Glossary of motorsport terms

Glossary of motorsport terms

The following is a glossary of terminology used in motorsport, along with explanations of their meanings.

Contents: 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
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200 MPH Club
(Also known as the "2 Club" or "Dirty Two Club" for records taking place at El Mirage Lake[1]) A lifetime "membership" awarded by the SCTA or another sanctioning body / circuit to any driver who drives over a specified distance at a minimum speed of 200 miles per hour (320 km/h), regardless of whether or not a speed record is broken.[2][3] Membership can stretch over from the more exclusive 300 to the elite 400.[4]


Air jacks
Four compressed air activated pistons mounted near the wheels of a racing car which project downwards to lifting the car off the ground during a pit stop for changing wheels and or giving mechanics access to the underside of the car for repairs.
The part of a corner where the racing line is nearest the inside of the bend.
Armchair enthusiast
Alternatively armchair racer, an individual who follow motorsport primarily on television and internet and read books and magazines about the subject. Can also refer to somebody who play racing video games[5]
Awful Awful
North American rodder slang for a AA/FA ("double A" Fuel Altered) drag racer


B main
See Semi-feature.
A racing team that exists to develop the careers of upcoming drivers, such as Scuderia Toro Rosso and unofficially, Super Aguri F1.[6] Sometimes also referred to as a satellite team
Back half
(drag racing) referring to distance from the 1/8 mile mark to the 1/4 mark of the track.
A slower car, usually in the process of being lapped by the leaders.[citation needed] It is sometimes a derogatory term.
Backup car
See Spare car.
(drag racing) starting line electric eye controlling prestaged and staged lights.[citation needed]
A.) The angle at which a track inclines towards the outside of a corner or from the lower to the higher side of a straight, also referred to as camber, more so when modest or negative, B.) a corner that inclines towards the outside or C.) an earth bank where spectators sit or stand
The Big One
A large pileup during a stock car race involving up to 30 cars. The term is largely reserved for restrictor plate racing at Daytona and Talladega.
Blend line
The painted line defining the exit from pit lane where it rejoins the race track.[citation needed] It prevents emerging race cars from driving into race traffic travelling past the pits. Competitors are penalised for crossing the blend line, ensuring cars have attained full racing speed before rejoining the race.
Bleach box
(drag racing) Area where bleach is deposited for cars to perform burnouts (q.v).[citation needed] Gasoline (since discontinued for safety reasons), water, and TrackBite are also used.
See Blown.
supercharger (occasionally turbocharger); in '90s, generally grouped as "power adder" with turbocharger and nitrous.
A.) An engine that is supercharged (i.e. a "blown" V8 is a supercharged V8); or B.)An engine that has suffered serious failure, usually no longer running and/or having sustained irreparable damage (i.e. "Looks like #21 has a blown engine...his race is over").
flipping of a car or boat, due to air under car lifting front wheels.[citation needed] Commonly suffered by dragsters and powerboats.
(drag racing) refers to the nitrous system,[citation needed] also the jug.
Bottoming, Bottoming out
When the bottom of the chassis hits the track.[7]
(drag racing) running quicker than dial-in; also "breaking out." Grounds for disqualification if opponent does not commit a foul start or cross boundary lines;[citation needed] also known as Bustout.
A driver who finishes the race or racing season as runner up[8][9][10]
Bump and run
A move in stock car racing, where a trailing car intentionally bumps the car in front in an attempt to pass.[11]
performed to heat the tires up for better traction.[citation needed]
Buschwhacker or Claim Jumper
(NASCAR) A term for drivers who regularly race in the first tier NASCAR series, the Sprint Cup Series, who make guest or semi-regular appearances racing in the second-tier NASCAR Nationwide Series. The term was named originally for then sponsor of the second-tier series Anheuser-Busch brewery. The newer term references insurance abuse (from the current sponsor).
Allows a driver to advance to the next stage or heat of an event, without competing, when there are uneven numbers entered. Commonly used in speedway, drag racing and drifting etc.


Catch fence at an American dirt track
A.)The angle at which wheels are set up to tilt in or out, measured in degrees in or out from 90 degrees (i.e. "2.5 degrees negative camber" means each wheel is tilted 2.5 degrees inwards from vertical) "Positive camber" means the top of the tyre is angled outwards from the car; "negative camber" means that the top tilts inwards. Negative camber assists cornering performance as the outside tyres lean into the corner (like a motorcycle) which keeps the lateral forces on the tire lower and causes less flex in the sidewall, although it does also have the effect of increasing tyre wear. Or B.) Banking, the angle at which a corner inclines towards the outside or a straight from its lower side to its higher side. Sometimes specified as positive camber and negative camber, the latter indicating a decline from the inside of a corner.
Catch fence
A series of chain-link fencing used to slow out of control cars down. It is common on American short tracks and it was common on road course racing prior to the advent of gravel traps.
Caution / Caution period
See Full course yellow.
Chase vehicle
In off-road racing, a non-competitive vehicle that follows a competing vehicle to assist with repairs.[12]
An artificial feature added to the natural course of a track to slow cars[13] or create a passing zone.
The "Christmas tree counting down at SIR
Chopping Down the Christmas Tree
See Wired to the tree.
Christmas tree (or tree)
The series of lights (in drag racing) that signal the approach and start of a race in addition to showing starting violations.
Clean air
Air that has not been affected by turbulence from other cars.[7] The opposite of dirty air.
Clerk of Course
Responsible for all on-track activities including demonstrations and parades.[citation needed] The supervision of the track and all emergency services should at all times be under the ultimate control of the Clerk of the Course.
Closing/shutting the door
A driver takes an early defensive racing line into a corner to block the car behind from overtaking along the preferred line.[citation needed]
In rally racing, a co-driver directs the driver through the course by reading pacenotes which describe the turns and obstacles ahead. Also called a navigator historically when the reading of maps played a larger part in rallies prior to the widespread adoption of pacenoting. The term is also used in long-distance sports car and touring car racing where more than one driver is sharing the same vehicle.
Competition caution
A preplanned full course yellow, mandated by the sanctioning body, where drivers bring their vehicles into the pits. Frequently done to change tires because of excessive tire wear.[14]
Continuously variable transmission (CVT)
A Formula One development created by WilliamsF1, it removed the gearbox entirely by creating cogs which could expand and contract as necessary to provide optimum drive during acceleration and or braking, instead of using a collection of cogs and shifting from one size to another to approximate optimum performance. The technology was banned from Formula One in the mid 1990s as it was very expensive. The technology has found application in road cars built by Honda and Nissan, amongst others.
Where the series organisers specify that all competitors in the race must use an identical part;[citation needed] as in control tyre or control engine.
Crate motor
An engine that is ready-built and sealed by an independent company. Crate motors are sometimes mandated and sometimes optional. They are commonly used in regional touring series down to local tracks in divisions from late models on down. Crate motors are implemented to limit costs and it ensures that the entire field has the same equipment.[15]
Customer car
When a racing team uses a car built for them, either by another team, or by a specialist racing chassis manufacturer. Primarily a Formula One term where the majority of teams build their own cars, and practice that is now banned from F1.[citation needed]


A drift competition in progress
Deep braking
Applying the brakes later than normal when entering a turn.

