- Laser applications
There are many scientific, military, medical and commercial laser applications which have been developed since the invention of the laser in the 1958. The coherency, high
monochromaticity, and ability to reach extremely high powers are all properties which allow for these specialized applications.
In science, lasers are used in many ways, including:
* A wide variety of interferometric techniques
Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy.
* Holographic techniques employing lasers also contribute to a number of measurement techniques.
* Laser (LADAR) technology has application in
geology, seismology, remote sensing and atmospheric physics.
* Lasers have been used aboard spacecraft such as in the
* In astronomy, lasers have been used to create artificial "
laser guide stars", used as reference objects for adaptive opticstelescopes.
Most types of laser are an inherently pure source of light; they emit near-
monochromaticlight with a very well defined range of wavelengths. By careful design of the laser components, the purity of the laser light (measured as the " linewidth") can be improved more than the purity of any other light source. This makes the laser a very useful source for spectroscopy. The high intensity of light that can be achieved in a small, well collimated beam can also be used to induce a nonlinear optical effect in a sample, which makes techniques such as Raman spectroscopypossible. Other spectroscopic techniques based on lasers can be used to make extremely sensitive detectors of various molecules, able to measure molecular concentrations in the parts-per-trillion (ppt) level. Due to the high power densities achievable by lasers, beam-induced atomic emission is possible: this technique is termed Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy(LIBS).
Lasers may also be indirectly used in spectroscopy as a micro-sampling system, a technique termed Laser
ablation(LA), which is typically applied to ICP-MSapparatus resulting in the powerful LA-ICP-MS.
The principles of laser spectroscopy are discussed by Demtroder [W. Demtroder, Laser Spectroscopy, 3rd Ed. (Springer, 2003)] and the use of tunable lasers in spectroscopy are described in Tunable Laser Applications. [F. J. Duarte (Ed.), Tunable Laser Applications, 2nd Ed. (CRC, 2008) Chapter 2.]
Lunar laser ranging
When the Apollo astronauts visited the moon, they planted
retroreflectorarrays to make possible the Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment. Laser beams are focused through large telescopes on Earth aimed toward the arrays, and the time taken for the beam to be reflected back to Earth measured to determine the distance between the Earth and Moon with high precision.
Laser cutting, laser welding, laser brazing, laser bending, laser engraving or marking, laser cleaning, weapons etc.
Some laser systems, through the process of
modelocking, can produce extremely brief pulses of light - as short as picoseconds or femtoseconds (10-12 - 10-15 seconds). Such pulses can be used to initiate and analyse chemical reactions, a technique known as "photochemistry". The short pulses can be used to probe the process of the reaction at a very high temporal resolution, allowing the detection of short-lived intermediate molecules. This method is particularly useful in biochemistry, where it is used to analyse details of protein folding and function.
A technique that has had recent success is "laser cooling". This involves
atom trapping, a method where a number of atoms are confined in a specially shaped arrangement of electric and magnetic fields. Shining particular wavelengths of laser light at the ions or atoms slows them down, thus "cooling" them. As this process is continued, they all are slowed and have the same energy level, forming an unusual arrangement of matter known as a Bose-Einstein condensate.
Some of the world's most powerful and complex arrangements of multiple lasers and optical amplifiers are used to produce extremely high intensity pulses of light of extremely short duration. These pulses are arranged such that they impact pellets of
tritium- deuteriumsimultaneously from all directions, hoping that the squeezing effect of the impacts will induce atomic fusion in the pellets. This technique, known as " inertial confinement fusion", so far has not been able to achieve "breakeven", that is, so far the fusion reaction generates less power than is used to power the lasers, but research continues.
Confocal laser scanning microscopyand Two-photon excitation microscopymake use of lasers to obtain blur-free images of thick specimens at various depths. Laser capture microdissectionuse lasers to procure specific cell populations from a tissue section under microscopic visualization.
Additional laser microscopy techniques include harmonic microscopy, four-wave mixing microscopy [F. J. Duarte (Ed.), Tunable Laser Applications, 2nd Ed. (CRC, 2008) Chapter 9.] and interferometric microscopy. [F. J. Duarte (Ed.), Tunable Laser Applications, 2nd Ed. (CRC, 2008) Chapter 12.]
