The Numbers Gang

The Numbers Gang
The Numbers Gang
In Pollsmoor Prison, Cape Town
Years active 1911–present
Territory All prisons in South Africa
Ethnicity Primarily Cape Coloureds and Black Africans
Criminal activities Extortion, Rape, Inmate Prostitution, Murder

The Numbers Gang are a well known prison gang with one of the most fearsome reputations in South Africa if not the world.[1] They are known to operate primarily in the Western Cape prison of Pollsmoor, however it is thought that they control most of the South African prisons.[2]



Although the origins of the gang remain sketchy at best, there is one story that has been passed down from teacher to student over the years. It is the story of Nongoloza and Kilikijan.[3]

The entire story begins with a man named Po[4] who was said to embody the interests of all black people. Po noticed that young men left their homelands and went to the mines never to return. He then wondered why this was the case and ventured off to the mines to find out why. When he saw how they lived and how they were treated Po became upset. He went off to his cave near Pietermaritzburg and pondered, finally coming to the decision that deliverance of these young men was necessary.

One day Po spotted a young Zulu man who identified himself as Nongoloza who said he was on his way to the mines to look for work. Po then warns the young man of the conditions in the mines, telling him they will ultimately lead to his demise. Po then persuades Nongoloza to join him in his crusade against white oppression. Nongoloza agrees to this and joins the wise man in his cave.

The next day another young man approaches. Po greets the young man who introduces himself as Nongilikatyane, a member of the Pondo tribe. He too agrees to join Po.

Po eventually recruits 15 young men. He teaches them a secret language and advances their skills in the art of highway robbery. The men succeed in robbing travelers and colonial outposts of their goods. The gang chooses to change their habits to avoid being caught. They move from cave to cave and split themselves into two groups: Kilikijan with his seven men who rob by the day, and Nongoloza and his six men who rob by night.

Po orders the two men to carve their daily outlaw activities on a nearby rock which is to serve as a diary. Po then orders the two men to visit a farm owned by a Mr. Rabie and to buy one of his bulls which is called Rooiland (Red Earth). Mr. Rabie is suspicious, so he refuses to sell the two men the bull. The two youths refuse to leave without carrying out their order and proceed to stab the farmer with bayonets and then steal the bull.

A huge feast takes place at the cave between the gangsters and Po carefully oversees the slaughter and dismembering of the bull. Po tells his two apprentices to fill one of the bull's horns with its blood and gall and to each take a drink of it. Kilikijan sips the mixture and immediately spits it out saying that it will poison him. Nongoloza drinks from the horn without flinching. According to Nongoloza's supporters this proves Kilkijan's cowardice while according to Kilikijan supporters this proves that Nongoloza is an evil muti man (evil potion man).

Po then orders the men to take the hide of the bull and press it onto the diary rock until the words have been transferred from the rock to the hide. With two copies of the gang's way, Po explains the bandits must follow the rules as they have been set out from the beginning. The two items are divided between the two men. Nongoloza receives the hide and Kilkijan receives the rock. The two are instructed to carry them wherever the go. The rock, however, proves to be too awkward to carry and one day it is accidentally dropped down a hill. It splits into two pieces, one of which falls into a river. This leaves Kilkijan's gang with only half of the gang's laws.

The first conflict of the two gangs takes place because of this incident. The two gangs decide to embark on a joint expedition. Nongoloza says he is sick and decides to stay behind. He asks one of Kilkijan's soldiers, Magubane, to stay behind. Upon returning Kilkijan finds Nongoloza engaged in homosexual acts with Magubane. Enraged, Kilkijan challenges Nongoloza to a fight. Nongoloza replies that according to the hide sex between bandits is allowed as to avoid contact with women.[5] Kilkijan retaliates by saying that he does not trust that Nongoloza did not add this law to the hide after half his rock went missing. The two men commence fighting until they are both drenched in blood, and Po arrives to intervene.

Po listens to both men's sides of the story. He then tells Kilkijan to travel to the mines to see if men were engaging in sex with one another. Kilkijan finds that this does indeed take place but opinions remained divided as to whether this justified Nongoloza's act. This was to become the pivotal disagreement between the two gangs that persist to this day. Po had informed the men that at the entrance of his cave was an old assegai, and if the two men found the tip of the assegai rusted, it would mean that Po had died. Due to the death of Po, a final decision on whether sexual intercourse between men was allowed never came to pass.

