- Vedic period
The Vedic Period (or Vedic Age) is the period in the
history of Indiaduring which the Vedas, the oldest sacred texts of Hinduism, were being composed. Scholars place the Vedic period in the second and first millennia BCE continuing up to the 6th century BCEbased on literary evidence.
The associated culture, sometimes referred to as Vedic civilization, was centered in northern and northwestern part of the
Indian subcontinent. Its early phase saw the formation of various kingdoms of ancient India. In its late phase (from ca. 600 BCE), it saw the rise of the Mahajanapadas, and was succeeded by the Maurya Empire(from ca. 320 BCE), the golden age, classical age of Sanskrit literature, and the Middle kingdoms of India.
The reconstruction of the history of Vedic India is based on text-internal details. Linguistically, the Vedic texts could be classified in five chronological strata:
1. Rigvedic: The
Rigvedais by far the most archaic of the Vedic texts preserved, and it retains many common Indo-Iranianelements, both in language and in content, that are not present in any other Vedic texts. Its creation must have taken place over several centuries, and apart from that of the youngest books (first part of 1 and all of 10), would have been complete by 1000(?) BCE. Archaeologically, this period may correspond with the Gandhara Grave Culture, the "Cemetery H" culture of the Punjab and the " Ochre Coloured Pottery culture" (OCP) further east. It is undisputed that there is a strong component in certain traits of cultural continuity of the Indus Valley civilization.
2. Mantra language: This period includes both the mantra and prose language of the
Atharvaveda(Paippalada and Shaunakiya), the Rigveda Khilani, the SamavedaSamhita (containing some 75 mantras not in the Rigveda), and the mantras of the Yajurveda. Many of these texts are largely derived from the Rigveda, but have undergone certain changes, both by linguistic change and by reinterpretation. Conspicuous changes include change of "vishva" "all" by "sarva", and the spread of the "kuru-" verbal stem (for Rigvedic "krno-"). This is the time of the early Iron Agein north-western India, corresponding to the " Black and Red Ware" (BRW) culture, and the kingdom of the Kurus, dating from ca. the 10th century BCE.
3. Samhita prose: This period marks the beginning of the collection and codification of a Vedic canon. An important linguistic change is the complete loss of the injunctive. The Brahmana part ('commentary' on mantras and ritual) of the Black
Yajurveda(MS, KS, TS) belongs to this period. Archaeologically, the " Painted Grey Ware" (PGW) culture from ca. 900 BCEcorresponds, and the shift of the political center from the Kurus to the Pancalas on the Ganges.
4. Brahmana prose: The
Brahmanasproper of the four Vedas belong to this period, as well as the Aranyakas, the oldest of the Upanishads ( BAU, ChU, JUB) and the oldest Shrautasutras (BSS, VadhSS).
5. Sutra language: This is the last stratum of Vedic Sanskrit leading up to c.
500 BCE, comprising the bulk of the Śrauta and Grhya Sutras, and some Upanishads(e.g. KathU, MaitrU). All but the five prose Upanishads are post-Buddhist [V.A. Gunasekara, http://www.budsas.org/ebud/ebdha255.htm] ). Videha(N. Bihar) as a third political center is established.
6. Epic and Paninian Sanskrit: The language of the
Mahabharataand Ramayanaepics, and the Classical Sanskrit described by Panini is considered post-Vedic, and belongs to the time after 500 BCE. Archaeologically, the rapid spread of " Northern Black Polished Ware" (NBP) over all of northern India corresponds to this period. The earliest Vedanta, Gautama Buddha, and the Pali Prakrit dialect of Buddhist scripture belong to this period.
Historical records set in only after the end of the Vedic period, and remain scarce throughout the Indian Middle Ages. The end of Vedic India is marked by linguistic, cultural and political changes. The grammar of Panini marks a final apex in the codification of Sutra texts, and at the same time the beginning of Classical Sanskrit. The invasion of
Darius Iof the Indus valley in the early 6th century BCE marks the beginning of outside influence, continued in the kingdoms of the Indo Greeks, new waves of immigration from 150 BCE( Abhira, Shaka), Kushanand ultimately the Islamic Sultans. The most important historical source of the geography of post-Vedic India is the 2nd centuryGreek historian Arrianwhose report is based on the Mauryan time ambassador to Patna, Megastehenes.
