- Gaia (mythology)
Infobox Greek deity
Name = Gaia
God_of = Goddess of the Earth
Consort = Uranus
Parents = Chaos
Oceanus, Coeus, Crius, Hyperion
Gaia (pronEng|ˈgeɪə or IPA|/ˈgaɪə/) ("land" or "
earth", from the Ancient Greek Γαîα; also Gæa or Gea (Modern Greek Γῆ) [The spelling "Gea" is not normally used in modern English.] is the primal Greek goddesspersonifying the Earth.
Her equivalent in the Roman pantheon was Terra.
In Greek mythology
Hesiod's " Theogony" (116ff) tells how, after Chaos, arose broad-breasted Gaia the everlasting foundation of the gods of Olympus. She brought forth Uranus, the starry sky, her equal, to cover her, the hills, and the fruitless deep of the Sea, Pontus, "without sweet union of love," out of her own self through parthenogenesis. But afterwards, as Hesiod tells it, she lay with her son, Uranus, and bore the World-Ocean Oceanus, Coeusand Criusand the Titans Hyperion and Iapetus, Theiaand Rhea, Themis, Mnemosyne, and Phoebe of the golden crown, and lovely Tethys. "After them was born Cronusthe wily, youngest and most terrible of her children, and he hated his lusty sire."
Hesiod mentions Gaia's further offspring conceived with Uranus: first the giant one-eyed Cyclopes:
Brontes("thunderer"), Steropes("lightning") and the "bright" Arges: "Strength and might and craft were in their works." Then he adds the three terrible hundred-handed sons of Earth and Heaven, the Hecatonchires: Cottus, Briareosand Gyges, each with fifty heads.Uranus hid the Hecatonchires and the Cyclopes in Tartarusso that they would not see the light, rejoicing in this evil doing. This caused pain to Gaia (Tartarus was her bowels) so she created grey flint (or adamantine) and shaped a great flint sickle, gathering together Cronos and his brothers to ask them to obey her. Only Cronos, the youngest, had the daring to take the flint sickle she made, and castratehis father as he approached Gaia to have intercourse with her. And from the drops of blood and semen, Gaia brought forth still more progeny, the strong Erinyesand the armoured Gigantesand the ash-tree Nymphs called the " Meliae".
From the testicles of Uranus in the sea came forth
Aphrodite. For this, a Greek etymologisturged, Uranus called his sons "Titans," meaning "strainers" for they strained and did presumptuously a fearful deed, for which vengeance would come afterwards; for, as Uranus had been deposed by his son, Cronos, so was Cronos destined to be overthrown by Zeus, the son born to him by his sister-wife Rhea. In the meantime, the Titans released the Cyclopes from Tartarus, and Cronos was awarded the kingship among them, beginning a Golden Age.
After Uranus's castration, Gaia gave birth to Echidna and
Typhonby Tartarus. By Pontus, Gaia birthed the sea-deities Nereus, Thaumas, Phorcys, Ceto, and Eurybia. Aergia, a goddess of sloth and laziness, is the daughter of Aether and Gaia.
Zeus hid Elara, one of his lovers, from
Heraby hiding her under the earth. His son by Elara, the giant Tityas, is therefore sometimes said to be a son of Gaia, the earth goddess, and Elara.
Gaia also made
Gaia is believed by some sources (Joseph Fontenrose 1959 and others) to be the original deity behind the Oracle at
Delphi. She passed her powers on to, depending on the source, Poseidon, Apollo or Themis. Apollo is the best-known as the oracle power behind Delphi, long established by the time of Homer, having killed Gaia's child Python there and usurped the chthonicpower. Hera punished Apollo for this by sending him to King Admetusas a shepherd for nine years. Oaths sworn in the name of Gaia, in ancient Greece, were considered the most binding of all.
In classical art Gaia was represented in one of two ways. In Athenian vase painting she was shown as a matronly woman only half risen from the earth, often in the act of handing the baby Erichthonius (a future king of Athens) to Athena to foster ("see" example below).
Later in mosaic representations she appears as a woman reclining upon the earth surrounded by a host of Carpi, infant gods of the fruits of the earth ("see" example below under Interpretations).
Gaia is the titan of Earth and these are her offspring as related in various myths. Some are related consistently, some are mentioned only in minor variants of myths, and others are related in variants that are considered to reflect a confusion of the subject or association.