This prediction had come true and the two gangs decided to go their separate ways: Nongoloza's gang with its now eight men (which included Magubane, who he decided to take with him) and Kilkijan's gang with its seven. It is said that this is where the numbers "27" and "28" originated, with the number "2" symbolizing the two leaders.

The gangs agree that the day would still be divided between them as it had always been. Kilkijan said: "You will recognize me by two rays of dawn sunlight: one over my right shoulder, the other in front of me". The gangs continued to roam the countryside until they both ended up in Point Prison in Durban.

It was at Point Prison that they encountered a group of six men led by a man named Grey who were franse (non-gangsters). The six men would sit in a circle and flip a single silver coin between them. Nongoloza demanded that the men hand over their possessions to him; he is refused. Later he is told by Kilkijan that these men were skilled smugglers and gamblers who had helped him in his early days in prison.[6]

Nongoloza decides to name the coin a "Spyker" (nail) while Kilkijan insists that they should call it a "Kroon" (crown). A fight broke out between Nongoloza and Kilkijan about the future of the gamblers. Kilkijan defended the gamblers against the 28's sexual appetites which is what Nongoloza wanted them for.

After many disagreements it was finally decided by Nongoloza that the new group would be called the "26s". They name was given because they had six men but also because Nongoloza wanted to indicate their inferior status. Nongoloza informed Kilkijan that he and his men would have to answer for the actions of the 26s. It was said that Nongoloza said to Kilkijan "When they commit a wrong, I will not go to them, I will come to you. Kilkijan replied "That is all well and good, but when you wrong them I will come to you".

Finally the three camps were formed. The 26s were responsible for gambling, smuggling and accruing wealth in general. The 28s were the warriors and responsible for fighting on behalf of all three groups, and the 27s were the guardians of gang law and the peace keepers between all the gangs.

New rules and a strict code of conduct were drawn up. It was decided that when a gangster broke a rule, the blood of a warder or frans (non-gangster) must be spilled to set things right.

The Numbers


The 26s duty is to accumulate wealth for all the numbers.[7] The 26s have no private line and a wyfie (prison bitch) may not join the gang.[8] Although a member of the 26s may take a wyfie for himself, it is strictly against the laws as set out in the book of 26s.

The gang has a very specific hierarchy and is structured as follows:

  • The Numbers Ones (Top Structure)
  • – Government Makwezie
  • – General Number 1
  • – Inspector Number 1
  • – Doctor Number 1
  • – Maballaan (clerk) Number 1
  • – Prokureur (advocate) Number 1
  • – Landdros Number 1 (Magistrate)
  • – Judge Number 1
  • – Captain Number 1
  • The Number twos (Secondary Structure)
  • – General number 2
  • – Inspector number 2
  • – Doctor number 2
  • – Maballaan number 2
  • – Judge number 2
  • – Captain number 2
  • – Sergeant Major
  • – Sergeant number 1
  • – Sergeant number 2
  • – The Heksman (guard)
  • – Soldiers

In the number 2s and the number 1s there is a twelve point ring which makes gang decisions according to their jurisdictions. Each rank has its own assigned office and duties which include training lower rank members in the duties and codes of the gang.[9]

The 26s have historically being considered an inferior gang and have lived in the shadow of the 28s; however in some prisons they have risen up against the 28s and controlled the prisons. (See "general elections", below)


The 27s are the protectors of law and order within the gangs, and the assassins of the gang who kill the enemies of the gang on orders from the 28s. That means they live and die in prison. They settle disputes between the 26s and 28s. 26s and 28s never talk to one another, everything is done through the 27s.[10]

The 27s disagree on key aspects of the story of the origins of the numbers gang namely:

  • They believe that the village where Po met Nongoloza and Kilkijan was not a Zulu village
  • They refer to the elder as Pomabasa (Po) instead of Ngulugut as the 28s refer to him.
  • The 27s claim that Rooiland never existed, and the hide and its laws were invented by self-interested sodomites.


The 28s are the blood line of the gang. They are divided into two lines – the gold line and the silver line.[11]

The gold line are the warriors, the descendants of Nongoloza. They are responsible for fighting the gang's battles.

The silver line are the female, and are the descendants of Magubane. They are considered to be the sex slaves of the gold line. This is however strongly disputed by silver line members who consider themselves to be the thinkers of the gang.