Delta Time (also Pit-Stop Delta)

The entire time it generally takes a driver to enter the pit lane, make a full pit stop, and exit the pit area back to the track to resume racing at optimum pace. For example, a Delta Time of 25 seconds means the entire pitting process (entering, stopping and exiting) cost the driver 25 seconds not driving at full race speed even though the car may have been stationary in the pit box for only 5 seconds.

Density Altitude (often DA)

(drag racing) which often refers to the quality of air. Technically "quality of air" refers to the pressure drop as altitude above sea level increases. Atmospheric air pressure is lower at a race track higher above sea level. All non-turbocharged internal combustion engines produce less power as air pressure drops, as each intake stroke draws in less air per volume than normally. This may require the engine to be "tuned" to optimize the power, as it may still "think" it's at a lower altitude. Because a supercharged engine pressurizes intake air at a fixed mechanical ratio to the engines RPM's, it suffers a proportionate loss in power, but not as severe as a naturally aspirated engine will. A turbocharged engine is largely unaffected, as the lower density of the intake air is offset by the lower backpressure resisting the exhaust flow through the turbo.
(drag racing) when bracket racing, drivers must estimate or "dial in" the time in which they expect to run. Therefore two unmatched cars in weight and power can compete, by a handicap system. If one runs a faster time than dialed in, it is a breakout.

Did Not Attend (often DNA)

Denotes a driver who was entered for a race but did not attend the circuit. Sometimes referred to as Did Not Arrive or simply a "no show."

Did Not Finish (often DNF)

A driver who did not finish the race. Some sanctioning bodies do not classify a driver in the final results if he did not finish completed a certain number of laps.

Did Not Qualify / Did Not Pre-qualify (often DNQ / DNPQ)

A failure to qualify or pre-qualify for a race.

Did Not Start (often DNS)

A driver did not attempt to compete in a race, even though he may have competed in practice sessions and / or qualifying. Not the same as the DNA already mentioned.
dragster (as distinct from a bodied car or flopper).[16]
Dirty air
The air disrupted by a car when it moves at speed, which can cause aerodynamic difficulties for a car following closely behind. The opposite of clean air.

Disqualify (often DQ or DSQ)

Where a competitor is removed from the results, usually in penalty for a technical infringement. Sometimes, but not always, interchangeable with Excluded.
A gentle turn or kink on a racing circuit, usually associated with road courses, but also present on oval tracks. On road courses, a dogleg may be present on a long straightaway (e.g. Mid-Ohio), curving the straight slightly, but usually not enough to require drivers to slow down much for the turn. On an oval, a dogleg can be located on the frontstrech (e.g. Charlotte) or backstrech (e.g. Phoenix) creating an oblong shape, adding a challenge, increasing sightlines for fans, and again, usually not requiring drivers to slow down for the extra curve. A quad-oval is also referred to as a "double dogleg."
Doped (or Dope)
(drag racing) commonly used word in the southern states[citation needed] if the car is using nitrous or propane injection on diesels.
Drag racing term used to group vehicles, usually sedan bodied, that still have functional doors for driver access to the vehicle,[citation needed] as opposed to Funny cars which have a single lightwight outer body draped over the racing chassis.
Increased force holding the car onto the track. This is created by the aerodynamics or aerodynamic aids (F1 wings, etc.) of a vehicle which causes a "reverse lift" effect. That is, creating an area of low pressure (suction) under the car and/or under the wing(s) or other aids fixed to the car, the higher pressure above forcing the tires harder to the ground, effectively increasing the static friction. This allows it to travel faster through a corner, at the cost of having a reduced overall top speed, since drag is proportionate to lift and downforce is caused by lift.
A technique where multiple vehicles align in a close group reducing the overall effect of drag due to exploiting the lead object's slipstream. Same as slipstreaming.
Driftng is a form of motorsport in which drivers intentionally provoke constant oversteering slides while preserving vehicle control and a high exit speed. In motor racing, drifting is a cornering technique (also called a four-wheel drift) where a car takes a high-speed corner held at an angle on the track without major steering inputs, balancing natural understeer with power oversteer.
Drive-through penalty
A penalty applied by race officials while the race is underway. A competitor is directed to drive into the pit lane and travel its length at much reduced speed (pit lanes are mostly speed-limited to protect the pitcrew and marshals) losing significant track position in the process. When the driver is serving his drive through penalty he is not allowed to stop anywhere in the pits.[7] See also Stop-go penalty.
Drivers' meeting before a motocross race
Drivers' meeting
A meeting where drivers and officials meet before a race to discuss the upcoming event. Also referred to as Drivers' briefing or Driver and Crew Chief meeting, as in some series, the driver and his crew chief must attend.
Dry line
On a drying circuit, the racing line that becomes dry first as the cars displace water from it.


Early Doors
A popular term used by competitors when referring to the early stages of the series' season.
Elapsed Time. A term used in drag racing about the total time the run took, from start, to finish.
E.T. Slip
(drag racing) Slip of paper turned in by the race timer which denotes elapsed time for both drivers, and who won the race;[citation needed] it may also include reaction time and "60 foot" time. This is an official document, used for timekeeping. Also known as a timeslip.
Removed from competition before the race has started, generally due to an infringement during practice or qualifying.


