Blacklight Power

Blacklight Power
Blacklight Power Inc.
Industry Chemistry
Founded HydroCatalysis Inc.[1] in 1991.[2]
Founder(s) Randell L. Mills
Headquarters 493 Old Trenton Rd.
Cranbury, NJ
Subsidiaries Millsian, Inc.

Blacklight Power, Inc. (BLP) of Cranbury, New Jersey is an alternative energy company[3] founded by Randell L. Mills who claims to have discovered a new energy source. The new energy source is based on Mills' theory that a hydrogen atom energy level can drop below the ground state. Mills calls the theoretical hydrogen atoms that are in an energy state below ground level, "hydrinos". [1] BLP has created a system it calls Catalyst Induced Hydrino Transition, or CIHT, and according to its web site "It is expected that CIHT will competitively, economically, logistically, and environmentally displace essentially all power sources of all sizes: thermal, electrical, automotive, marine, rail, aviation, and aerospace".[4]. Mills self-published a closely related treatise entitled The Grand Unified Theory of Classical Physics (GUT-CP).[5]

Where Mills has not been ignored he has met general skepticism in the academic community since the founding of BLP in 1991. Mills' ideas of "CQM" and "hydrinos" have been criticized by mainstream physicists[6][7][8][9] as "pseudoscience" and rejected as "just silliness".[2]



Mills founded the company in 1991.[2] It was founded as HydroCatalysis Inc. and later renamed to Blacklight Power Inc.[1] By 1999 the company was claiming to have produced excess energy for over a year.[10] By 2000 Mills raised $25 million in funding for the company. Mills convinced several researchers that supported him to sit at the board of his company.[2] Subsequently, several venture capital firms placed representatives on the board, and other important persons in business joined the board, including a former CEO of Westinghouse.[2]

By 2009 BLP had raised about $60 million in venture capital,[7][8] and claims to have seven commercial agreements to license BLP energy technology for the production of thermal or electric power to utilities and private corporations.[11] By 2011 no known power generation has occurred. Mills envisions that CIHT (Catalyst-Induced-Hydrino-Transition) cell stacks can provide power for long-range electric vehicles, a claim described as "scientific nonsense—there is no state of hydrogen lower than the ground state" by Wolfgang Ketterle.[7][8] Mills claims this electricity will cost less than 2 cents per kilowatt-hour, compared to an 8.9 cents cents per kilowatt-hour national average.[12] In 2010 the company claimed that "CIHT technology was independently confirmed by Dr. K.V. Ramanujachary, Rowan University Meritorious Professor of Chemistry and Biochemistry".[13] The independent confirmation claim was based on company funded experiments described in four papers by Rowan University researchers and a fifth report written by a scientist consulting for GEN3 partners. All the experiments were conducted with BLP direct involvement and were unpublished in peer reviewed journals.

IEEE Spectrum magazine listed Blacklight as a "loser" technology in its 2009 report because "Most experts don’t believe such lower states exist, and they say the experiments don’t present convincing evidence."[7]

A subsidiary, Millsian, offers a molecular-modeling software-application based on "CQM" theory. The subsidiary had been formed in June 2006 as Molegos Inc. and renamed in October 2006.[14]

Founder and CEO Randell Mills

Randell Mills graduated from Harvard Medical School,[2] and studied biotechnology and electrical engineering at MIT.,[15] and a degree in Chemistry from Franklin & Marshall College in 1982.[citation needed]. Mills claims that Blacklight's power source "represents a boundless form of new primary energy", and says that he "think[s] it's going to replace all forms of fuel in the world.".[16]

An article in the technology column of the New York Times described in 2008 how Mills had kept plugging on and getting $60 million in venture funding despite his theories being rejected and ignored by the scientific community for years.[8]

Commercial licensing and agreements

Blacklight Power claims to have seven commercial agreements to license energy technology for the production of thermal or electric power to utilities and private corporations.[11] BLP has identified four of these companies in its press releases. The four companies and the date of the press release announcing the licensing are as follows:

  • Estacado Energy Services (wholly owned subsidiary of Roosevelt County Electric Cooperative), December 11, 2008 [17]
  • Farmers’ Electric Cooperative, Inc., January 6, 2009 [18]
  • Akridge Energy, LLC (wholly owned by John E. Akridge, III), July 30, 2009 [19]
  • GEOENERGIE SpA (Energy Subsidiary of Geogreen (part of the RadiciGroup)), March 23, 2009 [11]

As of February 10, 2011, the agreements were not mentioned on the websites of any of the identified companies and details of the contracts were not publicly available. However, John E. Akridge, owner of the real estate development company that is the parent company of Akridge Energy, LLC and a BLP stock holder is quoted in a BLP press release as saying "we believe BLP technology will have a profound impact on the environment and the economy" and "We are excited to be one of the early adopters of BLP technology."[19]

In addition to the agreements listed above, BLP has had agreements with other utilities including Connectiv and PacifiCorp which, as of 1999, had invested $10 million in BLP.[20] The agreements are private.


BLP holds US 7188033  entitled "Method and system of computing and rendering the nature of the chemical bond of hydrogen-type molecules and molecular ions". It describes rendering the chemical bonds of hydrogen using imaging software, covering their "Millsian" molecular modeling software application.[21] BLP may hold two other US patents. The status of these patents is unclear[citation needed].

In 2000, the USPTO approved patent application 09/009,294 entitled "Hydride Compounds" after an initial rejection, and gave it US 6030601 . The fee had already been paid, but it hadn't still reached the stage of final issuance. The company was later granted US 6024935  "Lower-Energy Hydrogen Methods and Structures". A mocking column by Robert L. Park[22] and an outside query by an unknown person[23] apparently prompted Director Group Director Kepplinger to review this new patent himself, and he expressed concerns about the patent's theoretical basis, the existence of fractional quantum numbers. He also noticed that the patent application, 09/009,294, had the same theoretical basis. He contacted another Director, Robert Spar, who also expressed doubts on the patentability of the patent application. This caused the USPTO to withdraw from issue the patent application before it was granted and re-open it for review, and to withdraw four related applications, including one for an hydrino power plant.[22] This prompted Blacklight to sue in the US District Court of Columbia, saying that withdrawing the 09/009,294 application after having paid the fee was contrary to law. In 2002 the District Court concluded that the USPTO was acting inside the limits of its authority in withdrawing a patent over whose validity it had doubts, and later that year the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit ratified this decision.[23][24][25] Application 09/009,294 was so near issuance that it slipped into the list of issued patents as US6030601.[22] The status of withdrawn patent US6024935 is unclear since it still appears in the USPTO website as a granted patent.[26]

In March and April 2008, Blacklight Power had four UK patent applications relating to models and apparatus based on hydrino theory refused by the UK Intellectual Property Office. The decision was based on "the experimental evidence provided and the acceptance of the theory by the physics community generally", which led to the conclusion that the theory "was probably not valid", and therefore that the inventions were not "capable of industrial application" as required by UK patent law.[27] In November 2008, the UK Patents Court overturned the rejection of the four patents, ruling that they should only have been rejected if the theory was clearly invalid (rather than probably invalid) and remitted the case to the Patent Office for reconsideration.[28][29] In June 2009 a hearing officer at the UK patent office found that a full investigation with the help of an expert in GUTCQM wouldn't have a reasonable prospect of finding it a valid theory, and rejected the patents again.[30]

Corporate Governance

The present chairman of the Board, president and CEO is the founder, Randell L. Mills [31]. Former directors of the company have included turnaround expert [32] Michael H. Jordan [12] and General Merrill McPeak.[33]

Theory and claims

Mills claims that chemicals, under controlled experiments, may react catalytically with atomic hydrogen to generate an "ultraviolet plasma". The company claims that the special plasma byproducts predicted by GUT-CP, called "hydrinos", have been experimentally observed to have an energy state below what quantum mechanics refers to as the ground state of hydrogen.[3]