The emblem of the 28s is the Zulu shield, whose skin is made out of the legendary Rooiland cow's remains.

Each substructure of the gang consists of four men and is named respectively the "four points of the ones", the "four points of the twos" and then "four points of the threes". These four points refer to the places in Rooiland's carcass where the legs join the body. The function of each officer in the gang is signified by a part of the bull's anatomy.[12]

The magistrate is given the hooves which are his four stamps: red, green, white and black. He uses these stamps to mark a member for promotion or punishment.

The gwenza gets the legs which are his four pens: red, green, white and black. He uses these pens to note the record of every member.

The glas (binoculars), who communicates the gang's decisions, gets one of the horns which is his bugle. He uses this bugle to announce conclusions to the gang's deliberations.

The draad (intelligence officer) is given the eyes. Being given the eyes signifies that he can see all that happens.

In the 28s it is important to prove your manhood and move up in the rankings. A member moves up the ranks through the stabbing or killing of rival gangs, prison guards or disobedient members. Should a member stay in the lower ranks he will still be considered a woman and will be sexually abused until he proves his manhood.[13]

Recruitment into the 28s

When a new prisoner is assigned a cell he will be introduced to the person in charge of that cell known as the "cell cleaner". The cell cleaner will welcome the new prisoner to the cell, and will either leave him alone for the evening, or will demand sex.

The new prisoners will be observed by a senior member of the gang known as "die glas" (the binoculars). The glas' job is to conduct gang business in "die bos" (the bush), the parts of the prison where the 28s are not active. The glas will then confront a potential new recruit and give him a riddle. How the new prisoner answers the riddle will determine which department of the gang he will fall under.

The glas will generally watch the way new members interact with other franse (non gang members). He will watch how the new prisoner deals with conflict, the way he solves problems and the way he walks and talks. The glas then approaches the new prisoner and will say "I am going to ask you a question. Think very carefully before answering." The glas will go on to say, "It is raining. You are standing under an umbrella. I say to you I am getting wet; I may get sick. What are you going to do?" The new inmate's answer will determine his future in the prison. If he should say "I invite you to share my umbrella" he would become a sex slave and would not become a member of the 28s. If he should say "I will come out into the rain with you" it means that the new inmate is saying that he is prepared to live like him; they are brothers and they will live and die together.

After the glas is satisfied with the answer of the new inmate, he is given a task in order to become a member. This task could either be the fatal or non-fatal stabbing of another inmate or warden. The new recruit will be given a knife whose length is determined by another senior member of the gang known as the nyangi (the doctor). Should the gang want the stabbing to be fatal the nyangi will give the new recruit a longer blade, and vice versa in the event the gang wants a non-lethal stabbing.

Once the stabbing has taken place all the gang members watching will shout "Nangampela![14] Die nommer is vol!" (The number is complete).

The new member then meets with the tribunal and is told to strip down to his underwear. The glas circles him slowly, scrutinizing his skin for "vuil papiere" (dirty papers – the tattoos of other gangs). If he is found with the mark of a rival gang he is beaten and his recruitment halted. This ceremony takes place on a Saturday, the day the gangs consider the "day of wrongs".

On a Sunday, the "day of rights", his ceremony is performed. He is once again ordered to stand in the middle of the room; however this time he is surrounded by several people. The first person to approach him is the nyangi. The nyangi then takes a gold pipe and slaps it on the new recruit's right wrist, then takes a silver pipe and slaps it on the new recruit's left wrist. He then checks the recruit's pulse and declares either "Die man se pols klop twee keer per jaar" (This man's pulse beats twice a year) or "Die man se pols klop drie keer per jaar" (This man's pulse beats three times a year). Should he mention that his pulse beats twice it would mean the new recruit is being recruited onto the silver line, if three times it means he is being recruited onto the gold line.

The gwenza (senior member) then places a handkerchief on the floor and slips a knife under it. He stands and says to the recruit: “From today you are no longer a frans. You are a 28. You will never swear at your brother. You will never hurt your brother. You will never do anything that reflects badly on the camp. If you leave the camp, you leave by your own blood.

The landdros (magistrate) will then come forward and take out his green and white stamps and give the new member his approval. The landdros carries four stamps – white, green, red and black, which signify the four hooves on the Rooiland.