A racing team/driver that competes with official sanction and financial support from a manufacturer. In Europe, known as a works team.
Fan car
Usually refers specifically to the Brabham BT46 Formula One car, although the concept was actually pioneered by sports car manufacturer Chaparral Cars on the Chaparral 2J. The placement of a large fan at the rear of the chassis driven either independently or by the engine with the purpose of creating negative air-pressure underneath the car to create additional downforce for increased cornering speed.
Fastest lap
fastest time in which a lap was completed by a driver during a race. Sometimes rewarded with bonus championship points.
The competing cars in an event.
First or Worse
In drag racing, if both drivers commit a foul, the driver who commits the foul first loses, unless it is two separate fouls, where the loser is the driver who committed the worse foul;[citation needed] (lane violation is worse than foul start, and failure to participate in a post-run inspection is worst).
Flag-to-flag coverage
Television or radio coverage that consists of the entire race start-to-finish rather than highlights, tape delayed, "packaged" coverage, or highlights of the first portion of the race before broadcasting the final quarter of the race live. Derives from green flag (start) to checkered flag (finish). Instituted largely in the late 1970s, with the 1979 Daytona 500 being the first major 500-mile race with live, flag-to-flag coverage.
Flat spot
When a wheel locks under braking, the car skids and leaves a flat spot on the section of the tyre that was touching the ground at the time.[7]
(drag racing) Funny Car, short for "fender flopper." Coined by dragster crews in the late 1960s to separate Funny Cars, which had fiberglass bodies with fenders, from dragsters. Erroneously attributed to flip-top bodies of Funny Cars.
Flying lap
A lap started by a competitor at optimum speed,[citation needed] as opposed to a lap from a standing start, usually in qualifying.
Formation lap
The lap cars make before forming up on the grid for the start.[7]
Formula racing
A type of racing, generally open wheeled, where the conditions of technical entry comply with strict rules or formulae.
Free practice
When drivers or riders learn the circuit and/or teams experiment with race settings for the track.[citation needed]
(drag racing) mix of methanol and nitromethane ("pop," nitro); race class using it.
(drag racing) any car running fuel or in Fuel class (most often, TFD or TF/FC).
Full course yellow
When yellow flags are deployed at every flag point around a race circuit and a Safety Car leads the field until a hazard is cleared.
Funny Car
(drag racing) a vehicle with a single-piece body draped over the chassis which is lifted off or rear-hinged to allow the driver access to the cabin; a race class for such a car


bodied drag racer running on gasoline (before Pro Stock was introduced)
When small grains of rubber start coming off a tyre.[7] See also marbles.
Gravel trap
Off-track run-off area, usually positioned on the outside of corners, filled with gravel intended to slow down and stop cars that have left the track at speed. Generally there are tyre barriers between a gravel trap and the catch fencing, in order to protect the spectators.[7] Sometimes nicknamed "kitty litter" for its visual resemblance.
Grand marshal
Ceremonial marshaling role at a race meeting. Largely held by celebrities or retired notable drivers with no actual duties or responsibilities beyond the waving of a flag to commence activity or to announce the traditional start your engines prior to some races.
Green-white-checker finish
When a full-course caution comes out right before the end of a race, the race is extended beyond its scheduled distance. Depending on sanctioning body, there may be either one or multiple attempts at a restart, between one and five laps, before the race is declared officially over. NASCAR's national series will have a maximum of three attempts if the penultimate lap only under caution, while some short track races have unlimited attempts at a span between one and five consecutive green-flag laps. In British Superbike Championship motorcycle racing, if a caution is called in the final third of the race, three additional laps will be added on the ensuing restart in a green-white-checker style finish.[17]
wreck an engine (the engine "grenaded") due to internal failure. Distinct from "popping a blower". A hand-grenade engine is a usually derogatory engine of tuned to maximise engine power at the cost of low mechanical reliability.
The starting formation of a race,[citation needed] generally in rows of two for cars and four for bikes.
Also called The Groove. A term used in drag racing about the center portion of the lane, where the cars can gain traction quicker, and run faster times.
Ground effect
A method of creating downforce by the shape of the car's body, notably by shaping the underside of the car in combination with the car's lateral edges in order the trap and dramatically slow the airflow running underneath the car, effectively turning the entire car into a wing.
Gurney, Gurney flap
A small lip placed at the trailing edge of a race car's aerodynamic wing. Despite its relative size, often only millimetres tall, it can double the downforce achieved by the wing, although at the premium of increasing drag, hence the small size. Named for the man commonly attributed to its proliferation, Formula One driver and constructor, Dan Gurney. Also known as a wickerbill.


Hairpin turn on the Mont Ventoux in France
A tight 180 degree corner that twists back on itself.
where cars start a race in the reverse order of qualifying, or perceived race pace, usually with timed gaps between cars starting a race. More common in racing's early days than today,[citation needed] the effect was the produce a race result in which all cars would arrive at the race finish together, regardless of the performance of the race vehicle.
where, upon having gained track position after overtaking a rival car, the lead driver simply blocks, and slows their rival down slightly.[citation needed]
Heads-up Racing
where both drivers leave at the same time and is used in all professional ("pro") classes.
A shorter race which decides the participants of the main race and sometimes starting order as well, usually there are more heats in which only a part of the drivers from the entry list take part. Can also mean part of the main race, when it consists of two or more parts.
  • (dirt road course motorcycle racing), the rider who is the first one through the first turn at the start of a race
  • (drag racing) getting a substantial starting line advantage due to a quicker reaction time. The other driver gets "holeshotted" "welded to the line" or "left at the tree." A "holeshot win" is any win in a heads-up class where a slower car beats a faster car because of better reaction time, despite having a slower elapsed time (e.t.).
Process by which a new vehicle or part of a vehicle is approved by organisers for usage in racing.
Hook up
(drag racing) Good traction between tires and track resulting in increased acceleration and reduced slipping or smoking of tires.
Hot lap
flying lap.