Rigvedic tribes"The origin of the Vedic civilization and its relation to the Indus Valley civilization, Indo-Aryan migrationand Gandhara Grave culturerelated cultures remains controversial and politically charged in Indian society, often leading to disputes on the history of Vedic culture. The Rigvedais primarily a collection of religious hymns, and allusions to, but not explanation of, various myths and stories, mainly in the younger books 1 and 10. The oldest hymns, probably in books 2–7, although some hold book 9, the SomaMandala, to be even more ancient, contain many elements inherited from pre-Vedic, common Indo-Iraniansociety. Therefore, it is difficult to define the precise beginning of the "Rigvedic period", as it emerges seamlessly from the era preceding it. Also, due to the semi-nomadic nature of the society described, it cannot be easily localized, and in its earliest phase describes tribes that were essentially on the move.
RigVedic Aryans have a lot in common with the
Andronovoculture and the Mittannikingdoms as well as with early Iranians. The Andronovoculture is believed to be the site of the first horse-drawn chariots.
The "grama" (wagon train), "vis" and "jana" were political units of the early Vedic Aryans. A "vish" was a subdivision of a "jana" or "krishti", and a "grama" was a smaller unit than the other two. The leader of a "grama" was called "gramani" and that of a "vish" was called "vishpati".
rashtra" (polity) was governed by a "rajan" (chieftain, 'king'). The king is often referred to as "gopa" (protector) and occasionally as "samrat" (supreme ruler). He governed the people with their consent and approval. He was elected from a restricted class of 'royals' (rajanya). There were various types of meetings such as the " vidhata" or "Sabha". Gana was the non-monarchial assembly that is a parallel one to the monarchial assemblies of that period headed by Jyestha the same was referred in Buddhist text named Jettaka.The Sabha, sitated outside of settlement, was restricted to the Vratyas, bands of roving Brahmins and Kshatriyas in search of cattle, with a common woman (pumscali) [ H.Falk, Bruderschaft udn Würfelspiel, Freiburg 1986 ] while the vidatha was the potlatch-like ritual distribution of bounty [ F.B.J. Kuiper, Selected Writings on Indian Linguistics and Philology, pp. 406-417 ] .
The main duty of the king was to protect the tribe. He was aided by several functionaries, including the "purohita" (chaplain) and the "senani" (army chief; "sena": army). The former not only gave advice to the ruler but also was his chariot driver and practiced spells and charms for success in war. Soldiers on foot ("patti"s) and on
chariots ("rathin"s), armed with bow and arrow, were common. The king employed "spaś" (spies) and "duta"s (messengers). He collected taxes (originally ceremonial gifts, "bali"), from the people which he had to redistribute.
ociety and economy
The concept of "varna" (class) and the rules of marriage were rigid as is evident from Vedic verses (RV 10.90, W. Rau 1957). The status of the
Brahminsand Kshatriyas was higher than that of the Vaishyas and Shudras. The Brahmins were specialized in creating poetry, preserving the sacred texts, and carrying out various types of rituals. Functioning as intellectual leadership, they also restricted social mobility between the varnas, as in the fields of science, war, literature, religion and the environment. The proper enunciation of verses in ritual was considered essential for prosperity and success in war and harvests. Kshatriyas amassed wealth (cattle), and many commissioned the performance of sacrifices. Kshatriyas helped in administering the polity, maintained the structure of society and the economy of a tribe, and helped in maintaining law and order.
In the Early Vedic Period all the three upper classes Brahmins, Kshatriyas, and Vaishyas were considered as --relatively-- equal Arya, but in the Later Vedic Age the Brahmins and Kshatriyas became upper class. The Vaishyas were pastoralists and farmers; the Shudras were the lower class; they included artisans and were meant to serve the upper three classes [ W. Rau, Staat und Gesellschaft, 1957 ] . As the caste system became deep-rooted there were many restrictions and rules which were to be followed.
Cattle were held in high esteem and frequently appear in Rigvedic hymns; goddesses were often compared to cows, and gods to bulls.
Agriculturegrew more prominent with time as the community gradually began to settle down in post-Rigvedic times. The economy was based on bartering with cattle and other valuables such as salt or metals.
patrilineal, and people prayed for the abundance of sons. The Society was strictly organized in a system of four varna(classes, to be distinguished from caste, jati)
Vedic Religious Practices
Historical Vedic religion, Vedic astrology"
The Vedic forms of belief are the precursor to modern
Hinduism.Texts considered to date to the Vedic period are mainly the four Vedas, but the Brahmanas, Aranyakas and the older Upanishads as well as the oldest Shrautasutras are also considered to be Vedic. The Vedas record the liturgyconnected with the rituals and sacrifices performed by the 16 or 17 Shrautapriests and the purohitas.
rishis, the composers of the hymns of the Rigveda, were considered inspired poets and seers (in post-Vedic times understood as "hearers" of an eternally existing Veda, " Śrauta" means "what is heard").