Erichthonius of Athens
Manes father of Atys
*Unknown father? or Through
Etymologically Gaia is a compound word of two elements. "Ge", meaning "
Earth", is found in many neologisms, such as Geography(Ge/graphos = writing about Earth) and Geology (Ge/logos = words about the Earth). "*Ge" is a pre-Greek substrate word that some relate to the SumerianKi, also meaning Earth. "Aia" is a derivative of an Indo-European stem meaning "Grandmother". The full etymology of Gaia would, therefore, appear to have been "Grandmother Earth" [This topic has been discussed on various Indo-European fora such as [http://groups.yahoo.com/group/cybalist| cybalist] ] .Some sources, such as anthropologists James Mellaart, Marija Gimbutasand Barbara Walker, claim that Gaia as the Mother Earth is a later form of a pre-Indo-European Great Motherwho had been venerated in Neolithictimes, but this point is controversial in the academic community. Belief in a nurturing Earth Mother is often a feature of modern Neopagan"Goddess" worship, which is typically linked by practitioners of this religion to the Neolithic goddess theory. For more information, see the article Goddess.
Hesiod's separation of Rhea from Gaia was not rigorously followed, even by the Greek mythographers themselves. Modern mythographers like
Karl Kerenyior Carl A. P. Ruck and Danny Staples, as well as an earlier generation influenced by Frazer's " The Golden Bough", interpret the goddesses Demeterthe "mother," Persephonethe "daughter" and Hecatethe "crone," as understood by the Greeks, to be three aspects of a former Great Goddess, who could be identified as Rhea or as Gaia herself. Such tripartite goddesses are also a part of Celtic mythologyand may stem from the Proto-Indo-Europeans. In Anatolia(modern Turkey), Rhea was known as Cybele, a goddess derived from Mesopotamian Kubau, Hurrian Kebator Kepa. The Greeks never forgot that the Mountain Mother's ancient home was Crete, where a figure some identified with Gaia had been worshipped as " Potnia Theron" (the "Mistress of the Animals") or simply Potnia("Mistress"), an appellation that could be applied in later Greek texts to Demeter, Artemisor Athena. In Rome the imported Phrygiangoddess Cybelewas venerated as Magna Mater, the "Great Mother" or as Mater Nostri, "Our Mother" and identified with Roman Ceres, the grain goddess who was an approximate counterpart of Greek Demeter, but with differing aspects and venerated with a different cult. Her worship was brought to Rome following an Auguryof the Cumaean Sibylthat Rome could not defeat Hannibalthe Carthaginian until the worship of Cybele came to Rome. As a result she was a favoured divinityof Roman legionaries, and her worship spread from Roman military encampments and military colonies.
In other cultures
The idea that the fertile earth itself is female, nurturing mankind, was not limited to the Greco-Roman world. These traditions themselves were greatly influenced by earlier cultures in the Central area of the
ancient Middle East. In Sumerian mythology Tiamatinfluenced Biblical notions of The Deepsin Genesis1. The title "The mother of life" was later given to the Akkadian Goddess Kubau, and hence to Hurrian Hepa, emerging as Hebrew Eve (Heva) and Phygian Kubala ( Cybele). In Norse mythologythe Great Mother, the mother of Thorhimself, was known as " Jord", "Hlódyn", or "Fjörgyn". The Irish Celts worshipped Danu, whilst the Welsh Celts worshipped Dôn. Dana played an important part in Hindu mythology and hints of their names throughout Europe, such as the Don river, the Danube River, the Dnestrand Dnepr, suggest that they stemmed from an ancient Proto-Indo-European goddess [ Indo-European scholars at [http://groups.yahoo.com/groups/cybalist| sybalist suggest *Don may come from a Proto-Indo-European root meaning "Swift" as applied to the flowing rivers mentioned ] . In Lithuanian mythologyGaia - emis daughter of Sun and Moon. Also she is wife of Dangus( Varuna). In Pacific cultures, the Earth Mother was known under as many names and with as many attributes as cultures who revered her for example Māoriwhose creation myth included Papatuanuku, partner to Ranginui - the Sky Father. In South America in the Andesa cult of the Pachamama still survives (in regions of Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Argentinaand Chile). The name comes from Pacha (Quechua for change, epoch) and Mama (mother). While ancient Mexican cultures referred to Mother Earth as Tonantzin Tlallithat means "Revered Mother Earth". In Indian religions, the Mother of all creation is called " Gayatri", a surprisingly close form of Gaia.
