Sodium polystyrene sulfonate

Sodium polystyrene sulfonate
Sodium polystyrene sulfonate
Systematic (IUPAC) name
Poly(4-vinylbenzenesulfonate metal salt)
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.com monograph
MedlinePlus a682108
Pregnancy cat.  ?
Legal status  ?
Identifiers
CAS number 28210-41-5
ATC code V03AE01
PubChem CID 75905
Chemical data
Formula  ?
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Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (INN, trade names Kayexalate, Kionex, Resonium A) is a type of polymer and ionomer based on polystyrene. It is the sodium salt of polystyrene sulfonic acid.

Contents

Chemical properties

The polyanion is readily soluble in water, and insoluble in lower alcohols. The solid appears as white or off-white powder.

It may be prepared by polymerization or copolymerization of sodium styrene sulfonate[citation needed] or by sulfonation of polystyrene. The harsh conditions used in this procedure lead to the occurrence of a number of side reactions. Double substitutions of the phenyl rings are known to occur, even with conversions well below 100%. Crosslinking reactions are also found, where condensation of two sulfonic acid groups yield a sulfonyl crosslink. On the other hand, the use of milder conditions such as acetyl sulfate leads to incomplete sulfonation. Recently, the atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of protected styrenesulfonates has been reported,[1][2] leading to well defined linear polymers, as well as more complicated molecular architectures.[3]

Uses

Sodium polystyrene sulfonate is used as a superplastifier in cement, as a dye improving agent for cotton and as proton exchange membranes in fuel cell applications. Crosslinked polystyrenes that are then sulfonated have found widespread use in ion-exchange applications.

Medical use

Micrograph showing sodium polystyrene sulfonate crystals (purple – at top of the image) in the biopsy of a colonic mass. H&E stain.

Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate) administered orally or rectally has been used to remove dangerously high levels of potassium in the blood, since hyperkalemia can cause cardiac arrhythmias and death. Sodium polystyrene sulfonate is effective at reducing serum potassium levels[4], although there is concern about possible side effects when it is mixed with sorbitol.[5]

Side effects

Intestinal disturbances are common, including loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, and constipation. In rare cases it has been associated with colonic necrosis.[6]

See also

  • Calcium polystyrene sulfonate

References

  1. ^ Sikkema, FD; Comellas-Aragonès, M; Fokkink, RG; Verduin, BJ; Cornelissen, JJ; Nolte, RJ (2007). "Monodisperse polymer-virus hybrid nanoparticles". Organic & biomolecular chemistry 5 (1): 54–7. doi:10.1039/b613890j. PMID 17164905. 
  2. ^ Lienkamp, Karen; Schnell, Ingo; Groehn, Franziska; Wegner, Gerhard (2006). "Polymerization of Styrene Sulfonate Ethyl Ester by ATRP: Synthesis and Characterization of Macromonomers for Suzuki Polycondensation". Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics 207 (22): 2066. doi:10.1002/macp.200600322. 
  3. ^ Lienkamp, Karen; Ruthard, Christian; Lieser, GüNter; Berger, RüDiger; Groehn, Franziska; Wegner, Gerhard (2006). "Polymerization of Styrene Sulfonate Ethyl Ester and Styrene Sulfonate Dodecyl Ester by ATRP: Synthesis and Characterization of Polymer Brushes". Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics 207 (22): 2050. doi:10.1002/macp.200600321. 
  4. ^ Watson, M; Abbott, KC; Yuan, CM (2010). "Damned if you do, damned if you don't: potassium binding resins in hyperkalemia.". Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN 5 (10): 1723–6. doi:10.2215/CJN.03700410. PMID 20798253. 
  5. ^ Sterns RH, Rojas M, Bernstein P, Chennupati S (May 2010). "Ion-exchange resins for the treatment of hyperkalemia: are they safe and effective?". J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 21 (5): 733–5. doi:10.1681/ASN.2010010079. PMID 20167700. 
  6. ^ Rogers FB, Li SC (August 2001). "Acute colonic necrosis associated with sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate) enemas in a critically ill patient: case report and review of the literature". J Trauma 51 (2): 395–7. doi:10.1097/00005373-200108000-00031. PMID 11493807. http://meta.wkhealth.com/pt/pt-core/template-journal/lwwgateway/media/landingpage.htm?issn=0022-5282&volume=51&issue=2&spage=395. 

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