Mills first announced his hydrino state theory on April 25, 1991 in a press conference in Lancaster, as an explanation for the cold fusion phenomena that had been revealed in 1989. According to Mills, no fusion was actually happening in the cells: all the effects would be caused by the hydrogen atoms which shrunk as they fell to a state lower than the ground state of hydrogen. The increased proximity between the shrunk atoms would cause them to fuse sporadically. Some of those atoms would be deuterium atoms (a hydrogen atom with one extra neutron), which would explain why there were occasional readings of neutrons. No experimental evidence was offered by Mills, and his claim was ignored by the scientific community.[1][6][34][35] Mills claims that much of standard particle physics, while having experimental validation, should be rejected due to its reliance on overfitting.[36]

Model of the free and bound electron

Mills claims that the electron is an extended particle or membrane that in free space would consist of a flat disk of spinning charge.[5]:159-79 Mills' model for the bound electron treats the electron not as a point nor as a probability wave, but as a "dynamic spherical shell" of zero thickness surrounding the nucleus. The resulting model, called the "orbitsphere", is claimed to provide a fully classical physical explanation for phenomena including quantization of angular momentum and magnetic moment. The model is not restricted to the integer orbitals of the hydrogen atom described by the Bohr model and calculated from Schrödinger's equation but is claimed to allow the existence of fractional integer orbitals. Mills' model is claimed to derive "classical" orbitals from the classical nonradiation condition defined by Hermann A. Haus in 1986.[37]

Blacklight process

According to Mills, a specific chemical process he calls "The BlackLight Process" allows a bound electron to fall to energy states below what quantum theory predicts to be possible. In the hydrogen atom, these states are postulated to have an effective radius of 1/p of the ground state radius, with p being limited by the speed of light to a positive integer less than or equal to 137.[5]:31, 207 He terms these below-ground hydrogen atoms 'hydrinos'. Mills' mechanism consists of a non-radiative energy transfer between a hydrogen atom and a catalyst that is capable of absorbing a certain amount of energy. The total energy Mills says is released for hydrino transitions is large compared to the chemical burning of hydrogen, but less than nuclear reactions. Mills claims that limitations on confinement and terrestrial conditions have prevented the achievement of hydrino states below 1/30, which would correspond to an energy release of approximately 15 keV per hydrogen atom.[38]


Mills claims he has unified Maxwell's Equations, Newton's Laws, and Einstein's General and Special Relativity on the basis that they must hold on all scales from the subatomic to the cosmic. Mills has put forward his thesis in his book, originally called The Grand Unified Theory of Classical Quantum Mechanics (GUT-CQM), and later given the new title The Grand Unified Theory of Classical Physics (GUT-CP).[5]

Reported experimental findings

The BLP website lists 95 publications by Mills et al.[39] Most of these were published in low-impact journals or unreviewed conference proceedings. Some reported significant observations in experimental studies, including:

  • Chemical reactions that produce plasmas in gas cells with input energies far below the level that conventional theory predicts is required to produce such plasmas.
  • Spectral lines from gas cell plasmas which match the predictions for hydrino transitions.[40]
  • Detection of excess heat from plasma cells using water bath calorimetry.
  • New chemical compounds said to have been formed from hydrino hydrides (i.e. a hydrino which has captured another electron to form a negative hydride ion) which show unusual properties and structure.
  • Molecular 'dihydrino' gas formation and detection.
  • Experiments demonstrating excess energy when sodium hydride is heated in contact with Raney nickel catalyst (R-Ni)[41]

In 2005 Dr Mills stated: "We've done a lot of testing. We've got 50 independent validation reports, we've got 65 peer-reviewed journal articles, We ran into this theoretical resistance and there are some vested interests here. People are very strong and fervent protectors of this [quantum] theory that they use."[42]

Rowan University BLP related research

In 2008,[43] 2009[44] and 2010[45] BLP news releases cited research by Rowan University staff as independent verification of BLP claims. None of the reports for this research appears to have been submitted to peer reviewed journals for publication. A version of the reports for this research can be found on the BLP web site. The reports describe calorimetric and analytical chemistry experiments that according to the summary section of the first report "confirms independently the empirical findings of BLP with respect to anomalous heat generation and chemical analysis".[46] However,BLP and Rowan University have had a long term relationship and characterizing BLP related research by Rowan University as independent might be misleading.