Egyptian Mythologyis the reverse true - Gebis the Earth Father while Nut is the Sky Mother. Carl Gustav Jungsuggested that the archetypal mother was a part of the collective unconsciousof all humans, and various Jungian students, e.g. Erich Neumannand Ernst Whitmonthave argued that such mother imagery underpins many mythologies, and precedes the image of the paternal "father", in such religious systems. Such speculations help explain the universality of such mother goddess imagery around the world.
The Upper Paleolithic Venus figurines have been sometimes explained as depictions of an
Earth Goddesssimilar to Gaia[Christopher L. C. E. Witcombe, " [http://witcombe.sbc.edu/willendorf/willendorfwomen.html Women in the Stone Age] ," in the essay "The Venus of Willendorf" (accessed March 13, 2008)]
Many Neopagans actively worship Gaia. Beliefs regarding Gaia vary, ranging from the common
Wiccan belief that Gaia is the Earth (or in some cases the spiritual embodiment of the earth, or the Goddess of the Earth), to the broader Neopagan belief that Gaia is the goddess of all creation, a "Mother Goddess" from which all other gods spring. Gaia is sometimes thought to embody the planets and the Earth, and sometimes thought to embody the entire universe. Worship of Gaia is varied, ranging from prostration to druidic ritual.
Unlike Zeus, a roving nomad god of the open sky, Gaia was manifest in enclosed spaces: the house, the courtyard, the womb, the cave. Her sacred animals are the serpent, the lunar bull, the pig, and bees. In her hand the narcotic poppy may be transmuted to a
Some who worship Gaia attempt to get closer to "Mother Earth" by becoming unconcerned with material things and more "in tune with nature". Others who worship Gaia recognize Gaia as a great goddess and practice rituals commonly associated with other forms of worship. Many sects worship Gaia, even more than worship
Themis, Artemis, and Hera.Fact|date=February 2007 Some common forms of worship may include prostration, attempting to reach a greater connection to the earth, shamanistic practices, tithing, praising and praying, creating inspired works of art dedicated to the goddess, burning oils and incense, rearing plants and gardens, the creation and maintaining of "Sacred Groves". Other forms of worship may indeed be common, as worship of Gaia is very broad and can take many forms.
In modern ecological theory
The mythological name was revived in 1979 by
James Lovelock, in "Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth"; his Gaia hypothesiswas supported by Lynn Margulis. The hypothesis proposes that living organisms and inorganic material are part of a dynamicsystem that shapes the Earth's biosphere, and maintains the Earth as a fit environment for life. In some Gaia theory approaches the Earth itself is viewed as an organism with self-regulatory functions. Further books by Lovelock and others popularized the Gaia Hypothesis, which was widely embraced and passed into common usage as part of the heightened awareness of planetary vulnerability of the 1990s.
Gaia (Gaea) is referenced through the re-naming of a character in
Ayn Rand's science fiction novella, "Anthem"."
Gaia, a preternaturally beautiful and highly skilled teenaged girl born without the fear gene, is also the protagonist of Francine Pascal's young adult series, "Fearless."
Gaia is described as the Earth Mother and aids the protagonists in Chris D' Lacey's
The Fire Withinseries. She takes on many animal forms, such as an albino hedgehog (dubbed 'Spikey') and the legendary mate of one of the seven bears that ruled the ice, Sunasala.
Joseph Fontenrose, "Python: A Study of Delphic Myth and its Origins," Berkeley: University of California Press, 1959; reprint 1980
Karl Kerenyi, "The Gods of the Greeks" 1951
*Carl A.P. Ruck and Danny Staples, "The World of Classical Myth", 1994.
* Gaia's voice is heard throughout the first God of War, voiced by Linda hunt, telling the story of the main character's, Kratos, journey from Spartan general all the way through to his becoming the new god of war. She also appears in God of War 2 and helps Kratos get out of Hades and on his way to exacting revenge against Zeus
* [http://www.theoi.com/Protogenos/Gaia.html Theoi Project, Gaia] references to Gaia in classical literature and art
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