Impact wrench
A tool specifically designed for rapidly winding off and on wheel nuts, allowing the changing of wheels and tyres to be performed faster during pit stops. Also known as an impactor, air wrench, air gun, rattle gun, torque gun.
Impound Rule
NASCAR's version of Parc Fermè, used at certain tracks
Any lap which concludes with a visit to the pits,[citation needed] especially a pre-arranged pit stop, either during a race or during practice or qualifying.
Incident officer (often IO or I/O)
A motorsport marshal who is in charge of other marshals on the track, allocating duties to them. Second in terms of ranking to observer. In hillclimbing, they are responsible of the radio communication.
A competitor (team or driver) taking part with no or very little backing from a manufacturer. They have their own championship within the World Touring Car Championship, where there is a strong manufacturer presence.[citation needed]
See Scrutineer.
Installation lap
A lap which can take place in practice or qualifying, which is intended simply to gain data and telemetry for the driver or team, rather than any intention of setting a competitive time.[citation needed]
A wet weather tyre of lighter grooving than a wet weather tyre.[citation needed] Sometimes an intermediate is a slick tyre with grooves cut into it. It is used for conditions between dry and wet conditions, most often when the track is wet but it is not actually raining.
The portion of the field which is started by reverse qualifying speed. With an invert of five, the fifth-fastest qualifier starts first and the fastest qualifier starts fifth. The rest of the field starts by their qualifying speed (sixth fastest starts sixth). The invert is often not announced before qualifying or a dice/die roll happens after qualifying.[18]


Jet dryer mounted on a pickup truck
James Bond / James Bond Red
In drag racing, a driver's reaction time (when he leaves the start line) is seven thousands of a second after the green light (.007). A "James Bond Red" is a reaction time of -.007 seconds (red light), which is disqualification unless the opponent commits a more serious violation.
Jet dryer
An airplane engine mounted on a pickup truck or trailer. The exhaust from the engine is used to blow debris or evaporate moisture from the racing surface.[19]
Jump start
In a standing start, when a vehicle moves from its grid slot before the start of a race is signaled. In a rolling start, when a car passes before they cross the start-finish line or the restart line. When this is done, a penalty is usually imposed. In drag racing, a jump start is signalled by a red light in the offending driver's lane, and he loses unless a more serious foul (boundary line or failure to report to post-race inspection after a round win) occurs.[7]


To clip, or drive over completely, the concrete kerbs (curbs) on the inside of a corner. While often the fastest method of negotiating chicanes in particular, the practice is usually frowned upon by race officials for the damage it can do to the kerbs, tyres and vehicles. The practice also can drag debris or water from behind the kerb onto the racing line.
Kinetic Energy Recovery System. A device which recovers energy created when brakes are applied and stores it until required to add power in the engine. In 2008 KERS systems started to appear in the World Rally Championship and Formula One followed soon after, where its application is limited to a push to pass system.
(drag racing) refers to a turbo kit or a nitrous kit.[citation needed] Using nitrous oxide in the professional categories in drag racing is illegal.
Kitty litter
Informal term with two possible meanings. It is either a nickname for a gravel trap, or for a material applied to the track surface to clean up a leaking fluid.[citation needed]


                     Early apex                      Ideal Line                      Late apex
Ladder series
Generally refers to a category or series of lesser importance which in most cases will race at the same race meeting as a senior category. Cars will be generally similar in characteristic to drive but will be smaller, less powerful and/or slower. Competitors will generally be younger emerging drivers who are climbing an apprenticeship 'ladder' towards entry into the senior series.
Lambda reading
Fuel to air ratio readings, used to determine how much fuel is pushed through the fuel injectors into the cylinders for combustion.
Lap of honour
A non-competitive lap taken before or after the race by a driver in celebration.[citation needed] Also known as a lap of honor, or, if after the race, a victory lap.
Lap record
Fastest race lap recorded at a circuit for a category of race car. The circumstances allowed vary significantly, but practice laps are generally not considered official records. Laps recorded in qualifying may or may not contribute but are sometimes referred together with practice laps as Qualifying lap record. The outright lap record is the fastest race lap ever recorded at any particular circuit, regardless of category of vehicle being raced.
Lead trophy
See Success ballast.
Used to describe the top of something, either a crash helmet or the roof of a car.[citation needed]
Lit the tires
(drag racing) lost traction, producing smoke.[citation needed]
The paint colors and decals applied to a vehicle to mark its sponsorship or team identity.
A sign on a stick used in pit stops, which is held in front of the car and raised when the pit stop is completed.[7]
See oversteer.


Pieces of rubber from tires that accumulate on the racing surface outside of the racing line that are slippery like toy marbles.
A person responsible for signaling track conditions to drivers (through use of flags), extinguishing fires, removing damaged cars from the track and sometimes providing emergency first aid.
A specific racing flag used in some countries to indicate to a competitor there is a defect with the car which has the potential to cause a safety risk to the competitor or to another competitor.[citation needed] Most usually applied to trailing smoke or loose bodywork. The flag is black with a large orange dot in the centre of the flag, looking vaguely like a meatball.
(drag racing) refers to methanol injection used in conjunction with racing gasoline[citation needed]
Missing man formation
The vehicle on the pole position drops back a row during a pace lap to salute a deceased motorsport personality.[20]
Mobile chicane
Disparaging slang. A competitor noticeably slower than the front running pace, so slow as to be a 'chicane that moves around the track'.[21]
Monsoon wet
Increasingly common nickname[citation needed] for an extreme weather version of the wet weather tyre.
Motorsport Valley
A tag given to the mid-south of England by the Motorsport Industry Association where high concentration of activities within the motorsport industry on and off track occur.
Mountain motor
(mainly North American) term for large-displacement engines, often used in hot rods and drag racers. Named for their size (over 8,100 cubic centimetres, or 500 cubic inches, the limit in some sanctioning bodies), and for being constructed in the mountains of Tennessee and North Carolina.[22]
A verbal gaffe made by motor racing sportscaster,[citation needed] named in honour of veteran Formula One broadcaster, Murray Walker.


See co-driver.
(drag racing) nitromethane (sometimes incorrectly used to refer to nitrous oxide).
(drag racing) refers to Nitrous Oxide systems manufactured by a wide range of companies.

Not classified (often NC)

A driver was racing at the end of the race, but did not complete the required distance to be classified.


The highest ranking trackside marshal within the post;[citation needed] the main decision maker at the event of an incident, they relay information to the race control. Can be seen standing in the marshal post. Second to Chief Marshal.
See Steward.
(drag racing) When a car's engine or lubrication breaks during a run, leaving a streak of oil and other fluids on the track.[citation needed] This is punishable by fines, point penalties, and/or suspension.