The mode of worship was performance of sacrifices which included the
chanting of Rigvedic verses (see Vedic chant), singing of Samans and 'mumbling' of offering mantras (Yajus) . The priests executed rituals for the three upper classes (varna) of Vedic society, strictly excluding the Sudras. People offered for abundance of rain, cattle, sons, long life and gaining 'heaven'.
The main deities of the Vedic pantheon were
Indra, Agni(the sacrificial fire), and Somaand some deities of social order such as Mitra- Varuna, Aryaman, Bhaga and Amsa, further nature deities such as Surya(the Sun), Vayu(the wind), Prithivi (the earth). Goddesses included Ushas(the dawn), Prithviand Aditi(the mother of the Aditya gods or sometimes the cow). Rivers, especially Saraswati, were also considered goddesses. Deities were not viewed as all-powerful. The relationship between humans and the deity was one of transaction, with Agni (the sacrificial fire) taking the role of messenger between the two. Strong traces of a common Indo-Iranianreligion remain visible, especially in the Somacult and the fire worship, both of which are preserved in Zoroastrianism. The Ashvamedha( horse sacrifice) has parallels in the 2nd millennium BC Andronovoculture, in Rome and old Ireland, was continued in India until at least the 4th century AD and revived under Jay Singh in 1740 AD.
Vedic religion evolved into the
Hindupaths of Yogaand Vedanta, a religious path considering itself the 'essence' of the Vedas, interpreting the Vedic pantheon as a unitary view of the universe with 'God' (Brahman) seen as immanent and transcendent in the forms of Ishvaraand Brahman. These post-Vedic systems of thought, along with later texts like Upanishads, epics (namely Gitaof Mahabharat), have been fully preserved and form the basis of modern Hinduism. The ritualistic traditions of Vedic religion are preserved in the conservative Śrautatradition, in part with the exception of animal sacrifice, which was mostly abandoned by the higher castes by the end of the Vedic period, partly under the influence of the Buddhist and Jain religions, and their criticism of such practicesFact|date=March 2008.
The later Vedic period
The transition from the early to the later Vedic period was marked by the emergence of agriculture as the dominant economic activity and a corresponding decline in the significance of cattle rearing. Several changes went hand in hand with this. For instance, several large kingdoms arose because of the increasing importance of land and long distance trade. The late Vedic period, from ca.
500 BCEonward, more or less seamlessly blends into the period of the Middle kingdoms of Indiaknown from historical sources.
The late Vedic period was marked by the rise of the sixteen "
Mahajanapadas" referred to in some of the literature. The power of the king and the Kshatriyas greatly increased. Rulers gave themselves titles like "ekarat" (the one ruler), "sarvabhauma" (ruler of all the earth) and "chakravartin" ('who moves the wheel'). The kings performed sacrifices like " rajasuya", (royal consecration) " vajapeya" (including a chariot race) and, for supreme dominance over other kings, the ashvamedha(horse sacrifice). The coronation ceremony was a major social occasion. Several functionaries, in addition to the purohitaand the senani, took part. The role of the people in political decision making and the status of the Vaishyas as such was greatly decreased.
* Bokonyi, S. 1997b. "Horse Remains from the Prehistoric Site of Surkotada, Kutch, Late 3rd Millennium BC.", South Asian Studies 13: 297-307.
*Kocchar, Rajesh, "The Vedic people: their history and geography", Hyderabad: Orient Longmans (1999).
* Lal, B.B. 2005. The Homeland of the Aryans. Evidence of Rigvedic Flora and Fauna & Archaeology, New Delhi, Aryan Books International.
Michael Witzel, "Tracing the Vedic dialects" in "Dialectes dans les litteratures Indo-Aryennes" ed. Caillat, Paris, 1989, 97–265.
* Michael Witzel, "The Pleiades and the Bears viewed from inside the Vedic texts", EVJS Vol. 5 (1999), issue 2 (December) [http://users.primushost.com/~india/ejvs/ejvs0502/ejvs0502.txt] .
R. C. Majumdarand A. D. Pusalker(editors): The History and Culture of the Indian People. Volume I, The Vedic age. Bombay : Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan 1951
* R.C. Majumdar et al. "
An Advanced History of India", MacMillan, 1967.
*Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak "The Arctic Home in the Vedas", Messrs Tilak Bros., 1903
*cite book|last= Ankerl |first= Guy |title= Global communication without universal civilization |origyear= 2000 |series= INU societal research |volume= Vol.1: Coexisting contemporary civilizations : Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western |publisher= INU Press |location= Geneva |isbn= 2-88155-004-5 |pages=
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* [http://www.quantumyoga.org/Movement%20for%20the%20Restoration%20.pdf Restoration of Vedic Wisdom] (pdf), Patrizia Norelli-Bachelet
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