Rowan University staff have been actively involved with BLP for many years. BLP is described as an affiliate company in an undergraduate report of BLP related experiments.[47] Rowan BLP related research has, at least, been partially funded by BLP [48][49] and it has often used materials and equipment supplied by BLP for the experiments.[46] Peter Jansson, a Rowan University Associate professor, has been involved with BLP since at least 1997. He was an executive with Altlantic Energy (a subsidiary of Conectiv in in 1999[50]) when Conectiv invested in BLP.[20] Jansson's 1997 master thesis was related to BLP theories, and he has been a credited author on several BLP related papers including two of the four most recently released. BLP has provided an academic scholarship for at least one of the Rowan University staff that have taken part in the BLP related research by Rowan University.[51]

In 2002 Rowan staff conducted research on a rocket engine based on BLP technology for the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC). The Phase I study was conducted at Rowan University and led by Rowan mechanical engineering professor Anthony Marchese. The team reported that with assistance from BLP, they successfully replicated previous results, including the observation of line broadening indicative of hydrogen atoms moving much faster than would ordinarily be expected under the experimental conditions. The team reported that two thrusters were built and successfully fired, however the team did not succeed in making thrust measurements.[52] The project was not picked up for phase II NIAC funding by NASA.[53]

Mainstream science BLP related research and analysis

Mills' claims have largely been ignored by mainstream science. A few articles in peer reviewed journals have been published that are mostly critical of BLP theories and claims. Two Nobel laureates in physics, Wolfgang Ketterle and Anthony Leggett, have made statements strongly critical of the idea of hydrino energy. Ketterle characterized Mills claims as "scientific nonsense", and Leggett asserted that Blacklight Power is unable to prove its claims about Quantum physics.[7] The most visible critic of Mills' theories has been Robert L. Park, the spokesman for the American Physical Society, who said of Mills, "He's wrong in so many ways, it's beyond counting."[12]

Independent experiments in chronological order

  • February 1996: NASA published the paper, "Replication of the apparent excess heat effect in light water-potassium carbonate-nickel-electrolytic cell" by Janis M. Niedra, et al. The paper describes experiments done with a 28 liter electrolytic cell on loan from Hydrocatalys Power Corporation (as BLP was known at the time). The experiments described in the paper did not recreate the large heat gains reported for the cell by BLP however unexplained power gains in the cell ranging from 1.06 to 1.68 of the input power were reported. Speculation on the causes of this excess power was included in the "Summary and Conclusions" section of the paper. From that section: "Although our data admits the existence of an unusual source of heat with the cell, it falls far short of being compelling" and "Following the principle of simplest explanation that fits the data on hand, recombination [referring to recombination of hydrogen and oxygen] becomes the explanation of choice".[54]
  • January 4, 2005: Šišović et al. published a paper describing experimental data and analysis of the Mills' theory that a resonant transfer model (RTM) explains the excessive Doppler broadening of the Hα line. Šišović et al. concluded that: "The detected large excessive broadening in pure hydrogen and in Ne–H2 mixture is in agreement with CM [Collision Model] and other experimental results" and that "These results can’t be explained by RTM". The collision model explanation for excessive broadening of the Hα line is based on established physics.[55]

Independent analysis of Mills' models in chronological order

"We found that CQM is inconsistent and has several serious deficiencies. Amongst these are the failure to reproduce the energy levels of the excited states of the hydrogen atom, and the absence of Lorentz invariance. Most importantly, we found that CQM does not predict the existence of hydrino states!" - Rathke[9][56]

