used aboard the battleship; it had been placed aboard a barge where sunlight and other elemental factors contributed to its degradation.
Powder from the same lot as the one under investigation was tested at the
Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division. Spontaneous combustionwas achieved with the powder, which had been originally milled in the 1930s and improperly stored in a barge at the Navy's Yorktown, VirginiaNaval Weapons Station during a 1988 dry-docking of the "Iowa". Gun powder gives off ether gas as it degrades; the ether is highly flammable, and could be ignited by a spark. This revelation resulted in a shift in the Navy's position on the incident, and Admiral Frank Kelso, the Chief of Naval Operationsat the time, publicly apologized to the Hartwig family, concluding that there was no real evidence to support the claim that he had intentionally killed the other sailors. [At the same time that the Admiral Kelso apologized to the Hartwig family he also pointed out that there was not enough evidence to exonerate Hartwig of the alleged charges either. In time this would lead the Hartwig family to file a $12 million lawsuit against the Navy. cite web |url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3720/is_199907/ai_n8874873/pg_2 |title=Cover-up aboard the USS Iowa |accessdate=2008-08-24 |work=Investigative Reporters and Editors, Inc. The IRE Journal |publisher=B-net |date=July 1999] The captain of the "Iowa", Fred Moosally, was severely criticized for his handling of the matter, and as a result of the incident the Navy changed the powder-handling procedures for its battleships. The incident remains the surface Navy's worst loss of life during peace time operations, surpassing the loss of life incurred from the attack of an Iraqi Air Force jet on the "Oliver Hazard Perry"-class guided missile frigateUSS|Stark|FFG-31. [Although the worst loss of life in peace time, the turret explosion aboard "Iowa" in 1989 is tied with the 1942 explosion in the #2 turret aboard the battleship USS|Mississippi|BB-41, which also claimed 47 lives. cite web |url=http://archive.gao.gov/d21t9/143037.pdf |title=Cover-up aboard the USS Iowa |accessdate=2008-08-24 |work=BATTLESHIPS: Issues Arising from the Explosion Aboard the U.S.S. Iowa |work= United States General Accounting Office |publisher=United States Congress |pages=pg. 9 |date=July 1999]
Reserve Fleet and Museum Ship (from 1990)
With the collapse of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s and the lack of a perceived threat against the United States came drastic cuts to the defense budget, and the high cost of maintaining battleships as part of the active fleet became uneconomical; as a result, "Iowa" was decommissioned for the last time on 26 October 1990. "Iowa" was the first of the reactivated battleships to be decommissioned, and was decommissioned earlier than originally planned as a result of the damaged #2 turret. "Iowa", as part of the
National Defense Reserve Fleet, was berthed at the Naval Education and Training Centerin Newport, from 24 September 1998 to 8 March 2001, when the ship began her journey, under tow, to California. The ship arrived in Suisun Baynear San Franciscoon 21 April 2001 and is part of the Reserve Fleetthere, where she remained in reserve until struck from the Naval Vessel Registerin January 1995.
Section 1011 of the
National Defense Authorization Actof 1996 required the United States Navy to reinstate to the Naval Vessel Register two of the "Iowa"-class battleships that had been struck by the Navy in 1995; these ships were to be maintained in the United States Navy reserve fleets (or "mothball fleet"). The Navy was to ensure that both of the reinstated battleships were in good condition and could be reactivated for use in the Marine Corps' amphibious operations.cite web |url=http://www.nist.gov/director/ocla/Public_Laws/PL104-106.pdf |format=pdf |title=National Defense Authorization Act for fiscal year 1996(Subtitle B-Naval Vessels and Shipyards |publisher=National Institute of Standards and Technology|accessdate=2005-05-26 |date= 1996-02-10|page=422] Due to "Iowa"’s damaged turret #2, the Navy selected "New Jersey" for placement into the mothball fleet, even though the training mechanisms on "New Jersey"'s 16 in guns had been welded down. The cost to fix "New Jersey" was considered less than the cost to fix "Iowa"; as a result, "New Jersey" and "Wisconsin" were reinstated to the Naval Vessel Register and placed back in the reserve fleet.