Open wheel car or Open wheeler

A specific type of racing car in which the wheels are not enclosed by bodywork of the car, eg: Formula One.
Formula Mazda, a one-make series
One-make racing
A term describing racing equipment that must be identical for all competitors, usually to cut down on costs or for business purposes by car manufacturers. Known in North America as spec, specific parts can be spec, as in the IndyCar Series' spec engine, or the type of car can be spec, as in spec racing series such as Spec Miata.
Gaining time or position by braking harder and deeper in a corner.[23]
The first lap to be completed after exiting the pit lane, either during a race or during practice or qualifying. Also known as a reconnaissance lap if it is not taken at race speed, e.g. when a car leaves the pit lane to take up its position on the grid prior to the race start.
Outright lap record
Fastest lap recorded at a circuit of any category of race car. Most often this does not include qualifying and practice laps but confusingly some sources[specify] occasionally include laps not recorded during races.
(drag racing) The ratio between the revolutions of the supercharger to the revolutions of the engine, controlling amount of boost; see underdrive.
Overpowering the track
A drag racing term used when talking about a run when the driver loses traction.[citation needed] It is normally used to talk about the actions of the team crew chief.
Cornering behaviour where the rear wheels do not track behind the front wheels but instead move out toward the outside of the turn.[23] Opposite of understeer.


A pit stop in Formula One
Pace car
See safety car.
In rally racing, notes that describe the course in great detail.
An enclosure at a track used by team support personnel and vehicles, and other officials and VIPs.
Paint scheme
see Livery.
Parade lap
A lap before a motorsport race begins where the drivers go around the track at a slow speed, also known as a formation lap.
Parc fermé or Impound
An area which cars enter after they have qualified for the race, where they are not allowed to be worked upon by mechanics unless on strict supervision by the stewards. Some motorsports series other than Formula One refer to this as the Impound.[21]
Pay driver
A driver who pays for his race seat rather than receiving a salary from the team. Generally has a negative connotation. Sometimes known as a Ride Buyer.
(drag racing) working the throttle to avoid lighting the tires, or as a way to sandbag; "pedalled" it, had to "pedal" it.
Photo finish
A finish in which two or more cars are so close that in times past a photograph of the finishers crossing the finish line would need to be studied to determine the finishing order. While the practice has been superseded by modern electronic timing systems, the expression remains in regular use by commentators and others.
Pit board
A board that is held up from the pit wall to the side of the finishing straight when a driver goes past, to confirm their position in the race and the amount of laps remaining.[21] Before the introduction of radio communication, also used to instruct drivers to pit for fuel and/or tires, or to comply with rules violations.
Pit stop
Stopping in the pit lane for repairs, refuelling, and/or new tires.
Pit wall
Where the team owners and managers sit to observe the race, opposite the garages in the pit lane.[21]
Pole position
The first grid position, placed closest to the starting line (in Formula One), nearest the inside of the first turn, or both. Usually reserved for the competitor who has recorded the fastest lap during qualifying. A competitor who starts a race there is said to be on the pole.
Pop-off valve
Device attached to turbochargers used to limit the additional horsepower they produce. Usually a mechanical device, activated when the pressure within the turbocharger reaches a certain point, opening a valve (popping off), thus reducing boost pressure. Used primarily for safety (speed reduction of the racing cars) or cost (reducing stress on both turbo and engine, lengthening the life of the parts prior to failure or rebuild).
A preliminary qualifying session held prior to a regular qualifying session in order to reduce the number of competitors taking part in the regular session, usually for safety reasons. An example of pre-qualifying is in Formula One in the late 1980s and early 1990s.
A competitor not directly supported by a sponsor or manufacturer. To be privately funded.
Progressive grid
Where a category races multiple times at a meeting, the starting order for the grid is decided by the finishing order of the previous race.[citation needed]
Pro tree
(drag racing) timing lights which flash all three yellow lights simultaneously, and after four tenths of a second, turn green.
An endurance sports racing car that does not noticeably look like a standard production model.
An informal "puke can". Though some form is mandatory, this type is illegal at some tracks.
Puke can
(drag racing) radiator overflow tank, sometimes, used beer cans are used as puke cans, although, on some tracks, these types of modifications are considered illegal. A standard puke can is usually made of plastic, or some high strength polymer, and attached close to the radiator.
Pulling an Eckman
A term in drag racing, particularly in Pro Stock, when a driver is cited, and fined for racing with a nitrous oxide system, driver Jerry Eckman was the first driver in the NHRA to be indefinitely suspended for such an infraction.
See understeer.
Push to pass
System in which engine power is increased for short periods to create a short burst of extra speed.[citation needed] This can be done by increasing the boost pressure in a turbocharged car, increasing the maximum rpm, or using a separate system to provide power. Also, see KERS.
Put on the trailer
When a driver has either lost (got "put on the trailer") or won (put the other driver on the trailer).[citation needed] Named because losing drivers pull their vehicle home on a trailer.


The process of deciding the starting order of a race. See also pre-qualifying.

Quick 8 (often Q8)

(drag racing) Quickest eight cars in a defined race. Rules appear to can differ per location/race.


Acronym for "Reaction Time." In drag racing, it is a term used to discuss the time it took for the driver to leave the starting line after the green light. This time usually means the difference between a win, or a loss, especially in the highly contested Pro Stock division where a difference of one ten-thousandth (.0001) of a second can put a driver in the winners circle.
Race Director
A Race Director may be designated for the entire duration of a Championship or Series. If so, it is understood that, during the practices and races for that Championship or Series, the Clerk of the Course and safety operations are under the ultimate authority of the Race Director.
Racing line
The fastest path around a circuit.
When a race is delayed or cancelled due to rain, or the threat of rain.
Rail (or rail job)
dragster (as distinct from bodied car or flopper). From the exposed frame rails of early cars. Usually refers to early short-wheelbase cars.
Rail (drag racing)
Ramp run
In a practice lap, to rev the engine as far as possible without changing gears to allow engine management systems to take Lambda readings of the fuel to air ratio across a smooth engine revolution range.[citation needed]
Rattle gun
See Impact Wrench.
Reactive suspension
A system by which the suspension is controlled by computer to maintain an optimum distance above the racing surface, regardless of forces acting upon the car and changes in the racing surface, thus maximising the aerodynamic assistance that can be gained by running the car close to the ground. Developed originally by Team Lotus in Formula One.[citation needed]
(drag racing) a.k.a. bulb(ed)—jump(ed) the start, left before tree turned green. This is a loss unless a more serious (opponent crossing the center boundary line) foul occurs.
Relief driver
A driver who fills in for another driver in case of injury, or during a race because of exhaustion or pain.
The race is started again after a caution or other condition that stopped the race