Militaryuses of lasers include applications such as target designation and ranging, defensive countermeasures, communications and directed energy weapons. > Directed energy weapons such as Boeing’s Airborne Laser which can be mounted on a 747 jet is able to burn the skin off enemy missiles. [”Light Warfare”; by Matthew Swibel; 04.23.07; Forbes.com [http://www.forbes.com/businessinthebeltway/forbes/2007/0423/042.html] ]
Defensive countermeasure applications can range from compact, low power infrared countermeasures to high power, airborne laser systems. IR countermeasure systems use lasers to confuse the seeker heads on heat-seeking anti-aircraft missiles. High power boost-phase intercept laser systems use a complex system of lasers to find, track and destroy intercontinental ballistic missiles. In this type of system a
chemical laser, one in which the laser operation is powered by an energetic chemical reaction, is used as the main weapon beam (see Airborne Laser). The Mobile Tactical High-Energy Laser(MTHEL) is another defensive laser system under development; this is envisioned as a field-deployable weapon system able to track incoming artilleryprojectiles and cruise missiles by radarand destroy them with a powerful deuterium fluoride laser.
Another example of direct use of a laser as a defensive weapon was researched for the
Strategic Defense Initiative(SDI, nicknamed " Star Wars"), and its successor programs. This project would use ground-based or space-based laser systems to destroy incoming intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs). The practical problems of using and aiming these systems were many; particularly the problem of destroying ICBMs at the most opportune moment, the "boost phase" just after launch. This would involve directing a laser through a large distance in the atmosphere, which, due to optical scatteringand refraction, would bend and distort the laser beam, complicating the aiming of the laser and reducing its efficiency.
Another idea to come from the SDI project was the "nuclear-pumped X-ray laser". This was essentially an orbiting
atomic bomb, surrounded by laser media in the form of glass rods; when the bomb exploded, the rods would be bombarded with highly-energetic gamma-ray photons, causing spontaneous and stimulated emissionof X-rayphotons in the atoms making up the rods. This would lead to optical amplification of the X-ray photons, producing an X-ray laser beam that would be minimally affected by atmospheric distortion and capable of destroying ICBMs in flight. The "X-ray laser" would be a strictly one-shot device, destroying itself on activation. Some initial tests of this concept were performed with underground nuclear testing; however, the results were not encouraging. Research into this approach to missile defense was discontinued after the SDI program was cancelled.
United States Air Forcehas experimented with using lasers combined with high-altitude airships as a potential means for a missile defense shield but also as a means to destroy enemy spacecraft or satellites in low-earth orbit. "For more information, see Evolutionary Air and Space Global Laser Engagement." According to a 2005 report issued by the Pentagon, China is developing a laser that could blind low Earth orbitsatellites. [ [http://www.usatoday.com/tech/science/space/2005-07-27-china-satellites_x.htm USATODAY.com - Report: China working on anti-satellite systems ] ]
In the April 2008 edition of Popular Science, there is an article showcasing a new combat laser, the Boeing Advanced Tactical Laser Beam, which will be carried in a large aircraft (it is shown carried in a C-130) and fired at large targets (vehicles or buildings.) It is currently being tested at Kirtland Air Force Base in New Mexico. The laser itself is a chemical laser, and weighs 40,000 pounds. The range is reported to be 5 miles, and it can rapidly strike targets (it uses rapid-fire rather than a continuous beam to minimize the risk of friendly fire.) However, the prototype cost $200 million, making it doubtful that this will be put to widespread use. Barring the cost, it is expected to be in battle within five years. There is also talk of development of smaller versions to fit in smaller vehicles.
A "laser rangefinder" is an device consisting of a pulsed laser and a light detector. By measuring the time taken for light to reflect off a far object, and knowing the speed of light, the range to the object can be found. A laser rangefinder is thus a simple form of "
LIDAR". The distance to the target can then be used to aim a weapon such as a tank's main gun.
Another military use of lasers is as a "laser target designator". This is a low-power
laser pointerused to indicate a target for a precision-guided munition, typically launched from an aircraft. The guided munition adjusts its flight-path to home in to the laser light reflected by the target, enabling a great precision in aiming. The beam of the laser target designator is set to a pulse rate that matches that set on the guided munition to ensure munitions strike their designated targets and do not follow other laser beams which may be in use in the area. The laser designator can be shone onto the target by an aircraft or nearby infantry. Lasers used for this purpose are usually infraredlasers, so the enemy cannot easily detect the guiding laser light.