  • August 5, 2005: Jan Naudts of the University of Antwerp argued that Rathke did not take into account complexities introduced by relativistic quantum mechanics, and that without doing so Rathke was not justified in rejecting the possibility of a hydrino state.[57]
  • September 26, 2005: The Journal of Applied Physics published a critique by A. V. Phelps of the 2004 article, "Water bath calorimetric study of excess heat generation in resonant transfer plasmas" by J. Phillips, R. Mills and X. Chen.[58] Phelps criticized both the calorimetric techniques and the underlying theory described in the Phillips/Mills/Chen article. The Journal of Applied Physics published a response to the critique by Phillips on the same day.[59]
  • 2006: inspired by Naudts' response, Norman Dombey concluded that Mill's theory of hydrino states is "unphysical". According to Dombey, the hydrino states would require:[60]
  1. non-relativistic counterparts to remain physical, but they don't have them.
  2. compatibility with a coupling strength (fine structure constant) equal to zero to remain physical, yet "hydrino states" seem to exist in the absence of any coupling strength.
  3. binding strength that falls with the coupling strength. The hydrino model predicts that binding strength for hydrino states increases as the coupling strength falls, rendering the states unphysical.
  • April 2007: Antonio Di Castro showed that the states below the ground state, as described in Mills' theory, are incompatible with the Schrödinger, Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations."[61]
  • May 1, 2008: The Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics published an article by Hans-Joachim Kunze critical of the 2003 paper authored by R. Mills and P. Ray, Extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy of helium–hydrogen. Hans-Joachim Kunze is professor emeritus at the Institute for Experimental Physics V Ruhr University Bochum, Germany.[62] The abstract of the article is: "It is suggested that spectral lines, on which the fiction of fractional principal quantum numbers in the hydrogen atom is based, are nothing else but artefacts." Kunze stated that it was impossible to detect the novel lines below 30 nm reported by Mills and Ray because the equipment they used did not have the capability to detect them as per the manufacturer and as per "every book on vacuum-UV spectroscopy" and "therefore the observed lines must be artefacts". Kunze also stated that: "The enormous spectral widths of the novel lines point to artefacts, too." [63]

Independent commentaries in chronological order

"Unlike most schemes for free energy, the hydrino process of Randy Mills is not without ample theory (WN 8 Jan 99). Mills has written a 1000 page tome, entitled,"The Grand Unified Theory of Classical Quantum Mechanics," that takes the reader all the way from hydrinos to antigravity (WN 9 May 97). Fortunately, Aaron Barth (not to be confused with Erik Baard, the Randy Mills' apologist), has taken upon himself to look through it, checking for accuracy. Barth is a post doctoral researcher at the Harvard-Smithsonian Institute, and holds a PhD in Astronomy, 1998, from UC, Berkeley. What he found initially were mathematical blunders and unjustified assumptions. To his surprise, however, portions of the book seemed well organized. These, it now turns out, were lifted verbatim from various texts. This has been the object of a great deal of discussion from Mills' Hydrino Study Group. Mills seems not to understand what the fuss is all about." - Park[64]

  • 2007: In a review of cold fusion research, Edmund Storms, a cold fusion researcher, concludes that the hydrino model provides a possible explanation for cold fusion.[65]

"BlackLight Power (BLP), founded 17 years ago as HydroCatalysis, announced last week that the company had successfully tested a prototype power system that would generate 50 KW of thermal power. BLP anticipates delivery of the new power system in 12 to 18 months. The BLP process, (WN 26 Apr 91) , discovered by Randy Mills, is said to coax hydrogen atoms into a "state below the ground state," called the "hydrino." There is no independent scientific confirmation of the hydrino, and BLP has a patent problem. So they have nothing to sell but bull shit. The company is therefore dependent on investors with deep pockets and shallow brains." - Park[66]