Retirement (often Ret)

see Did Not Finish.
Reverse grid racing
when the starting order of a race is reversed, so that the driver on pole position, starts last. Occasionally reverse grid is limited to only part of the grid,[citation needed] for example, just the top ten positions may be reversed. Often used to increase the entertainment value of a race, mainly used when a category races several times over the course of a meeting.
Riding mechanic
an early term for a co-driver.
Ripple strip
Concrete kerb, usually placed on the inside of a corner, painted in chunks of colour, usually red and white alternately, hence the 'ripple'.
Roll cage
Roll cage
Network of metal bars that criss-cross the interior of production-based sedan-bodied racing cars. Originally created as a safety device in more recent times is has been used to connect suspension, chassis, engine to substantially increase the torsional rigidity of a race car.
Roll hoop
Looped bar protruding above and behind the drivers helmets in open wheel and prototype sports racing cars. The hoop is placed that in the event of a car rolling over in a crash the car lands on the roll hoop rather than the drivers helmet. It also makes a handy hook for cranes for removing stopped cars from dangerous positions on the circuit.
Rolling start
A starting method where moving cars start a race after the starter displays a green flag.
Roof flap
an aerodynamic piece designed to keep a car on the ground when it is traveling in reverse.
Rumble strip
Variation of ripple strip with an upward-pointed, rounded saw-tooth edge. The saw-tooth effect is to discourage competitors from kerb-hopping. The saw-tooth creates a rumble sound and feel for the competitor when driven over.
Run-off area
Areas off the track put aside for vehicles to leave the track in case of emergency without accident.


Chevrolet Corvette safety car leads the field in a NASCAR Nationwide Series race
Safety car
A safety car or pace car limits the speed of competing cars on a racetrack in the case of an accident or caution periods caused by obstruction/s on the track.
To gain a competitive advantage by deliberately underperforming at an event.
An area at the very end of a dragstrip to keep vehicles from going off the track, it is filled with, as the name implies, sand. The design of the sandtrap is intentional, and used as a safety device.
Satellite team
A second racing team operated by a primary team but maintaining a separate identity.
(drag racing) metal sheet protecting driver in case of transmission failure.[24]
Scratch race
A type of race which competitors start on an equal term.
A qualified official who examines racing vehicles pre-race for compliance with the rules of competition, usually in a scrutineering bay adjacent to the pit lane.
Tires which have been used limitedly, but are not worn out. Scuffs may be put on a car during a pit stop to improve handling. At times, brand new tires may be 'scuffed in' before a race by practicing in them for a lap or two. (See "Sticker tires")
A section of one complete lap of the circuit used for timing purposes. For the purposes of Formula One, each circuit is split into three sectors.
Semi-automatic gearbox
A motorsport application, created initially by Scuderia Ferrari for Formula One, in which the driver can change gears manually, but without having to manually activate the clutch. On open wheel race cars it is usually activated by paddles immediately behind the steering wheel, although touring cars and rally usually place the gear shifter as a gear stick in the more conventional position on the centre console, but occasionally is mounted as a stalk off the steering column, when activated, automatically engages the clutch and changes the gear and releases the clutch without any further input from the driver.
Semi feature, B-main, Qualifier
A qualifying race before the main event, where non-qualified cars compete for a predetermined number of spots in the main event. Some races have a C-main where the top finisher(s) qualify for the B-main. At those events, the main event is known as the "A-main".
The set of adjustments made to the vehicle in order to optimize its behavior.
The first test of a new vehicle.
See Superpole.
Short shifting
A technique used, primarily in motorsport, to regain control of a car through a high speed corner. Involves the driver shifting up a gear earlier than usual.
A crash.
Shutdown Area
In drag racing, it is the extra 440 yards from the finish line, to the sand trap, used to safely shut down the car, and turn it off the track, so the next racers can begin their race.
Aerodynamic device to improve airflow between front and rear wheels on open wheel racing car which also covers ancillary equipment within car, most often water radiators which are air cooled by ram scoops at the open front of the sidepods.
Skid plate
Metal plates, most commonly titanium, fixed to the bottom of flat bottomed racing cars on the undertray facing the racing surface, put there to protect the undertray from ground strikes tearing through the undertray. Today less common as racing cars usually are mandated to have a ground clearance that is less critical to hitting the track.
Slapper bar
see traction bar.
In truck and tractor pulling, an implement pulled behind the machine which uses friction to stop the machine.[25]
Slick (clay oval)
A phenomenon caused on short-circuit clay ovals that dry out too much.[citation needed] Clay circuits that do not maintain a certain amount of moisture as a race meeting progresses will start to wear the rubber off the soft specialised clay surface tyres of clay surface race car tyres much in the same way asphalt or concrete paved circuits do, giving the track surface a noticeably black shade.
Formula One slick
Slick (tyre)
A tyre with no tread pattern, maximising the amount of tyre rubber in contact with the racing surface. A specialist motor racing application as in wet weather conditions these tyres have little resistance to aquaplaning.
Slidejob pass
Especially in dirt oval racing, a passing car dives low into a corner, deliberately oversteers in front of the vehicle being passed in an attempt to slow their momentum. The vehicle being passed often attempts to pass back by steering low coming out of the corner down the following straightaway.
front-engined dragster, named for the driving position behind the rear wheels (erroneously attributed to launch speed).[citation needed]
Slingshot pass
A pass using Slipstreaming (see below).
A car following close behind another uses the slipstream created by the lead car to close the gap between them or pass it. Same as drafting.
Smoking the tires
Also called Lighting the hides, or Blowing the tires off. A term used mostly in drag racing when a loss of traction occurs, causing the rear tires to rise, and smoke profusely. This usually happens off the starting line. When this happens during a race, it usually results in a loss, unless the opponent also loses traction as well.
Spare car, Backup car
A car used by a driver if he has damaged his main car. It may or may not have the same setup as the primary car. Teams in most major racing series have a spare car available at the track. At Indianapolis, it is traditionally called a "T Car" ("T" loosely short for "test" or "temporary")[citation needed]
see One-make racing
Special stage
A section of road or track, closed off used for timed runs in rallying. A rally is made up of a number of special stages.
Splash and dash, Splash and go
A pit stop which involves refueling the car only, often less than a full tank.
Splitter (in white) on a NASCAR car
Also referred to as the front Spoiler or Front Air Dam. Aerodynamic device placed on the nose of some touring cars and GTs to improve airflow around the nose of the car and sometimes create downforce for the front wheels to aid steering. It is prominent on NASCAR's Car of Tomorrow body style.
Aerodynamic device attached to the trailing edge of a race car to increase its rear downforce. The difference between a spoiler and a wing is that wings are generally multi-element with air passing both above and below the aerodynamic surface, whereas a spoiler is flush fitted to the car's bodywork.
a person, positioned high above the circuit, who communicates what going on the track to the driver
Standard tree
(drag racing) timing lights which flash in sequence five tenths of a second between each yellow light before turning green. Traditional form, before introduction of pro tree.
Standing start
A starting method where the race machines are stationary on the grid.
Start and park
A team or driver who starts a race and only runs a small number of laps to avoid using up resources (tires, parts).
The adjudicator or referee at a race meeting who interprets incidents and decides whether penalties or fines should be issued.[citation needed]
Sticker tires
Brand new tires put on a race car. Nicknamed "sticker tires" because the manufacturer's labels are still visible. (Opposite of "Scuffs")
The period a driver is at the wheel in an event involving more than one driver in the vehicle. Sometimes refers to the period of driving between pit stops.
Stop-go penalty
Requires erring drivers to enter their pit and come to a complete stop before resuming, sometimes for a specified time. Sometimes called a Stop and go penalty, it penalises drivers more than a Drive-through penalty.
Stripe or Strip
The start/finish line.
Struck the tires
(drag racing) loss of traction, causing them to smoke.
Success ballast
A method used to level performance between competitors by adding weight to cars the win races or are successful. Somestimes referred to as Lead trophy as the usage of lead bars is most popular in applying the additional weight.[citation needed]
Superpole, or Shootout
A selection procedure in which the ten or 15 fastest qualifiers compete for grid positions in a single-lap effort without other vehicles on the track. While not specifically referenced, most NASCAR races will use this style of qualifying for all cars.
Support race
A race(s) that takes place before and after the title race, also during qualifying day.
Super rally
When a rally driver retires on any day, except the last, they can continue the next day incurring penalties for the stages they did not drive, including the one they retired on. Currently, in World Rally Championship, a driver will be given the time of the fastest driver of their class, plus a five-minute-penalty for each missed stage.[citation needed]
Super Special
Timed special stage in a rally on a purpose-built track, often in a stadium. Usually two cars will set off at the same time in separate lanes, and at the halfway point of the stage they will swap lanes, usually due to a crossover involving a bridge. A similar format is used in the Race of Champions.
(from Sidecar racing) A passenger on a racing motorcycle sidecar who athletically moves from one side of the sidecar to the other, altering a sidecar's weight distribution to assist in cornering speed and in some corners to prevent the sidecar from tipping over.