These stamps signify promotion. When a member of the silver line is promoted he takes out his green and white stamp; if the member is from the gold line he takes out the green and the red stamps. The black stamp is reserved for the death sentence.

The landdros then steps forward and takes out his white and green pens to inscribe the new member's recruitment into the 28s' record book.

The ending of the ceremony is signaled by the new recruit being marched out of the circle. The 28s then take the new recruit to the 26s and 27s.

The new recruit will then sleep alongside different members of the 28 gang and be told what his duties are. He will also begin to learn the history of Nongoloza and Kilikijan. It will only be a brief fragment of the story, for he is still too junior to hear the whole story.

Finally he is taken to a section of the gang called the mambozas (forties). These 28s are senior but inactive due to being too old or too injured for active duty. Another reason a person could be a mamboza is because his position has already being filled by another member. A prison cannot have two active nyangis for example, and if another nyangi is transferred from another prison he is considered dormant – he sleeps in the forties.

The mambozas begin to teach the new member to sabela (speak prison language). It is a long and grueling process. The new member has to sabela all day and night with his blackboard (teacher). The first two months being a member of the number means that a new member is not allowed to receive visits, write letters or read books. They must focus on the number. If somebody learns too slowly the punishments are severe. New members can be stripped of all their clothes and thrown into an ice cold shower until they "find the number" (get it right).

One of the last things new members learn is about a position in the silver line held by a man name Mtjoetijies. This man is dead but his place in the hierarchy is left empty. Legend has it that Mtjoetijies was a translator, for Nongoloza who refused to speak the language of the white oppressor. Nongoloza grew increasingly wary about what Mtjoetijies was saying to the white officers, and decided to take action and kill him as a precaution. The position remains open as a reminder that the 28s do not negotiate with words, they negotiate with action.

This ritual, however, has now changed. The fundamental principles remain the same; however, in modern 28 law the man who trains you is now allowed also to have sex with you. This change came along because of the war between the silver and gold lines of the number.

The 28s War

In the late '80s a decision was taken to stop bloodlines (no stabbing). The silver line complained that the gold line were now not doing their jobs. The gold line complained about the silver line being greedy with the food. In the days when the bloodlines were still open the gold line members had a very strict diet to follow as they were not allowed to get fat.[15] They were not allowed to eat eggs for example and were never allowed sugar with the coffee and their porridge. All these items went to the silver lines instead. Upon the closing of the bloodlines the gold line demanded that they get the food they wanted since there was no longer a need to stay fit. The silver line refused, and thus the gold line declared war on the silver line.

The silver line trounced the gold line. The soldiers were beaten by the thinkers. Within months hostilities had ceased. The hospital beds were filled with soldiers from the 28 gang.

The gold line formally offered their surrender. The silver line then set out their terms. They closed down the gold line and vowed that it would never be opened again. They threw the soldiers out of their ranks and filled these ranks with silver line members. They then decreed that nobody would have to take blood to join the 28s again. They also changed the initiation rules: they stated that any person who wished to join the 28s had to have sex with their teacher.

The rule of the blood has, however, changed. Modern members are now expected both to kill upon order of their general as well as have sex with their teacher.


Relationship between the numbers

Every night the glas and draad of the 28s meet with the glas and draad of both the 26s and 27s in a forum called the "Valcross". Only the glas is allowed to speak at the forum. The draad remains silent. He is the one who will report the findings of the forum back to the 28s.

The two 28s are not allowed to speak directly to the 26s. They communicate through the 27s. In the event that the 28s have recruited a new member, the 28s will inform the 27s who then will inform the 26s. This is a seen as a "hands off" warning to the other gangs.

Relationships with franse (non gang members)

The numbers gangs refer to themselves as ndotas (men) and refer to non-gang members as franse. The frans is stripped of his juridical personhood. He is not seen as a human to the gangs. When he receives a parcel from a visitor, he must hand it over to the ndotas in his cell and they will decide how it is distributed.

If the frans wants to conduct a commercial transaction, for example sell his watch, he has to ask the permission of the ndotas in his cell. When the gangsters sit to discuss gang business each frans must sit with his face to the wall and remain silent. Franse are also servants. They keep the cell clean and wash the ndotas' clothes.

The frans must submit everything he has to the ndotas, but the franse are protected from the numbers by being housed in different cells.