"New Jersey" remained in the mothball fleet until the Strom Thurmond National Defense Authorization Act of 1999 passed through the
United States Congress18 October 1998. Section 1011 required the United States Secretary of the Navyto list and maintain "Iowa" and "Wisconsin" on the Naval Vessel Register, while Section 1012 required the Secretary of the Navy to strike "New Jersey" from the Naval Vessel Register and transfer the battleship to a not-for-profit entity in accordance with section 7306 of Title 10, United States Code. Section 1012 also required the transferee to locate the battleship in the State of New Jersey. [cite web |url=http://www.dod.mil/dodgc/olc/docs/1999NDAA.pdf |format=pdf |title=Strom Thurmond National Defense Authorization Act of 1999 (Subtitle B-Naval Vessels and Shipyards) |accessdate=2007-03-12 |publisher=105th Congress, United States Senate and House of Representatives |pages=pp. 200–201] The Navy made the switch in January 1999, allowing "New Jersey" to open as a museum ship in her namesake state.cite web |url=http://www.battleshipnewjersey.org/history/milestone_dates.php |title=Battleship New Jersey |publisher=Battleship New Jersey Museum and Memorial|accessdate=2005-05-26]
For several years plans had been under way to berth the "Iowa" in
San Francisco, California, opening the battleship there as a museum; however, in 2005, San Francisco’s city council, citing opposition to the Iraq Warand the military's policies regarding homosexuals, voted 8-3 against maintaining "Iowa" in the city, paving the way for other California communities to bid for the battleship. Vallejo, site of the former Mare Island Naval Shipyardand Stockton are competing for the vessel. The Historic Ships Memorial at Pacific Square (HSMPS) organization that attempted to place the ship in San Francisco is now working with the Mare Island, Vallejo, site. Both communities have identified berthing piers and have submitted proposals to the Department of the Navy to open the vessel to tourists and educational groups as a memorial and museum.
On 17 March 2006 the Secretary of the Navy exercised his authority to strike "Iowa" and "Wisconsin" from the NVR, which has cleared the way for both ships to be donated for use as museums; however, the
United States Congressremains "deeply concerned" over the loss of naval surface gunfire support that the battleships provided, and has noted that "...navy efforts to improve upon, much less replace, this capability have been highly problematic."109th Congress, House of Representatives. Report 109–452. [http://armedservices.house.gov/NDAA2007CommiteeReport.pdf National Defense Authorization Act of 2007] . Page 193. Accessed 26 November 2006.] Partially as a consequence, the US House of Representativeshas asked that the battleships be kept in a state of readiness should they ever be needed again.109th Congress, House of Representatives. Report 109–452. [http://armedservices.house.gov/NDAA2007CommiteeReport.pdf National Defense Authorization Act of 2007] . Page 68. Accessed 26 November 2006] Congress has asked that the following measures be implemented to ensure that, if need be, "Iowa" can be returned to active duty:
#"Iowa" must not be altered in any way that would impair her military utility;
#The battleship must be preserved in her present condition through the continued use of cathodic protection, dehumidification systems, and any other preservation methods as needed;
#Spare parts and unique equipment such as the convert|16|in|mm|0|sing=on gun barrels and projectiles be preserved in adequate numbers to support "Iowa", if reactivated;
#The Navy must prepare plans for the rapid reactivation of "Iowa" should she be returned to the Navy in the event of a national emergency.These four conditions closely mirror the original three conditions that the Nation Defense Authorization Act of 1996 laid out for the maintenance of "Iowa" while she was in the Mothball Fleet.104th Congress, House of Representatives. [http://www.dod.mil/dodgc/olc/docs/1996NDAA.pdf National Defense Authorization Act of 1996] . Page 237. Accessed 17 December 2006.] It is unlikely that these conditions will impede the current plan to turn "Iowa" into a permanent museum ship.
"Iowa" earned nine
battle stars for World War II service and two for Korean Warservice. [All Hands, December 1985, pg 45]
List of museum ships
last = Fuller
first = J.F.C.
year = 1956
title = The Decisive Battles of the Western World - Volume III
publisher = Eyre & Spottiswoode
location = London
id = ISBN10: 1135317909
last = Morison
first = Samuel Eliot
authorlink = Samuel Eliot Morison
year = 1956 (reissue 2004)
title = Leyte, June 1944-January 1945, "vol. 12 of "
History of United States Naval Operations in World War II
publisher = University of Illinois Press; Reprint edition
location = Champaign, Illinois, U.S.A.
id = ISBN 0-252-07063-1
* [http://maps.google.com/maps?hl=en&ie=UTF8&om=1&z=18&ll=38.06823,-122.098044&spn=0.00283,0.004377&t=k Satellite image from Google Maps]
* [http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/uss_iowa_bb61.htm Maritimequest USS Iowa BB-61 Photo Gallery]
* [http://www.battleshipiowa.org Historic Ships Memorial at Pacific Square]
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