A collision in which the front of a car crashes into the side of another car, forming a "T" shape. This is one of the more dangerous types of crash due to the relative vulnerability of side impacts where there is much less deformable structure on the side of a car to protect the driver. Also, to crash into another car in such a fashion; the victim is "T-boned".
Alternative term for spare/backup car[26]
When the front wheel of a motorcycle oscillates rapidly, causing the handlebars to slap against the fuel tank.[27] It is increasingly being used to describe a vehicle which loses traction at the rear, regains traction and loses it again, causing the rear to weave side to side independently of the front of the car. This is more often referred to as fish-tailing.
Tansō (単走 solo run?)
(drifting) Japanese term for individual passes where drivers drive whilst being observed in front of judges in an attempt to vy for the top spot.
Team orders
The practice of driver allowing another from the same team or manufacturer to gain a higher finish at the direction of the team management. The practice was briefly forbidden in Formula One as a consequence of the 2002 Austrian Grand Prix controversy.
Refers to driving a car to its absolute potential.
In offshore powerboat racing, the boat's second occupant who work alongside the driver, whose role is to steer the boat. The throttleman's position is to adjust the trim tab whilst observing water conditions and extract as much speed out of the boat by controlling the hand-throttle during a race whilst it hops over tides after tides to prevent the propellers from spinning wildly whilst the boat is airborne, which causes the engine to overrev, leading to engine damage.[28]
Throw a belt
(drag racing) losing the drive belt connecting the engine's crankshaft to the supercharger.
See Understeer.
Time attack
A competition which involve cars running around the circuit in lieu of a qualifying lap.[citation needed]
(drag racing) E.T. slip.
Road car-derived vehicles with a roof, mainly in touring car racing.
Tire shake
A term in drag racing, when the engine is putting out more horespower than the drive axle can handle, causing the rear tires to shake violently. This results in a loss of speed, and can also result in loss of steering, and occasionally, lead to on track accidents. Refer to in other disciplines sometimes as axle tramp.
Top end
(drag racing) finish line of strip; high part of engine's rev band.
The racing surface.
Traction bars
(drag racing) rear struts fixed to rear axle to keep rear axle from twisting, causing wheel hop and loss of traction; also called slapper bars. In FWD cars, commonly import drag racing, used to keep front wheels in the ground.
Traction control
This regulates the power supplied to the wheels of a vehicle to prevent wheelspin. It is banned in many forms of motor racing.
(drag racing) the 20 meter (66 ft) timing lights at top end of race track to measure speed & E.T.
Trap speed
(drag racing) Speed as measured by the speed trap near the finish line, indicative of the maximum speed reached on a pass.
Tsuisō (追走 chase-attack?)
(drifting) Japanese term for tandem passes where two cars are paired off against each other over two passes within a heat, with each driver taking a turn to lead.


Understeer or push
Cornering behaviour where the front wheels do not follow the steered course but instead push out toward the outside of the turn. Known as push in NASCAR and other stock car racing. Opposite of oversteer. See also cross-channel ferry.
Flat or stepped flat surface on the bottom of open wheel and sports prototype racing cars.[citation needed] Theory has varied along with aerodynamic developments and regulations, from the sidepod tunnels of ground effect to the flat undertrays of the 1980s in various attempts to use aerodynamics to suck the cars closer to the bitumen, minimising the air underneath the car that could slow its progress. Today most such categories feature a stepped undertray with sidepods siting higher in the air than the centre of the car, usually mandated by series organisers in an attempt to limit vehicle performance. Also refers to flat surfaces extending behind splitters in sedan and GT based racing cars.


Victory lane
The place where the winner of a race goes to celebrate victory after winning an event.[29]
Victory lap
A lap, after the conclusion of the race, where the winning racer drives at reduced speed to celebrate his or her victory.