  1. ^ a b c d Robert L. Park (26 April 1991). "What's New Friday, 26 April 1991 Washington, DC".  and Robert L. Park (31 October 2008). "What's New Friday, October 31, 2008". 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Jacqueline A. Newmyer (May 17, 2000). "Academics Question The Science Behind BlackLight Power, Inc.". Harvard Crimson. Retrieved February 10, 2009. 
  3. ^ a b Official site
  4. ^ "Commercial Applications of the Hydrino". Retrieved 2011-11-18. 
  5. ^ a b c d Mills, Randell L. (June 2008). "The Grand Unified Theory of Classical Physics" (DjVu). Blacklight Power. Retrieved 2009-08-15.  (Self-published)
  6. ^ a b E. Sheldon (September–October 2008). "An overview of almost 20 years’ research on cold fusion". Contemporary Physics 49 (5): 375–378. Bibcode 2008ConPh..49..375S. doi:10.1080/00107510802465229. "[Mill's paper], which involves a nowadays widely discredited ‘hydrino’ model that was proposed in 1991 to account for the excess heat observations in ‘cold fusion’ studies. (...) [the notion that there are electron orbital states that are less energetic than the ground state], is contrary to conventional quantum principles and unacceptable to me or to the general theoretical-physics community." 
  7. ^ a b c d e Erico Guizzo (January 2009). "Loser: Hot or Not?". IEEE Spectrum. "Why it’s a loser: Most experts don’t believe such lower states exist, and they say the experiments don’t present convincing evidence."  (part of Winners & Losers VI, by Philip E. Ross in the same publication)
  8. ^ a b c d Morrison, Chris (2008-10-21). "Blacklight Power bolsters its impossible claims of a new renewable energy source". New York Times. 
  9. ^ a b Rathke, A (May 2005). "A critical analysis of the hydrino model". New Journal of Physics 2005 (7): 127. arXiv:quant-ph/0505150. Bibcode 2005NJPh....7..127R. doi:10.1088/1367-2630/7/1/127. "'a state of the hydrogen atom that is less energetic than the ground state cannot be ruled out completely under some exotic conditions at our current level of understanding. Such conditions are however not likely to be fulfilled in the relatively low-energy, low electromagnetic field environment of the plasmas studied by Mills et al.' and 'standard quantum mechanics cannot encompass hydrino states, with the properties currently attributed to them'" 
  10. ^ Official website, Blacklight Power, copy of page in 20 February 1999
  11. ^ a b c "March 23, 2010 BLP News Release - BlackLight Power, Inc. Announces First Commercial License in Europe with GEOENERGIE SpA, Energy Subsidiary of Geogreen". Retrieved 2011-02-10. 
  12. ^ a b c Mina Kimes (2008-07-29), "BlackLight's physics-defying promise: Cheap power from water",, 
  13. ^ "News Release-BlackLight Power, Inc. Announces Production of Electricity from a New Form of Hydrogen". Retrieved 2011-01-20. 
  14. ^ "Millsian". Millsian.  Official site
  15. ^ Erik Baard (December 21, 1999). "Quantum Leap: Dr. Randell Mills says he can change the face of physics. The Scientfic Establishment thinks he's nuts.". The Village Voice. Retrieved February 10, 2009. 
  16. ^ Gerard Wynn (September 3, 2000). "Sweet dreams are made of geoengineering". Reuters. Retrieved October 15, 2009. 
  17. ^ "December 11, 2008 BLP News Release - BlackLight Power Inc. Announces First Commercial License with Estacado Energy Services". Retrieved 2011-02-11. 
  18. ^ "January 6, 2009 BLP News Release - BlackLight Power Inc. Announces First Commercial License with Estacado Energy Services". Retrieved 2011-02-11. 
  19. ^ a b "July 39, 2009 BLP News Release - BlackLight Power Inc. Announces Its Sixth Commercial License Agreement". Retrieved 2011-02-11. 
  20. ^ a b "Dow Jones NewsWires (October 6, 1999) - Researcher Claims Power Tech That Defies Quantum Theory". Retrieved 2011-02-11. 
  21. ^ Chris Morrison (2008-05-30). "Blacklight Power claims nearly-free energy from water — is this for real?". VentureBeat.  US 7188033 , granted March 6, 2007. For US 6024935  see other references
  22. ^ a b c Erik Baard (2000-04-25), The Empire Strikes Back. Alternative-Energy Scientist Fights to Save Patent, 
  23. ^ a b Patent nonsense: court denies Blacklight Power appeal, What's New, Robert Park, September 6, 2002