Relationship with warders

The relationship between gang members and the warders is an uneasy one. Under the apartheid regime they feared the warders. They knew that the warders would not be watched by human rights groups, so when there was a stabbing of an officer the warders would beat the gang members to within an inch of their lives.

Under the new system however the warders have become targets. The numbers gang are well aware that the consequences of their actions will not result in a beating or the death penalty, and therefore new initiates are encouraged to stab a warden or even to attempt to take his eye out of the socket.

One of the most compelling messages that the numbers gang members like to send to the warders, is by holding up a mirror toward the warden. This deviates from the traditional practice of holding up an image of an inmate. The message the numbers are said to be sending is "We are what you are. You are an army, we are an army. Where you have a head of the prison, we will have a judge. Where you have a head of a section, we will have a general. Whatever you do to us, we will do to you in turn."

The numbers network

One thing that is a notable feature of the numbers gang is that it is a nationwide brotherhood that is prevalent in every prison across South Africa.

Persons that betray the gang are not safe in any South African prison, as the numbers control every prison in South Africa. The secretive nature of the gang makes their system of communicating to other prisons unknown. This is what makes them probably the most dangerous prison gang in the world.

General elections

Traditionally the 28 gang has been the dominant gang. This still holds true in prisons such as Pollsmoor prison. However the balance of power now varies from prison to prison over time.[16] When one of the number gangs feels it can take control of the prison, they declare a "general election" in which an all out war is waged, often lasting up to two years until one gang is declared the "ruling party". Two famous cases of these wars were in Belville prison (1967–1969) and in Brandvlei prison (1974–1976). In both these cases the 26s were declared as the "ruling party".

Prisoner transfer

When a member of one of the number gangs get transferred to another prison he is shown into his cell. "Who are you?" asks the cell cleaner, as a test of authenticity. If he is a 28 he must reply "I am a son of Nongoloza, that he works by night. If the cell cleaner is a 27 he will reply that he is Kilikijan, that he works by the day.

The new arrival then runs through the motions of the formulated and well-rehearsed exchange. He must use the right words and the right metaphors; everything hinges on his knowledge of prison language.

When the cell cleaner is satisfied that the new man is a genuine child of Nongoloza, he delivers him to the glas of the 28s who asks him the same question "Who are you?". Now that he is in his own camp the new arrival must describe each rank in the 28s, every rank except for his own. This means he identifies himself through omission.

Trial and punishment

Trial by the Number 28

When a member has committed a gang crime, the Twelve Points meets to decide the case. The judge is the first to speak: he argues for a conviction. The mtshali rebuts him with an argument for acquittal. Then the forum debates the two positions. The judge will then end the discussion by announcing the verdict. He will then suggest a verdict followed by a sentence. If the sentence is death the mtshali stands up and begins an argument in mitigation. The mtshali will then argue that the death sentence be commuted to a "band" (gang rape).

A vote then takes place. Every person except the general and the mtshali votes. If the vote is five for death and five for a lesser sentence, the mtshali casts his deciding vote and the accused's life is saved. If the vote for death is in the majority the mtshali registers his protest by refusing to vote at all.

At this stage of proceedings, once the accused has been sentenced to death by a majority vote, the "Goliat-one" (man of light) attempts to save the accused's life. He strips off all his own clothes and then runs around naked round the edge of the Twelve Points. While doing so, he lets out a scream in the most haunting voice he can, pleading for mercy.

Hearing the cry of the Goliat is meant to take the 28s out of the darkness (for their decision to kill one of their own) and bring them back into the light. If this does not work, if the hearts of the Twelve Points are not stirred by the Goliat-one then the accused must be executed.

The accused is not present at the trial. He will not be informed of his own fate. After sentence is passed, three soldiers will be given the order to perform the execution.


The gang have a strict code of conduct and failure to abide by these rules has severe consequences for the perpetrator.

Upon the outcome of the trial a punishment is chosen. The ultimate punishment is death. An execution squad will carry out the order. They could possibly suffocate the offender in their bed or slit their throat. The death punishment is known as a "number one".

The second worst punishment just short of death is to be raped by a prisoner that is known to carry the HIV virus. This practice is known as "slow puncture".[17] The offender's anus is cut open so it bleeds, thus ensuring infection. The gang holds the offender down and the HIV-infected prisoner then proceeds to rape the offender.