The laser has in most military applications been used as a tool to enhance the targeting of other weapon systems. For example, a "laser sight" is a small, usually visible-light laser placed on a handgun or rifle aligned to emit a beam parallel to the barrel. Since a laser beam by definition has low divergence, the laser light appears as a small spot even at long distances; the user simply places the spot on the desired target and the barrel of the gun is aligned.
Most laser sights use a red laser diode. Others use an
infrareddiode to produce a dot invisible to the naked human eye but detectable with night vision devices. The firearms adaptive target acquisition module LLM01 laser light module combines visible and infrared laser diodes. In the late 1990s, green diode pumped solid state laser(DPSS) laser sights (532 nm) became available. Modern laser sights are small and light enough for attachment to the firearms.
In 2007, LaserMax, a company specializing in manufacturing lasers for military and police firearms, introduced the first mass-production green laser available for small arms. [ [http://www.gunsholstersandgear.com/2007/10/17/lasermax-introduces-the-uni-max-green-laser-for-combat-firearms/ LaserMax Introduces the UniMax Green Laser for Firearms] ] This laser mounts to the underside of a handgun or long arm on the accessory rail. The green laser is supposed to be more visible than the red laser in bright lighting conditions because, for the same wattage, green light appears brighter than red light.
A non-lethal laser weapon was developed by the U.S. Air Force to temporarily impair an adversary’s ability to fire a weapon or to otherwise threaten enemy forces. This unit illuminates an opponent with harmless low-power laser light and can have the effect of dazzling or disorienting the subject or causing him to flee. There remains the possibility of using lasers to blind, since this requires much lower power levels, and is easily achievable in a man portable unit. However, most nations regard the deliberate permanent blinding of the enemy as forbidden by the rules of war (see
Protocol on Blinding Laser Weapons).
In addition to the applications that crossover with military applications, a widely known law enforcement use of lasers is for
lidarto measure the speed of vehicles.
* Cosmetic surgery (removing
tattoos, scars, stretch marks, sunspots, wrinkles, birthmarks, and hairs): see laser hair removal. Laser types used in dermatologyinclude ruby(694 nm), alexandrite(755 nm), pulsed diode array (810 nm), Nd:YAG (1064 nm), Ho:YAG (2090 nm), and Er:YAG (2940 nm).
* Eye surgery:
LASIK(laser vision correction)
LASEK(laser-assisted sub-epithelial keratectomy)
** PRK (photorefractive keratectomy)
* Soft tissue surgery: CO2,
Laser scalpel(General surgery, gynecological, urology, laparoscopic)
* Dental procedures
Photobiomodulation(i.e. laser therapy)
* "No-Touch" removal of tumors, especially of the brain and spinal cord.
dentistryfor cariesremoval, endodontic/ periodonticprocedures, tooth whitening, and oral surgery.
Industrial and commercial
* Cutting and peening of metals and other material,
welding, marking, etc
Guidance systems (e.g., ring laser gyroscopes)
LIDAR/ pollution monitoring,
Laser engravingof printing plate
Laser bondingof additive marking materials for decoration and identification,
Optical communications (over optical fiberor in free space)
subtitlesonto motion picture films. [ [http://www.cinetyp.com/subtitles.html Cinetyp Hollywood - film subtitles, video subtitles, DVD subtitles, film overlay, video, film, overlay, foreign subtitles, closed captioning, open captioning, spotting lists ] ]
Space elevator, a possible solution transfer energy to the climbersby laseror microwave power beaming
* 3D laser scanners for accurate 3D measurement.
Laser line levels are used in surveying and construction. Lasers are also used for guidance for aircraft.
* Extensively in both consumer and industrial imaging equipment.
laser printers: gas and diode lasers play a key role in manufacturing high resolution printing plates and in image scanning equipment.
Diode lasers are used as a lightswitch in industry, with a laser beam and a receiver which will switch on or off when the beam is interrupted, and because a laser can keep the light intensity over larger distances than a normal light, and is more precise than a normal light it can be used for product detection in automated production.
consumer electronics, telecommunications, and data communications, lasers are used as the transmitters in optical communications over optical fiberand free space.
* To store and retrieve data in
Laser lighting displays (pictured) accompany many music concerts.
Laser capture microdissection
* [http://www.isllod.org/ The International Scientific Laboratory for Optical Diagnostics]
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