  24. ^ United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. "Blacklight Power, Inc. v. James E. Rogan". 
  25. ^ Brendan Coffey (2000-05-15). "Follow-Through. Weird Science". Forbes. 
  26. ^ US 6024935 , 6,024,935, Lower-energy hydrogen methods and structures, February 15, 2000, retrieved 11 February 2011
  27. ^ UK-IPO decisions "O/114/08".  and "O/076/08". 
  28. ^ "Blacklight Power Inc v Comptroller-General of Patents [2008 EWHC 2763 (Pat); [2008] WLR (D) 360"]. 2008-11-18. 
  29. ^ Gale R Peterson, Derrick A Pizarro, Practising Law Institute (2003). 2003 Federal Circuit Yearbook: Patent Law Developments in the Federal Circuit. Practising Law Institute. p. 1. ISBN 9780872244436. 
  30. ^ "UK-IPO decision O/170/09". 
  31. ^
  32. ^
  33. ^ "Merrill A. McPeak Profile". Corporate Executives and Directors Directory. Forbes. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  34. ^ Robert L. Park (2002). Voodoo science: the road from foolishness to fraud (illustrated, reprint ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 133–135. ISBN 0198604432, 9780198604433. 
  35. ^ William J. Broad (1991-04-26). "2 Teams Put New Life in 'Cold' Fusion Theory". New York Times. 
  36. ^ Mills, Randell L. (2008). "Exact classical quantum mechanical solution for atomic helium which predicts conjugate parameters from a unique solution for the first time" (PDF). Phys. Essays 21 (2): 103. Bibcode 2008PhyEs..21..103M. doi:10.4006/1.3009282. "The Dirac equation does not reconcile this situation. Many additional shortcomings arise such as instability to radiation, negative kinetic energy states, intractable infinities, virtual particles at every point in space, self-interaction, the Klein paradox, violation of Einstein causality, and 'spooky' action at a distance. Despite its successes, quantum mechanics (QM) has remained mysterious to all who have encountered it. Starting with Bohr and progressing into the present, the departure from intuitive, physical reality has widened. The connection between quantum mechanics and reality is more than just a "philosophical" issue. It reveals that quantum mechanics is not a correct or complete theory of the physical world and that inescapable internal inconsistencies and incongruities arise when attempts are made to treat it as a physical as opposed to a purely mathematical 'tool.'" 
  37. ^ Haus, Hermann A. (1986). "On the radiation from point charges". American Journal of Physics 54: 1126. Bibcode 1986AmJPh..54.1126H. doi:10.1119/1.14729. 
  38. ^ Randell L. Mills (2008-01-21). "Physical solutions of the nature of the atom, photon, and their interactions to form excited and predicted hydrino states" (PDF). BlackLight Power. Retrieved 2009-03-02.  (self published)
  39. ^ "BlackLight Power, Inc. Publications: Journals, Proceedings and Book" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-04-07. (self published)
  40. ^ Mills, R.; Ray, P. (7 July 2003). "Extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy of helium-hydrogen plasma". J Phys D 36 (17): 1535–1542. Bibcode 2003JPhD...36.1535M. doi:10.1088/0022-3727/36/13/316. 
  41. ^ Mills, R. L.; Zhao, K.; Akhtar; Chang, R.; He, J.; Lu, Y.; Good, W.; Dhandapani, B.. "Commercializable power source from forming new states of hydrogen" (PDF). BlackLight Power. Retrieved 2009-03-02.  (self published)
  42. ^
  43. ^ "BlackLight Power, Inc. Announces Independent Validation of Breakthrough New Energy Source Based on a New Form of Hydrogen and Chemistry Capable of Continuous Regeneration" (Press release). Blacklight Power. 2008-10-20. Archived from the original on 2009-11-22. "BLP’s 50,000 watt reactor generated over 1 million joules of energy in a precise measurement made by Rowan University engineers, led by Dr. Peter Jansson." 
  44. ^ "BlackLight Power, Inc. Announces Independent Validation of Breakthrough New Energy Source Based on a New Form of Hydrogen and Chemistry Capable of Continuous Regeneration" (Press release). Blacklight Power. 2009-08-12. Archived from the original on 2009-10-06. "BlackLight Power, Inc. (BLP) today announces that scientists at Rowan University have for the first time independently formulated and tested fuels that on demand generated energy greater than that of combustion at power levels of kilowatts using BLP’s proprietary solid-fuel chemistry capable of continuous regeneration." 