A slower car, usually found at the rear of the grid.[citation needed] It is sometimes a derogatory term.
Wear the shiny off
A term used, mostly within drag racing, when a brand new car either hits the wall, or, in the Pro Stock class, when a new car flips over into its top and continues down the track for a considerable length, peeling the paint off.
Weight shifting
A technique used to reduce understeer. This involves the driver decelerating through a corner to shift the weight of the car from the back to the front, increasing grip of the front tyres and decreasing understeer.
Wet (or wet-weather) tyre
A racing tyre with deep grooves designed to displace standing water, allowing the tyre to obtain grip in conditions where dry weather tyres (slicks) would aquaplane. Monsoon wet has become a term used for extremely wet conditions.
Wheel banging
When the wheels of two different race cars slightly collide during an overtaking manoeuvre.[30]
Wheel hop
(drag racing) violent shaking of the car as the tires lose and regain traction in quick succession.
Maynard Yingst performing a wheelie in his sprint car
In a rear wheel drive vehicle, when the front wheel(s) rise up in the air under acceleration.
Wheelie bars
(drag racing) rear struts fixed to rear axle, which protrude out to rear of car to help prevent car's front from raising too high or flipping over on launch.
The wheelie bar (foreground) and parachute (gray) on Kenny Bernstein's Top Fuel dragster.
When the rear tyres (or front tyres in the case of a front wheel drive vehicle) break traction with the racing surface under acceleration, spinning the wheels faster than they move across the surface. On higher traction surfaces like bitumen the tyre will begin to shred and melt from the friction, producing white smoke.
wheelie. In drag racing, an extreme case, with front wheels very near vertical.[citation needed]
In drag racing, an exhibition car designed to complete a pass in a wheelstand (wheels near vertical)
See Gurney flap.
Aerodynamic device on many racing cars. The principle is the same as an aircraft wing except in motor racing applications the wing is inverted to create downforce instead of lift, pressing the car onto the road surface to increase traction.
Wired to the tree
A drag racing term used to describe a racer that consistently beats his opponent off the starting line.[citation needed] Also called Chopping down the Christmas Tree.
Suspension control arm with three points, shaped roughly like a chicken wishbone.
Works team
A motor racing team supported by a vehicle manufacturer, usually run in-house at the manufacturer's premises. A works driver is a driver who drives for the works team.


Yellow chequer
A term derived when the final lap(s) in a race is completed during a full course yellow while the field is under the control of the Safety Car.[citation needed] In this instance the yellow and chequered flags are waved together and the race is declared finished with the order the same as when the full course yellow began. Unpopular with spectators because of the anti-climactic nature of the finish, the possibility does make some senior race official hesitate to use it late in the race, or direct to slow the safety car in order that the hazard may be cleared in time for a competitive race finish. The Indy Racing League has a Yellow chequer rule, and NASCAR allows it (1) if a race is shortened because of curfew or darkness, (2) if the race is already on its final lap when the yellow must be waved, or (3) if there is a yellow implemented during the third attempt at the green-white-checkered finish once the leader has taken the green flag.[citation needed] In Formula One, when there is a yellow chequer, the safety car will not lead the leader to the finish line, unlike the IRL and NASCAR.


Zero car
Used in rallying. Prior to the rally cars running over a special stage several official vehicles run through the course to check for safety, conditions of the road, to see if spectators or animals may be a hazard or for obstructions.[citation needed] Sometimes there are a triple zero (000) and double zero (00) as well as the zero. Zero cars travel the course immediately ahead of the competitors and are usually rally cars themselves.
Zero Light
Also known as "cutting a zero," and a "zero R.T." Used in drag racing when someone leaves the starting line at the exact moment when the light turns green (.000). Very difficult to achieve, due to the quick flashing of the lights on a Pro tree.


  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^
  6. ^ Scuderia Toro Rosso | Sporting Life – F1 News | Live lap-by-lap, Italian GP, Monza, Lewis Hamilton
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Clayton, David (2007). The Official ITV Sport Formula One Annual 2008. Granada Ventures. pp. 6–7. ISBN 9781906211028. 
  8. ^ Carl Edwards Engaged; Will He Be the Bridesmaid in Nationwide and Cup Series? | Bleacher Report
  9. ^ Thompson, Eric (15 April 2009). "Motorsport: Ford on the hunt". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 1 October 2011. 
  10. ^ Martinez, Peter (6 May 2008). "Motorsport: 'Bridesmaid' tag doesn't sit well with A1GP team". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 1 October 2011. 
  11. ^ Crossman, Matt (April 1, 2007). "The art of the bump and run". Sporting News. Retrieved 2009-01-18. 
  12. ^ Sigal, Peter (November 23, 2006). "On Dirt Roads of Mexico, Racers’ Toughness Is Tested". New York Times. Retrieved 2009-01-18. 
  13. ^ "Traffic Calming 101". Project for Public Spaces. Retrieved 2009-01-18. 
  14. ^ Gluck, Jeff (July 27, 2008). "NASCAR may throw competition caution to address tire concerns at Indy". Scene Daily. Retrieved 9 April 2010. 
  15. ^ "The ASA Late Model Series Road to Success". ASA Late Model Series. February 14, 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-11. 
  16. ^ Emmons, Don, "R&C Modelrama" in Rod & Custom, 9/00, p.147.
  17. ^ Error
  18. ^ Wolf, Jeff (July 16, 1999). "Speedway is 'inverting' to multiply fun for fans". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved 2009-01-17. 
  19. ^ "Sam's Town 300". NASCAR. February 27, 2010. Retrieved February 26, 2011. 
  20. ^ "Jason Sides Wins Back to Back in an Emotional Week". Jason Sides, World of Outlaws driver. June 27, 2006. Retrieved 16 March 2010. 
  21. ^ a b c d Clayton, David (2007). The Official ITV Sport Formula One Annual 2008. Granada Ventures. pp. 54–55. ISBN 978106211028. 
  22. ^ According to IHRA Executive VP Ted Jones, in Car Craft, 1/1991, p.16.
  23. ^ a b "Motorsport Terms". Pete's Racing Site. Retrieved 2009-01-18. 
  24. ^ Its invention is credited to Vic King and Pete Wolley for their X/Gas digger in 1959. Dain Gingerelli, "Midnight Oil!" in American Rodder, 6/94, p.81.
  25. ^ "The Sled". Lake Country Antique Tractor Association. Retrieved 27 July 2011. 
  26. ^
  27. ^ "Urban Dictionary: tankslapper". 2006-04-23. Retrieved 2009-01-20. 
  28. ^
  29. ^ "NASCAR Glossary T-Z". NASCAR. Retrieved 6 December 2009. 
  30. ^ "F1 technical glossary". F1technical. Retrieved 2009-01-22. 

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