Less severe forms of punishment include "klappe" (hits) which involves 10 slaps to the face with an open hand, and the "beker" (mug) which involves blows on the head with a tin cup attached to a sock.

Other forms of punishment include gang rape and what is known as a "carry on" where the offender lifts up his arms and is beaten with padlocks, stick and cups.

Punishments that do not involve any harm to the offender would involve the murder of a non-gang member.


The numbers gang are known to be extremely ritualized. Three days of the week are reserved for a carefully delineated set of functions.

Friday is known as the day of rations. It is then that all possessions in the cell are gathered including the possessions of the franse and are distributed to individuals by rank.

Saturdays is the day of wrongs. This is where the various judicial structures of the gang meet to pass sentence. Events which take place on this day range from the passing of sentence on an offender to a new recruit being scanned for illicit allegiances.

Sunday is known as the day of rights. This is where newcomers are recruited into the family, members are promoted and victories are celebrated.

Other numbers gangs

There are other number gangs who are not recognized by the 26s, 27s and 28s. The Desperadoes are the 29s and the Big Five are the 25s, but they are referred to as "dirty dogs" and are not given the same status or respect as members of the numbers gang. Under certain conditions it is compulsory to kill a member of the Big Five gang.

John Mongrel

John Mongrel is the brutal general and leader of the 28s in Pollsmoor prison. Mongrel entered Pollsmoor at the age of 14 and immediately took a liking for gang life. He wanted to become a 28 and therefore killed one of his cell mates by stabbing him through the heart. This was done before Mongrel's 15th birthday.

Unlike other prisons Mongrel has ensured that the 28s are top of the chain in Pollsmoor Prison and demands that the other numbers listen to every word he says. Should a 27 member step out of line Mongrel will carry out the duty of killing these members himself, a ritual that is far from the teachings passed down.

Numbers vary but it is believed that Mongrel has been responsible for over 1000 deaths inside Pollsmoor either directly or indirectly in his 30 years in the prison.

Mongrel gained international notoriety when he was featured on the TV series Ross Kemp on Gangs. One can see the interview via YouTube[18]

Kemp said Mongrel was the scariest man he had ever met. He went on to say "The memory of his breath will stay with me for a long time – it smelled like road kill left out in the sun. Since he'd been inside, he'd cut out a warder's eye and he rapes a different inmate every three weeks. He described how he kills with a toothbrush melted to a point. He was heavily tattooed but, instead of needles, he'd use a razor blade.[19]


  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^ "Prison Mythology",, December 22, 2009.
  4. ^ Po is the name the 27s have given this character while the 28s refer to him as Ngulugut
  5. ^ This was to prevent venereal disease which weakened the gang.
  6. ^ Van Onselen, New Babylon, New Nineveh, 368–397.
  7. ^ Haysom, N. (1981). Towards an understanding of prison gangs Institute of Criminology, University of Cape Town.
  8. ^ "Sex, Sexual Violence and Coercion in South African prisons ", CSVR, December 23, 2009.
  9. ^ Schurink, W. J. (1989). The world of the Wetslaners: an analysis of some organisational features in South African prisons. Acta Criminologica 2:2, 60–70.
  10. ^ Hugh Lewin, Bandiet: Seven Years in a South African Prison (Cape Town & Johannesburg: David Philip, 1981); Breytenbach, The True Confessions of an Albino Terrorist
  11. ^ Haysom's study (1981) on prison gangs is based on Supreme Court trial records and supplemented with some interviews with ex-offenders. Schurink's paper (1989) summarises the findings of a study on prison gangs commissioned by the Department of Correctional Services. For this study, in depth interviews were conducted with sixty prisoners, mainly coloured men serving in St Albans and Brandvlei prisons. Prisoners were also encouraged to write about their prison experiences providing a number of personal manuscripts.
  12. ^ Van Zyl Smit, Dirk "South African prison law and practice", Butterworths, 1992, Durban.
  13. ^ Gear, Sasha & Ngubeni, Kindiza "Your brother, my wife" Published in SA crime quarterly NO 4, June 2003.
  14. ^ "Nangampela" is an isiZulu word that means, literally, "There it is, indeed!"
  15. ^ Steinberg, Johnny "The Number"
  16. ^
  17. ^ "S. Africa Prison Gangs Use AIDS Rape As Punishment". Reuters. 11-22-2. 
  18. ^
  19. ^

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