  45. ^ "BlackLight Power, Inc. Announces Production of Electricity from a New Form of Hydrogen" (Press release). Blacklight Power. 2010-11-29. Archived from the original on 2010-12-06. "BlackLight Power, Inc. (BLP) today announced that CIHT (Catalyst-Induced-Hydrino-Transition) technology has been ndependently confirmed by Dr. K.V. Ramanujachary, Rowan University Meritorious Professor of Chemistry and Biochemistry." 
  46. ^ a b Peter Mark Jansson; K. V. Ramanujachary, et al. (May and August of 2009). "Four Rowan University reports consolidated into single document". Blacklight Power. Archived from the original on 2010-01-16. 
  47. ^ Peter Jansson; Ulrich Schwabe, et al. (2009). "The Blacklight Power (BLP) project consists of the validation of calorimetry results of a novel heat source of an industrial affiliate.". Chemical Engineering Division of the ASEE. Retrieved 2011-03-03. "The Blacklight Power (BLP) project consists of the validation of calorimetry results of a novel heat source of an industrial affiliate." 
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  49. ^ Rowan University. "College of Liberal Arts & Sciences Annual Report 2009-2010". Rowan University. Archived from the original on 2011-06-29. "6/30/2009-6/30/2010 from Black Light Power corporation, Amount: $106,000" 
  50. ^ Peter Mark Jansson. "Dr. Peter Mark Jansson PP PE [resume"]. Rowan University. Retrieved 2011-02-26. 
  51. ^ Patricia Mosto. "College of Liberal Arts & Sciences Gold Book—Fiscal Year 2009". Rowan University. Archived from the original on 20110629. 
  52. ^ Marchese, A. J.; Jansson, P.; Schmalzel, J. L. (May 1-November 30, 2002). "The BlackLight Rocket Engine NIAC Phase I Final Report" (PDF). NIAC. Archived from the original on 2007-07-13. 
  53. ^ "All funded studies". NIAC. Retrieved 2011-02-26. 
  54. ^ Niedra, Janis M.; Myers, Ira T.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Baldwin, Richard S. (February 1996). "Replication of the apparent excess heat effect in light water-potassium carbonate-nickel-electrolytic cell". OSTI 236808. 
  55. ^ Šišović, N. M.; Majstorović, G. Lj.; Konjević, N. (4 January 2005). "Excessive hydrogen and deuterium Balmer lines broadening in a hollow cathode glow discharges". European Physical Journal D-Atomic, Molecular, Optical and Plasma Physics 32: 347–354. Bibcode 2005EPJD...32..347S. doi:10.1140/epjd/e2004-00192-1. 
  56. ^ Rathke, Andreas (20 May 2005). "A critical analysis of the hydrino model". arXiv:quant-ph/0505150. 
  57. ^ Naudts, Jan (5 August 2005). "On the hydrino state of the relativistic hydrogen atom". arXiv:physics/0507193. 
  58. ^ Phelps, A.V. (2005-10-02). "Comment on ‘Water bath calorimetric study of excess heat generation in resonant transfer plasmas’". Journal of Apllied Physics. Retrieved 2011-02-21. 
  59. ^ Phillips, Jonathan (2005-10-02). "Response to “Comment on ‘Water bath calorimetric study of excess heat generation in resonant transfer plasmas’". Journal of Apllied Physics. Retrieved 2011-02-21. 
  60. ^ Dombey, Norman (8 August 2006). "The hydrino and other unlikely states". Physics Letters A 360: 62. arXiv:physics/0608095. Bibcode 2006PhLA..360...62D. doi:10.1016/j.physleta.2006.07.069. 
  61. ^ de Castro, Antonio S. (4 April 2007). "Orthogonality criterion for banishing hydrino states from standard quantum mechanics". Physics Letters A 369: 380. arXiv:0704.0631. Bibcode 2007PhLA..369..380D. doi:10.1016/j.physleta.2007.05.006. 
  62. ^ "Ruhr-Universität Bochum information page on Hans-Joachim Kunze". Ruhr-Universität. Retrieved 2011-02-20. 
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  64. ^ Park, Bob (27 October 2000). "Blackout: Where do ideas like these come from?". University of Maryland. Retrieved 2009-03-02. 
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  66. ^ Park, Bob (6 June 2010). "Hydrinos: How long can a really dumb idea survive?". What's New?. University of Maryland. Retrieved 2010-12-04. 

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